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RERUM BRITANNICARUM MEDII ^VI 

SCRIPTORES, 



OR 



CHRONICLES AND MEMORIALS OF GREAT BRITAIN 

AND IRELAND 



27354. 



DURING 



THE MIDDLE AGES. 




THE CHRONICLES AND MEMORIALS 

OP 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 

DURING THE MIDDLE xiGES. 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHORITY OP HER MAJESTY'S TREASURY, UNDER 
THE DIRECTION OF THE MASTER OP THE ROLLS. 



On the 26th of January 1857, the Master of the Rolls 
submitted to the Treasury a proposal for the publication 
of materials for the History of this Country from the 
Invasion of the Romans to the reign of Henry YIIl. 

The Master of the Rolls suggested that these materials 
should he selected for publication under competent 
editors without reference to periodical or chronological 
arrangement, without mutilation or abridgment, prefer- 
ence being given, in the first instance, to such materials 
as were most scarce and valuable. 

He proposed that each chronicle or historical docu- 
ment to be edited should be treated in the same way as 
if the editor were engaged on an Editio Princeps ; and 
for this purpose the most correct text should be formed 
from an accurate collation of the best MSS. 

To render the work more generally useful, the Master 

of the Rolls suggested that the editor should give an 

account of the MSS. employed by him, of their age and 

their peculiarities; that he should add to the work a 

brief account of the life and times of the author, and 

any remarks necessary to explain the chronology ; but 

no other note or comment was to be allowed, except 

what might be necessary to establish the correctness of 

the text. 

a 2 



PUBLIC 



The works to bo published in octavo, separately, as 
they were finished ; the whole responsibility of the task 
resting upon the editors, who were to be chosen by the 
Master of the Rolls with tlie sanction of the Treasury. 

Tlie Lords of Her Majesty^s Treasury, after a careful 
consideration of the subject, expressed their opinion in a 
Treasury Minute, dated February 9, 1857, that the plan 
recommended by the Master of the EoUs "was well 
calculated for the accomplishment of this important 
national object, in an effectual and satisfactory manner, 
within a reasonable time, and provided proper attention be 
paid to economy, in making the detailed arrangements, 
without unnecessary expense." 

They expressed their approbation of the proposal that 
each Chronicle and historical document should be edited 
in such a manner as to represent with all possible correct- 
ness the text of each writer, derived from a collation of the 
best MSS., and that no notes should be added, except 
such as were illustrative of the various readings. They 
suggested, however, that the preface to each work should 
contain, in addition to the particulars proposed by the 
Master of the Eolls, a biographical account of the author, 
so far as authentic materials existed for that purpose, 
and an estimate of his historical credibilitv and value. 

Bolls House, 

December 1857. 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI IIIGDEN 

MONACHI CESTRENSIS; 



TOGETHER WITH THE 



ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF JOHN TREVISA 

AND OF AN UNKNOWN WRITER OF 
THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 



EDITED 



BY 



REV. JOSEPH RA¥SON LUMBY, M.A., 

LATE FELLOW OF MAGDALEXE COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 



VOL. IV. 



PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHORITY OF THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF IIER IMA.JESTY's 
TREASURY, UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE MASTER OF THE ROLLS. • 



LONDON: 

LONGMAN & Co., and TRUBNER & Co., PATERNOSTER ROW 

ALSO BY PARKER & Co., OXFORD ; 

MACMILLAN & Co., CAMBRIDGE ; 

A. & C. BLACK, EDINBURGH ; and A. THOM, DUBLIN. 



1.872. 



^5^. 



i '</ CT. MICHAEL'S \-^\ 



-•c* 




JAN 1 2 1950 
15404 



Printed by 

Etri and SroTTTSvrix>DE, Her Majestj-'s Printers. 

For Uer Majesty's Stetioaory Offico. 



CONTENTS, 



Introduction - 
SriorAKY OF Contents 



Page 
vii 

XXXY 



POLYCHRONICON RaNULPHI HiGDEN, LiBER TeRTIUS, 

Cap. XXX, ----- 2 



Liber Quartus 



Appendix 



252 

477 




INTRODUCTION. 



PA 
IS 
63 



INTRODUCTION. 



In chapter xxx. of Book iii., Higden concludes the Death of 
history of Alexander the Great. The authorities men- and divi- 
tioned are Petrus, Yincentius, and Troo^us; but the story sionofhis 

^ "^ empire. 

is in substance that given by the Pseudo-CaUisthenes, and Book iii. 
which, in Higden's time formed the chief portion of the ^^P* ^^^' 
popular romance of King AlyscfMnder, and was received 
as veracious. The chapter narrates the great king's visit 
to the talking trees of the sun and moon.^ The trees (not 
the Chaldsean priests, as in Arrian) foretell the king's 
approaching death, if he will enter the city of Babylon. 
However, in his joy at receiving proposals of submission 
from many nations of the West, whose ambassadors were 
awaiting his arrival, he enters the city, and there is 
poisoned at a banquet at the house of Thessalus/ the 
physician. According to Higden it is Antipater, who 
sends his son Cassander from Macedonia, for the purpose 
of poisoning Alexander. The description of the quality 
of the poison does not agree either with Arrian or the 
Pseudo-Callisthenes, but appears to be made up from the 



^ Pseudo - Callisthenes, iii. 17, 
gives the whole story in a letter 
which Alexander is supposed to 
have sent to Aristotle (to which 
circumstance Higden also alludes, 
p. 6), recounting this and many 
other marvels which had been seen 
by the King. The place near which 
the trees were is called rj UpaaiaKi] 

- Pseudo - Callisthenes, iii. 30, 



agreeing with Arrian, represents 
Medius as the giver of the banquet, 
but gives the story of the poisoning, 
which Arrian only mentions to 
reject as without foundation. No 
doubt the occurrence of Thessalus 
as the name of the giver of the 
feast is owing to negligent quotation 
from Trogus, who has " Medius 
Thessalus" (xii. 13.) 



^'UBLIO 



Vlll 



INTRODUCTION. 



Egyptian 
history. 

Cap. XXXI. 



Cap. 

XXXII. 



two.^ The king, on drinking the poison, which was con- 
veyed to Babylon in the hoof of a horse, groaned as though 
wounded with a knife,^ and dies, leaving no arrangement 
for the succession. All that he was able to do was to 
mention that the most worthy man should succeed him, 
and to give his ring to Perdiccas. The moralizing re- 
flections at the end of the chapter (xxx.), are not in 
Trogus, but bear a considerable resemblance to some 
verses which are put by Pseudo-Callisthenes into the 
mouth of Alexandei- on his death bed. Of the suc- 
cessors of Alexander mention is made of Ptolemy in 
Egypt, Seleucus ^ in Syria, Antigonus in Northern Asia, 
and Philip Aridseus in Macedonia. Of these the history 
follows first the fortunes of Ptolemy. The authoritj" is 
Josephus (xii. 1.), and, as might be expected, we are told 
little more than of his seizure on Syria, and his capture 
of Jerusalem by attacking the Jews on the Sabbatli 
day. 

The help which Ptolemy gave to Pyrrhus, afterwards 
the famous king of Epirus, towards the recovery of his 
kingdom, is also noticed. Of Ptolemy Philadelphus * 
it is related, without any authority being given and con- 
trary to all that we know from other sources, that he 
warred with and overcame his father. The account of 



1 Arrian says (vii. 27) in allud- 
ing to accounts which he does 
not believe, 6l 5e /cat on iu tj/uli- 
6uov ()ir\fj iKSfxifff Koi TOvTo av4-' 
ypaipau. And Pscudo-Callisthenes 
(iii. 30.) Kol TOVTO 5ia\oyt.^6fx(vos 
(^i.e. Antipatcr) kcTKivacr^ (papfxaKov 
Zr\KT]Ti]piov '6 oiiK ^<pep€v ayyiiou 
ovTf x'^^'^^^^ otrre v&Kivov, aire 
Kipdfiiov, uAA.' (udfus ippr\yvvTo ' 
iv fioXifiSivr) oZv w^ihi fiaKiiiv tJ) 
<pdpixaKnv 6 'AvTliraTpui Koi Trfpina- 



TCf) 



6d\l/as &\\]] TTv^iSi (Tidrjpa e5a> 
ISiep vlo). 

"Vs. Call. iii. 30. ws tS^co 
ireTrXTjyoos 5ia tov T^iraTos. Here the 
poison is conveyed to the king by 
lollas the cup-bearer, who is an 
accomplice in the plot. 

3 All the MSS. agree in writing 
the name as Seleucus Nicanor in- 
stead of Nicutor, see p. 16. 

*• The orthography is always 
Phlhtddphnts in the MSS. 



INTRODUCTION. 



IX 



his kindness to the Jews, which is quoted from Petrus, 
is also confirmed by Josephus.^ The mission to Eleazar 
the high priest, to obtain a copy of the Jewish scriptures 
for the Alexandrine Library, is mentioned though with- 
out details. The opinions of Augustine and Jerome are 
cited upon the manner and time in which the LXX. 
version was completed. While on the subject of Greek 
versions of the Scriptures, Higden mentions those of 
Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and the quinta ^ edifio, 
as well as the Latin version made by Jerome. The 
matrimonial alliance between Ptolemy and Antiochus 
Theos, king of Syria, which put an end to the long war 
between these kings is mentioned, and also its disastrous 
consequences both to king Antiochus and his son by 
Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy. The authority for 
the liistory of Egypt, except in cases where the contrary 
is stated, is always Petrus Comestor. 

Ptolemy Euergetes, who is called in all the MSS., 
except those of the type to which CD. belong,^ frater 
and not films of Ptolemy Philadelphus, is narrated to 
have avenged the murder of his sister Berenice, and her 
husband and child, by invading Syria and extending his 
conquests over a great part of Asia, but to have been 
recalled by the news of a revolt among the princes of 
Egypt.-* 



Cap. 

XXXIII. 



^ Josephus, B.J., xii. 2. 

- So called from the position 
which it occupied among the Greek 
translations in the columns of Ori- 
gen's comparative arrangement of 
the versions ; for more information 
See Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, 
Articles, Versions, and Septuagint, 

3 The labour bestowed in forming 
the new class-catalogues of MSS. 
iii the British Museum has shown 



that CD. belong to the earliest 
type of the MSS. of Higden, and 
therefore we may often expect to 
find correctly in them what has 
been corrupted in the later types. 
The greater correctness of these 
MSS. had already been noticed 
more than once by Prof. Babington. 
See vol. i., p. .394. 

^ The Prince of Syria, whom he is 
said to have attacked, is named hy 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cap. 

XXXIV. 



He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy Philopator, 
whose luxury and debauchery are mentioned on the 
authority of Trogus. His vicious life ^ and crimes induced 
Antiochus the Great to attack him, but he was defeated 
with great loss. On his death, his infant son Ptolemy 
Epiphanes succeeded to the throne, and the kingdom of 
Egypt was placed under the protection of the Romans. 
Tliis was done because of the threatened inroads of the 
Macedonians and Syrians. The brief success and 
ultimate failure of Ptolemy's general Scopas against 
Antiochus III. is mentioned, and also the marriage of 
Ptolemy '-' to Cleopatra the daughter of that king. From 
Joseph us is drawn the account of the double tribute 
said to have been demanded of the Jews at this time, 
by Antiochus, and also by Ptolemy, the tribute of Syria 
being claimed by both monarchs.^ Onias the high priest, 
is said to have refused to pay the tribute to Egypt, and 
the ill consequences of such refusal were only prevented 
by the politic conduct of Joseph, the nephew of Onias. 
The mention of this Josepli leads to a digression (for 
which the authority is still Josephus) on the cleverness 
of Hyrcanus, Joseph's younger son, some portion of 
whose talent was displayed when he was sent by Lis 
father to congratulate the Egyptian king on the occasion 
of the birth of his son. 



Higden, Antiochus Galericus ; but 
the succeediug passage (p. 46), 
shows that the person meant is Sc- 
leueus Callinieus, the father of 
Seleucus III. and Antiochus the 
Great. 

* The merclrix to whose fate, as 
well as that of some others, Iligden 
alludes, was Agathoclea, the sister 



of I'tolemy's 
Agathocle^ 



profligate minister 



2 The text of Higden (p. 74), 
which says that Antiochus married 
Ptolemy's daughter, must be wrong, 
though the versions follow the Latin 
as it stands. Ptolemy at this time 
was six years old. The only wife 
of Antiochus the Great was Laodice, 
daughter of Mithiidates IV., king 
of Pontus. 

^ Antiochus had promised it as 
part of his divughter's dower, but 
had not given it up. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XI 



Of Ptolemy Philometor the only notices are that in 
his reign a Jew named Aristobulus wrote for him a com- 
mentary* on the law of Moses, and that Antiochus 
Epiphanes gave his sister in marriage to Ptolemy, with 
a view to gain possession of Egypt, but was disliked by 
the Egyptians, and a stop put to his schemes by the 
interference of the Komans,^ whose embassy caused 
Antiochus to desist from the siege of Alexandria. Pto- 
lemy's alternate support of Alexander Balas, and then of 
Demetrius Soter in Syria, and his ultimate conquest of 
Asia are mentioned on the authority of Petrus, but 
without details.^ The son of Ptolemy Philometor was 
proclaimed king after his father^s death, under the title 
of Ptolemy Eupator, but this is unnoticed by Higden, 
who gives the name of Eupator as well as Philopator to 
the son "^ of Euergetes I. 

Of Ptolemy Euergetes II. all that is mentioned is the 
length of his reign, and very little more notice is given 
to Ptolemy Soter II. We are merely informed of his 
banishment to Cyprus through the influence of his 
mother, who wished her younger son Ptolemy Alexander 
to have the sovereignty ; and afterwards that when Alex- 
ander was driven from the throne for the murder of the 
mother who had placed him upon it, Soter II. was 
recalled and reigned eight years. 



Cap. 

XXXV. 



^ This commentary, which is al- 
hidecl to by Clemens Alexandrinus 
(Strom, i. pp. 305, b ; 342, b, v, p ; 
595, c, d;)y and by Eusebius (Prsep. 
Ev. vii. 13 ; viii. 9; ix. 6 ; xiii. 12) 
Avas designed to prove that most of 
the Gentile philosophy was derived 
from the law of Moses. 

2 The Marcus Publius of Higden's 
text (p. 110) is a confusion for C. 
Pop'dlius Loeuas, who was the 
spokesman of the Roman ambas- 
sadors. Cf. Liv. xlv. 12. 



3 Alexander Balas pretended to 
be a son of Antiochus Epiphanes, 
and claimed the kingdom of Syria 
iigainst Demetrius Soter. He was 
aided by Ptolemy Philometor, but 
repaid the aid by an attempt to 
murder his benefactor. This caused 
Ptolemy to use the army brought to 
help Alexander as a means of 
overthrowing him. 

^ See p. 50. 



Cap. 

XXXVII. 

Cap. 

XXXVIII. 



Cap. 

XXXIX. 



Xll 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cap. XL. The next king of Egypt whom Higden mentions is 
Ptolemy Dionysus/ better known as Auletes ; but he 
only states the length of his reign. Of his daughter, the 
Cap. xLi. famous Cleopatra, somewhat more is said. She is stated 
to have reigned two years before Caesar, five under Csesar, 
and fifteen under Augustus. She shared the kingdom 
with her elder brother Ptolemy, who during his minority 
was under the protection of Rome. Pompey, fleeing to 
Egypt after his defeat in Thessaly, is killed, according to 
Higden, by the stratagems of Ptolemy.^ On Caesar's 
arrival in Egypt, the people of Alexandria entreat his 
jiardon for Ptolemy, who soon, requites the grant by a 
rebellion, in the end of which he perishes,^ and Caesar 
gives the kingdom to Cleopatra, by whose blandishments 

Cap. xLiii. he is fascinated. This queen is next mentioned as taking 
the part of Antonius against Octavianus, a notice of which 

Cap. xLiv. is repeated at the commencement of the next chapter, 
together with the story of their defeat and flight after 
the battle of Actium. A few sentences tell of the death 
of both Antony and Cleopatra, and the subjection of 
Egypt to the Romans. 

The kings of Syria are slightly noticed, mainly where 
their history touches upon that of the Jews. There is 

Cap. XXX. first given a list of these kings, from Seleucus Nicator to 
Antiochus Epiphanes. Of the first, the only mention 

Cap. XXXI. made is of the colonies which he founded and called by 
the names of his father, his mother, and himself, and of 
the respect which he paid to the Jewish people. It was 



The kiug 
dom of 
Syria. 



' Called Dionysius in all the MSS. 
Of rtolcmy Alexander II., son of 
I'tolemy Alexander I., no uotiec is 
taken in the Chroniele. 

- This rather appears to have 
been done by the contrivance of 
Tothinus an eunuch, in whose 



hands the young Ptolemy was, and 
who caused Pompey to be killed, 
hoping thereby to secure the favour 
of Caisar. See Lucan, viii. 484, &c. 
^ lie really was drowned in at- 
tempting to escape. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XIU 



in his time that Simon the son of Onias was high-priest 
at Jerusalem, and was succeeded by his brother Eleazar. 
Of Antiochus Soter nothing is mentioned but the name. 
The war of his son Antiochus Theos with Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus has been noticed under the affairs of Egypt. He 
was succeeded by Seleucus Callinicus, called in Higden 
Antiochus Galericus, who left two sons, Seleucus and 
Antiochus. The former was murdered by Nicanor/ one 
of his own officers, and was succeeded by his brother 
Antiochus, who is known as '' the Great.'' His design of 
invading Egypt has already been noticed. It was this 
king who entered into a confederacy with Philip, King 
of Macedonia, to invade Egypt during the minority of 
Ptolemy Epiphanes, and who also conquered Scopas, 
Ptolemy's general, but in the end betrothed^ to that king 
his daughter Cleopatra. At the end of the chapter his 
murder in the temple Navee in Persia is recorded.^ 
Seleucus, the elder brother * and predecessor in the king- 
dom of Antiochus Epiphanes, is mentioned in the story of 
Hyrcanus, the son of Joseph, already alluded to. And it 
was through fear of his successor that Hyrcanus com- 
mitted suicide. In the same chanter it is told how 
Antiochus Epiphanes was given as a hostage to the 
Eomans.^ The story of the mission of Heliodorus from 
Seleucus Philopator to plunder the temple at Jerusalem, 



Cap. 

XXXII. 



Cap. 

XXXIII. 



Cap. 

XXXIV. 



^ Higden does not notice that he 
reigned, or by whom he was slain, 
merely saying, " Antiochus, occiso 
" fratre suo, regnavit." 

2 On p. 74, line 17, duxit, though 
in all the MSS., is a mistake. To 
be correct the sentence should run 
regressus dedit ei Cleopatram filiam 
suam in uxorem. 

2 This is the event foretold in 
Daniel, xi. 18, 19, that he should be 
VOL. IV. 



overcome by the Romans, and die in 
" a fort of his own land." 

^ He is here (p. 84) called in one 
MS. Seleucus Soter, and the same 
title is given to him in the text 
(p. 102), though other authorities 
call him Seleucus (IV.) Philopator. 
Joseph us calls him Soter (A. J, xii. 
4, ad fin.). 

^ Repeated on p. 108. 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cap. 

XXXV. 



is told on the authority of Petrus : but the statement that 
Josephus explained the two men ^ who slew Heliodorus to 
have been two angels is without foundation, as Josephus 
does not mention the occurrence at all. 

This was the time when the book of Jesus, the son of 
Sirach, was written.^ 

Antiochus Epiphanes escaped from Rome,^ and reigned 
on his brother's death. He gave his sister to Ptolemy 
Epiphanes, with a view to the ultimate seizure of 
Egypt, but was prevented by the Romans from carry- 
ing his scheme into execution. It was on his return 
from this unsuccessful expedition into Egypt that he per- 
petrated such cruelties upon the Jews. During this period 
it was that Onias, the son of Simon, fled into Egypt, 
and being kindly received by Ptolemy, built Heliopolis.* 
There is a confusion in Higden's account between two 
persons called Onias, father and son. The father was 
the high priest whose brothers, Jesus and Johannes^ 
adopted Gentile names and habits ^ to gain favour with 
Antiochus. The son was the builder of Heliopolis. We 
are told how Jesus and Johannes (called by the Greek 
names of Jason and Menelaus) trafficked in sacred things 
with Antiochus, and, on the authority of Petrus, that the 
holy fire was quenched at the time of their mercenary 



^ See 2 Maccab. iii. 

' The name Panarethon given in 
Higden's text to this book was, ac- 
cording to Jerome (Praif. in Lib. 
Sol. ix. 1242, Migne) the name 
given to the volume made up of the 
Wisdom of Sirach, the Book of 
Proverbs, and the Wisdom of Solo- 
mon. The title was r) -jravapeTos 
aotpia or t] Travdperos. Cf. Routh's 
Rell. Sacr. i. 278. 

3 The real fact was that Seleucus 



Philopator gave his own son De- 
metrius as a hostage in the place of 
his brother Epiphanes. 

■* On this Onias and the city which 
he built, see article Onias 5 in 
Smith's Dictionary of the Bible and 
the references there given. The 
builder of the city was Onias, son of 
of Onias, not the son of Simon as 
Higdeu states. 

^ See 2 Maccab. iv., Josephus, 
Ant. Jud. xii. 5. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XV 



actions. The history proceeds with the profanations 
attempted and perpetrated by Antiochus in Jerusalem, 
and the resistance offered thereto by Mattathias and his 
sons. This history drawn from Petrus corresponds with 
the story of the books of the Maccabees, containing all 
the additional particulars, which are given in the second 
book concerning the death of Antiochus. The same 
chapter also notices that Antiochus Eupator, the son of 
Epiphanes, continued ^ the war against the Jews. 

The next chapter commences with the return of Deme- 

J. 

trius Soter ^ from Rome, and his occupation of the king- 
dom of Syria. The story tells that he had gone to Rome 
to accuse his uncle, and hearing of his death returned to 
claim the kingdom. Both Lysias and the young King 
Antiochus were put to death by him. Then is given the 
appeal of Alcimus to Demetrius, the death of Nicanor, 
Judas' treaty with the Romans, and then his death. 
Next follows the history of the war of Alexander ^ against 
Demetrius Soter and his son, Demetrius Nicator, and the 
murder of Alexander in Arabia. Jonathan, brother of 
Judas Maccabseus, is at first a supporter of Nicator, but 
when Antiochus, the son of Alexander, is brought forward 
by Tryphon he favours his claim, and also forms a new 
league with the Romans and with the Spartans. Tryphon 
slays Jonathan (who is succeeded by his brother Simon), 
and then takes the kingdom, murdering the young 
Antiochus. Simon joins the party of Demetrius Nicator, 
who is killed by Arsaces, king of Persia, and succeeded 



Cap. 

XXXVI. 



^ As he was but a child it was 
Lysias who carried od the war. See 
Josephus, A. J., xii. 14, 15. 

^ Son of Seleucus Pliilopater,who 
had been sent to Rome as a hostage 
in the place of Antiochus Epiphanes. 



3 Alexander Balas (Joseph. A. J., 
xiii. 4., Justin, xxxv. 1). He is 
said by some to have been the na- 
tural son of Antiochus Epiphanes, 
by others, a mere pretender. 



XVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cap. 

XXXVIII. 



by his brother,! Antiochus YII. Sidetes, who at first was 
friendly with Simon, but afterwards sent Cendebeus to 
attack Judaea. Cendebeus is defeated, and Simon renews 
his friendship with the Romans and Spartans. Then is 
told how Simon and his two sons were treacherously slain 
by Ptolemy, prince of Jericho, Simon's son-in-law ; and 
how John Hyrcanus, one of Simon's sons, besieged 
Ptolemy, but was obliged to withdraw from the siege. 
Antiochus Sidetes (called in the text Ponticus ^) besieges 
Jerusalem, but is bought off by Hyrcanus with a portion 
of the treasure from David's tomb. Hyrcanus obtains 
the friendship of the Romans, and destro3^s Samaria, 
which was after v^ards restored by Herod. Hyrcanus 
dies, after being duke for twenty -three years,^ Aristobulus, 
his eldest son, succeeding him. This latter imprisoned 
his mother and three younger brothers, and at first 
favoured his second brother, Antigonus, but soon after 
murdered him. The kingdom of Judaea may be con- 
sidered as beginning from this Aristobulus. On his death 
without issue, his brothers are released from prison, and 
one of them, Alexander Jannaeus, is made king. After a 
reign of great cruelty ^ he dies, leaving two sons, Hyrcanus 
and Aristobulus, but committing the kingdom to his v/jfe 
Alexandra, who was popular with the Jews. At this 



^ He is called son in the text, 
p. 132, but was the so t of Demetrius 
Soter. 

' I cannot discover the source 
from whence the name Ponticus 
conies, but as the name Sidetes is 
from Side in Pamphylia, where he 
was brought up, so the other name 
may for a similar reason be derived 
froui some connection with Pontus. 

^ There is much confusion about 
the duration of Hyrcanus' power. 
Josephus in one place makes it 



thirty-one years, in another thirty- 
three ; Eusebius puts it at twenty - 
six. Cf. Josephus, Ant. Jud. xiii. 
10., B. J. i. 2., Euseb. Chiou. p. 94. 
^ A great part of the savage con- 
duct of Jannffius seems to have 
been caused by the hostility between 
the Pharisees and Sadducees, with 
the former of which parties he was 
at first identified, but subsequently 
went over to their opponents. See 
Joseph. A. J. xiii. 12-15. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XVll 



point the chronicle leaves the further history of the 
SeleucidjB, and confines itself to the more limited subject 
of the history of the Jews, merely intimating that the 
Syrian power was in the end overthrown by the Romans.^ 

Alexandra reigned nine years, and was guided in her Cap. xl. 
policy by the Pharisees, and on her death the contests of 
her sons, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, gave the Romans 
an excuse for interfering in the affairs of Judaea. By 
Pompey^ Hyrcanus was made prince and priest and 
Aristobulus imprisoned. Scaurus was left as Roman 
governor of Syria. Pompey's ill-success dates from 
the time when he permitted the Jewish temple to be 
desecrated and used as a stable. 

We are briefly told that Antipater the Idumean,^ the Cap. xlhi, 
father of Herod the Great, was a friend of Hyrcanus, 
and from previous services had interest enough with 
Julius Csesar to obtain the appointment of procurator of 
Judsea. He set Herod, his second son, over Galilee, and 
when the father was poisoned * the son and his brother 
were promoted through the influence of Antonius. 
Herod was subsequently declared king of Judsea, but 
was not able to enter on the possession of his kingdom 
for four years, through the opposition of Antigonus, who 
represented the Asmonean dynasty. Herod married 
subsequently Mariamne, a niece of this Antigonus, and 



^ Antiochus XIII. Aslaticus was 
the last king of Syria, and was de- 
throned by Pompey B.C. 65. 

2 The transaction was much more 
complicated than Higden records. 
At first Pompey sent M. iEmilius 
Scaurus from Damascus to settle 
the disputes of Hyrcanus and his 
brother. Scaurus put Aristobulus 
in possession of the throne, but 
Pompey, on coming in person, re- 



versed this decision, for what reason 
we are not told. Cf. Joseph. Ant. 
Jud. xiv. 3-5. 

^ For an account of Antipater see 
Joseph. Ant. Jud. xiv. 7. He had 
been made governor of Idumea by 
Alexander Jannseus. 

'* Malichus, who compassed his 
death, had twice been saved by him 
from death. Joseph. A. J. xiv. 1 1 . 



XVlll 



INTRODUCTION, 



Isolated 
events. 

Cap. XXXI. 



Cap. 

XXXVII. 



conformed to the Jewish law. The chapter ends with 
an account of his wives and children, and the fate of 
some of them, his favour with the Romans, and his 
buildings to their honour. From this point such portion 
of the Jewish history as is given in Higden may be most 
fitly included with his details of the early Christians. 

It is noticed in chapter xxxi,, about the time of the 
restoration of Pyrrhus king of Epirus through the aid 
of Ptolemy Lagus, that Agathocles ^ was ruling in Sicily, 
and that at the same time flourished Theophrastus and 
Menander. And in chapter xxxvii. we are told that 
about the time of John Hyrcanus, Africa suffered from a 
terrible plague of locusts ; and about the same period an 
eruption of Mount -^tna took place, which go destroyed 
Catana and its neighbourhood that the Romans remitted 
their tribute for ten years. 

The events of Roman history which Higden notices in 
this volume extend from the dictatorship ^ of L. Papirius 
Cursor to the death of the Emperor Domitian.'^ The 
authorities are Eutropius, Livy, Trogus, Suetonius, and 

Cap. XXX. Orosius. Papirius is said to have overthrown the 
Samnites so thoroughly that the site of their city could 

Cap. XXXI. not be found. The insults of the Tarentines to the 
Romans are next mentioned, and the narrative is con- 
tinued by the history of Pyrrhus in Italy, the account 
of which concludes with the mention of certain pro- 
digies which appeared there at that time. 

Then is noticed the first Punic war, for a portion of 
the account of which Augustine is cited in addition to 
the authorities above mentioned. The story confines 



Roman 
history. 



Cap. 

XXXII. 



1 From Strabo, vi. p. 280, we 
learn that he, like Pyrrhus, was 
api)lied to hy the Tarentines for 
aid against the Komans, and landed 



in Italy. See Arnold's Home, c. 

XXXV. 

- 32.5 B.C. 
3 9G A.D. 



INTRODCrCTION. 



XIX 



itself to the defeat, embassy, and death of Regulus. Silver 
money was first coined in Rome at this period. Ennius 
is born at Tarentum/ and brought to Rome by Cato ^ the 
quaestor. In the account of the poet's thrifty habits, a 
mistake is made by the translator of the Harleian MS., 
which shows that the knowledge of Latin he possessed 
was hardly enough to qualify him for his task.^ A 
Gallic invasion of Italy under Britomarus is defeated.^ 
Now begins the second Punic war, in which Hannibal's 
progress towards Rome is related, and the low state 
to which the Romans were reduced. Occasion is here 
taken to mention the bringing of the statute of the 
Idsean mother, Cybele, from Pessinus^ to Rome, and 
the story is in substance that of Ovid's Fasti. Philip ^ 
of Macedonia helped Hannibal at this time, and Sar- 
dinia revolted from the Romans. So that there were 
four Roman armies afield at one time, in Italy, Spain, 
Sardinia, and Macedonia. 

Hannibal is forced to withdraw from Italy, and is 
defeated and almost taken prisoner in Africa. Plautus 
died at this period. Through poverty he at one time 
ground corn for a baker/ The Roman arras are suc- 



Cap, 

XXXIII. 



Cap. 

XXXIV. 



1 He was really born at RudisB, 
near Brundusiuin. 

2 Cato found Ennius In Sardinia 
as he was coming home from the 
African war and brought him to 
Rome. 

^ The text runs " habitavit (En- 
" nius) in monte Aventino parco 
*' suraptu et ujiius ancillcc ministerio 
" contentus," the latter part of 
which the translator renders : " He 
*' was of litelle meete content with 
*' the ministery of oon yoose.'^ 

•* This was not an invasion of 
Italy, but the murder of Roman 



ambassadors by the Senonian Gauls 
under Britomaris. See Livy Epit. 
lib. xii. ; Appian, Samn. v. 1,2. 

'' The MSS., without variation, 
call her " Mater Pessimita.'^ The 
adjectives in use are Pessiniinticus 
and Pessinuntius ; but as neither of 
these forms comes near the MSS. I 
have put in the text Pessiniia, 
thinking that might perhaps be the 
form intended. 

6 Philip V. 

" The story is from Aul. Gellius 
(iii. 3), who quotes it from Yarro, 
but no authority is given by Higden. 



XX 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cap. 

XXXT. 



Cap. 

XXXVI. 



cessful in ^facedonia, and Antiochus the Great is attacked 
by the Romans for sheltering Hannibal. Philip of 
Macedonia helps them in this attack, and for so doing 
receives back his son Demetrius, who had been a hostage 
at Rome. Hannibal withdraws from the court of Anti- 
ochus and goes to Prusias, king of Bithynia, where he 
takes poison and kills himself. Scipio Africanus banished 
from Rome dies at Amiternum.^ The mention of Scipio 
leads to an account of Scipio Nasica's ^ prohibition of a 
permanent theatre at Rome, and some notice of the 
character and purpose of early scenic performances. 
The revolt of Perseus from the Romans, and the con- 
sequent reduction of Macedonia to a Roman province is 
next mentioned. The victor ^milius Paullus, is said, 
on the authority of Isidore, to have first brought Greek 
books to Rome ; the mention of which circimistance 
leads to some remarks on the libraries of old time. 

Ennius died about this time and was buried in the 
tomb of Scipio. 

The third Punic war begins, and is successfully carried 
on by the younger Scipio. The discussion at Rome 
whether Carthage should be destroyed, is carried against 
Scipio Nasica, who would have spared it, that the 
Romans miofht have a constant cause for watchfulness. 
Here the authority is Augustine once more. Carthage 
is rebuilt, after much loss to the Romans in Africa, in 
the twenty-second year after its destruction. About the 
same time a Gallic inroad over the Rhone into Roman 
territory is repulsed. 



^ This is a mistake for Liternum 
in Cixrapania, near which place 
Scipio had an estate, see Seneca, 
Ep. 86, and Livy, xxxviii. 56. 

- This was the son of the Nasica 



who received the statue of Cybele 
on its arrival at Home. The son 
had the distinguishing name of Cor- 
culum. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXI 



Cap. 

XXXIX. 



The next chapter introduces Cicero, but tells us little Cap. 
about him, and confounds him in one story with TuUus 
Hostilius.^ The authority for what is said of him is 
John of Salisbury. Later on in the chapter Marius' 
conquest of Jugurtha and his victories over the Cimbri 
are noticed, as is also the social war and its end. Sal- 
lust's birth is entered here, and the numerous prodigies 
which appeared in many parts of Italy, and by an error 
in chronology ^ the social disturbances about the agrarian 
law of the Gracchi are placed at this date. Many things 
are then mentioned in the lives of Marius and Sulla, 
much of the authority for which is St. Augustine. 
Sulla's triumph over Mithridates introduces a short 
account of the kinof of Pontus, whose death, and the 
appointment of Tigranes as king of Syria ^ by Pompey, 
closes the chapter. 

The next chapter is mainly occupied Avith Roman Cap. xl, 
affairs. The success of Plautus as a writer of plays, and 
the death of Sulla are the first events noticed. Nicomedes,^ 
king of Bithynia, leaves his kingdom to the Romans. The 
Gladiatorial war comes next, and the victorious general, 
Marcus the Proconsul, is the afterwards famous Crassus. 
In brief sentences are mentioned the birth of Horace, 
Pompey 's conquest of Jerusalem, and Catiline's rebellion 
with Sallust's history thereof. Then Livy's birth, 
Virgil's education at Cremona, and Julius Caesar's con- 
sulship, after which, obtaining Gaul for his province 
he invades Britain. Bede is here added to the usual 
authorities, and the chapter closes with the murder of 
Crassus by the Parthians.^ 



' See p. 140. 

2 Sallust's birth was B.C. 86 ; Tib. 
Gracchus' b.c. 16G, and his proposed 
agrarian law, b.c. 133. 

' Which here means Armenia. 



^ This was Nicomedes III. Philo- 
pator. 

' The unfortunate end of Crassus 
is said by Higden, though he does 
not give his authority, to have been 



XXll 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cap. xLi. The Eoman affairs comprised in the next chapter 
consist of the quarrel and war between Caesar and 
Pompey and the death of the latter, with Csesar's ex- 
pedition into Egypt. Higden also knows of the Julian 
reform of the calendar. Csesar's conquests in Asia and 
Africa lead to the mention of Cato's suicide, and this to 
an account of the most celebrated men ^ of that name. 
Csesar's achievements are resumed, and the chapter ends 
with his death in the Capitol, pierced with twenty-three 
wounds.^ 

Cap. xLii. This chapter is also devoted to the history of Caesar,^ 
and consists of anecdotes from Petrus, Pliny, Valerius, 
Suetonius, and John of Salisbury, and the mention of 
Catiline's conspiracy is introduced for the purpose of 
quoting the comparison from Sallust between Csesar and 
Marcus Cato. 



a punishment for plundering the 
temple at Jerusalem, from which he 
took two thousand talents, which 
Pompey, with all his sacrilegious 
enormities, had left untouched. The 
story of this pillage of the temple hy 
Crassus is found in Josephus (Jud- 
Ant. xiv. 7 ; B. J. i. 8), but it is 
looked upon with suspicion, because, 
so far as we can learn from other 
authorities, Crassus' head-quarters 
were never less than 400 Roman 
miles from Jerusalem, The story Is 
also mentioned in the Latin treatise 
" JDe Bella Judaico," which is an 
enlarged translation of Josephus, 
and is the work which Iligden cites 
80 frequently at this part of his 
chronicle under the name of He- 
ffcsipjnis. The story is given at 
full length in Prideaux's Connection, 
pt, 2. bk. vii, 

1 ^lennius, ^hich is the name as- 



signed to one of the number by all 
the MSS. is seen from what is re- 
lated of him, to have been M. Por- 
cius Cato Licinianus, Cato the 
Censor was, according to Higden, 
the author of the school book 
Ethica Catonis, so well known to 
Chaucer, and which can be traced 
back to about the fourth century, 
A.r>, 

" With singular inconsistency 
Higden quotes from Eutropius (see 
p. 206) that Ca}sar fell pierced with 
23 wounds, and immediately after- 
wards (p, 208) says, without giving 
his authority, and in a passage where 
other mistakes are found " nee 
vulnus in corpore ejus apparuit." 

^ The authority is not given, but 
the fatal day for Ca;sar is made to 
be the kalends of July and not the 
ides of March. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXlll 



The next chapter opens with an account of the Cap. xli, 
parentage and adoption of Octavius, and the forma- 
tion of the triumvirate of Ocfcavianus, Antonius, and 
Lepidus. The defeat of Brutus and Cassius, and the 
surrender of Cicero to Antonius are mentioned, with the 
cause of Cicero's murder. The death of Porcia, wife of 
Brutus, the birth of Ovid, and death of Sallust ^ are put 
close together. Sallust it was who introduced the 
letter K into the Roman alphabet.^ 

The defeat of Antonius at Actium, and his flight into Cap. xliy. 
Egypt, and the death of himself and Cleopatra open this 
chapter, in which are mentioned Augustus' favour 
towards Herod the Great, the death of Yarro and Virgil, 
and a large portion of it is consumed by the narration 
of the magic arts which the stories of the Middle Ages 
attributed to Virgil.'^ Higden's authority is Alexander de 
naturis, i.e. Alexander Neckham. The death of Horace 
and of Marcius Porcius Latro conclude the notices of 
Roman events in the chapter.^ 

In connection with the birth of Christ mention is 
made of the decree of Augustus, which caused the 
Virgin's visit to Bethlehem. The purpose of the decree 



Lib. V. 
Cap. I. 



^ The story that Sallust married 
Cicero's divorced wife can scarcely 
be true. Terentia had been Cicero's 
wife for thirty years when she was 
divorced, and Sallust at that time 
was just forty years of age. 

2 The old Latin alphabet had k as 
the hard guttural, but it soon fell 
into disuse, and was only retained 
in abbreviations of such words as 
kalenda, &c. Its introduction by 
Sallust is of course absurd. Cf. 
Roby, Latin Grammar, p. 34. 



•^ For an account of the romance 
which was current about Virgil's 
powers, and which is an amplifica- 
tion of Higden's notice, see an ar- 
ticle in the Fortnightli/, June 1872. 
The mediaeval story makes Virgil 
study at Toledo, a statement which 
may help us to form an opinion of 
its origin. 

■* The latter of these notices is 
from Marianus Scotus, an authority 
but seldom quoted by Higden. 



XXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



was, on the authority of Petrus, that the population of 
the empire might be known by the number of pence 
contributed of which each person was to pay one. 

Cap. II. Augustus dies, said to have been poisoned or killed by 
the treachery of Livia.^ 

Cap. III. The next chapter is composed of anecdotes of his life, 
in which his popularity among foreign nations, his inven- 
tion of the letter X,^ his improvements of the city of 
Rome, his moral character, personal appearance, and 
clemency are noticed, and in addition to the usual 
authorities Macrobius and Seneca are here quoted. 
Augustus died at Nola.^ 

Cap. IV. Tiberius succeeds and reigns well and wisely at first ; 
but afterwards his real character is shown. Examples 
are given of his deeds. Ovid is banished during this 
reicrn. Tiberius sends to Judsea for Christ to heal him 
of a sore disease, but he has been already crucified, 
nevertheless the impression of the Saviour's face on a 
cloth preserved by Veronica effects the desired cure. 

Cap. VI. Tiberius dies from poison * in the 78th year of his 
age. He wished Tiberius, the son of Drusus, to succeed 
him, but that prince was too negligent to come first to 
an appointment which the emperor made with him, and 
Caligula consequently was preferred before him. 



' This is contradicted by all 
ancient testimony. 

- With as little foundation as 
Sallust's invention of K. Though 
Iligden's taste seems to have led 
him to notice such matters, he has 
no mention of the orthographical 
changes introduced by Claudius. 

•^ Singularly enough Iligden pro- 
fesses to quote from Eutropius, but 
gives Nola as the place where Au- 



gustus died, whereas Eutropius says 
his death took place at Atella. 
Tacitus, Suetonius, Dion, Zonaras, 
all give Nola. Eutropius is only 
followed by Jerome's translation of 
Eusebius' Chron. *' Augustus Ate.Uce 
in Campania moritury 

■* Suetonius (Tib. 73) says on this 
point : *' Sunt qui putent venenum 
" ei a Gaio datum." 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

Caligula's parentage, crimes, and attempt to intro- Cap. vn. 
duce his statue into the Jewish temple, with the accusa- 
tion and banishment of Pilate, are all the events which 
Hiofden notices here. 

But in the next chapter Gaius' murder is mentioned Cap. vm. 
in the notice of Claudius' succession. The great exploit 
of Claudius was his expedition to Britain. His wives 
and children are mentioned, and that he was poisoned 
by Agrippina to make way for her son Nero. The part 
said to have been played by Herod Agrippa in aiding 
Claudius' advancement to the empire will be noticed 
afterwards. 

Of Nero are related his love for music and his perfor- Cap. ix. 
mances thereof, his burning of the city,^ his debauchery 
and extravagance, and the murders of his relatives and 
friends, among which a longer notice is given to the 
case of Seneca, and that philosopher's character is de- 
fended. Nero sent Yespasian against the Jews, and on 
hearing that Galba had been elected emperor by the 
troops in Spain, slew himself 

Of Galba is mentioned the election, his adoption of Cap. x. 
Piso and his death ; of Otho, the early success, and 
eventual failure and suicide ; of Vitellius, his cruelty 
and gluttony ; the murder of Sabinus, brother of Vespa- 
sian, for which Vitellius was killed by the Flavian parti- 
sans. Vespasian's character and conquests are briefly 
noticed, but most of the chapter is occupied by an 
account taken from Josephus, of the destruction of 
Jerusalem, which will be noticed afterwards. Vespasian's 
death is said to have taken place in a villa in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Sabines, and a curious anecdote is 
quoted of his standing up just as he was dying. 

^ Higden says nothing of the attempt made by Nero to throw the 
blame of the fire upon the Christians. 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

Cap. XI. The learning and liberality of Titus are the only 
points mentioned in his life; the former on the au- 
thority of Eutropius, the latter on that of John of 
Salisbury. 

Cap. XII. Domitian, brother of Titus, made his empress to be 
first called Augusta, and wished divine honours to be 
paid to himself, and his statues to be all of pure gold. 
Higden mentions some of his legislation, and that he 
built the Pantheon. He celebrated a triumph over the 
Dacians and Germans, but his character was altogether 
bad. He was murdered after a reign of rather more 
than fifteen years, and was succeeded by Nerva, under 
whose mild sway many of the persons banished by 
Domitian were recalled. 

Cliristian In the account which Higden gives of Christ and his 
istory. followers and teaching, we are first told the traditional 
Lib. iii. story of the parentage of the Virgin Mary. Her mother 

Cap. xLiv. ^^^g Anna, and her father Joachim ; but, besides Joachim 
Anna had two other husbands, first Cleophas, and her 
daughter born to him, who was also called Mary, was 
the mother of James, Joseph, Jude, and Simon, who 
in Scripture are spoken of as the brethren of our Lord ; 
and Anna's third husband was Salome, to whom she 
bore a third Mary, called for distinction Mary Salome, 
who was wife of Zebedee and mother of James and John. 
Joseph, the reputed father of our Lord, was brother to 
Cleophas, the second husband of the Virgin's mother. 
Tlie history then takes up the conception of John the 
Lib. iv. Baptist, adding some comments on the chronology, 
which are followed by similar details in reference to 
our Saviour, which lead to a discussion on the proper 
date for the termination of the fifth age of the world. 
Mary's visit to Elizabeth, Augustus' decree, and Christ's 
birth in Bethlehem are next recounted. The other 
events of Christ's early life are in accord with St. Luke 



INTRODUCTION. XXVll 

except that we are told that the idols of Egypt fell 
down when Christ entered that land, and that the holy 
family remained in their banishment six years. After 
this follows a chronological discussion of the length 
of Christ's life on earth. 

The next chapter begins with a notice of a circle ^''^P- "• 
round the sun, and a spring of oil in the Trans- tiberine 
part of Rome that flowed all the day on which Christ was 
born ; we are also told that a statue set up by Romulus 
fell down, as he had predicted it would. The reason why 
Herod killed off all the children of two years and under 
was that on Christ's birth he had suddenly been called to 
Rome to answer the accusations of two of his sons. He 
remained there nearly two years, and so all the children 
born between the visit of the Magi and his return were 
to be slain. The three most notorious Herods were 
Herod the Great, called Ascalonita, his son Antipas, and 
Herod Agrippa I., son of Aristobulus. Herod, on his 
way to Rome, burnt the ships of the men of Tarsus, 
because they conveyed the Magi. The two sons who 
had accused their father at Rome were subsequently put 
to death by him, as was also his first-born Antipater. 

The joke of Augustus preferring the fate of Herod's 
swine to that of his sons, is duly recorded. Herod dies 
miserably, having first attempted to commit suicide. 
He orders that on his death the sons of the Jewish 
nobles should be slain, that there might be some mourn- 
ing when he died. He also would fain have destroyed 
the Jewish chronicles, which were kept in the archives 
of the temple. The division of Herod's dominions, and 
Christ's return from Egypt and his visit to the temple, 
are here mentioned, as also the accusation and banish- 
ment of Archelaus. 

Under the reign of Tiberius, mention is made of the Cap. iv. 
appointment of Pontius Pilate as governor of Judaea, an 



XXVlll INTRODUCTION. 

appoiutment said to have been agreeable to Herod 
Antipas, though Pilate's ambition afterwards led to the 
quarrel which was only healed at the time of Christ's 
trial. The account given of Pilate's origin is utterly 
without foundation. One account is given here of 
Pilate's end, but a different one in a later chapter. A 
considerable space is devoted to a description of the 
Jewish sects, Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. 
Cap. V. In the account of Christ's life given in the next chap- 
ter, there is nothing which differs from the Gospel history, 
but a great deal of ingenuity is spent over distinctions of 
miracles, and chronological arrangements of the events 
of our Lord's life. After the account of the death of 
John the Baptist, we are told of the present resting- 
place of the finger which pointed at Christ, and of his 
head, which Higden says is shown at Amiens. 
Cap. VI. Mentioning briefly the great eclipse which occurred 
at Christ's crucifixion, and also the rending of rocks, the 
history passes to the day of Pentecost, and then to the 
appointment of the seven, and the election of James 
the Less as Bishop of Jerusalem. The virtues of James 
are dwelt on, and also the conduct of Nicholas to prove 
himself not jealous, and an account is given of Judas 
Iscariot, making the life of the traitor to have consisted 
of events exactly similar to those of OEdipus in the 
Greek tragedies. Stephen is stoned and the disciples 
scattered, Peter first becoming a bishop in the east, then 
at Antioch, and at last at Rome. A very brief notice is 
given to St. Paul's conversion and labours, though much 
is made of the visit of Seneca to the apostle when he 
was a prisoner at Rome. 
Cap. vii. Caligula is said to have been a friend to Herod 
Agrippa, but to have banished Antipas. The fate of the 
daughter of Herodias is described in the translation by 
Trevisa thus : " pe eor]?e swelowede ]?e wenche fat 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

" tomblede." In this chapter is also given the other 
account of Pilate's end, his banishment, and the trouble 
his body caused after he was dead. 

In Claudius' reign occurred the famine foretold by <^ap- viii. 
Agabus, and Helen, the Queen of the Adiabeni, helped 
the Jews at Jerusalem. Some notice is given of 
St. Mark and the compilation of his gospel ; also of 
Marcial, bishop of Limoges, and Apollinaris^ bishop of 
Kavenna.^ Mark, against his own wish, is made bishop 
of Alexandria. The death of Herod Agrippa I. is men- 
tioned, and his final visit to Ceesarea is said to have been 
made to celebrate plays in honour of Ceesar. A little 
history is also given of his previous adventures. It was 
to his son Herod Agrippa II. that Christian men fled 
over Jordan when Jerusalem was about to be taken. 
The Virgin Mary died at this time, and Philip the 
apostle was crucified at Hieropolis. Lazarus, who had 
been made bishop of Cyprus, died the second time four 
and twenty years after his resurrection. Paul's trial and 
appeal conclude the notices of the Christian church in 
this chapter. 

Under Nero Paul came to Kome, but no mention Cap. ix. 
occurs of Nero's accusation of the Christians. Peter 
ordained two bishops at Rome, Linus and Cletus (called 
also Anacletus). Luke was at Rome and wrote there 
the Acts of the Apostles. The soldier who pierced 
Christ's side, who was called Longinus, was martyred at 
this time in Cappadocia. He became a Christian from 
having his sight restored by the blood which ran from 
Christ's wound. The martyrdom of James the Just is 
related from Eusebius. St. Mark died in Egypt. Linus 
the bishop is martyred. St. Peter overcame the magical 



^ On the name Ravenna, see ch. x. p. 458. 
VOL. IV. 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

arts of Simon Magus, who was much regretted by Nero. 
St. Peter and St. Paul were now mart^^red at Rome, and 
Vespasian sent against Jerusalem. Clemens Rom anus 
was made a bishop, but some of the particulars of 
the account are difficult to reconcile with the previous 
notice of Linus' death. The body of Clemens was 
discovered long after his death. 
• Cap. X. The history ot the siege of Jerusalem is abridged 
from Josephus, only it is suggested that it was for the 
crucifixion of Christ rather than, as he says, for the 
murder of James the Just, that such a terrible visitation 
came. 
Cap. XI. A certain bishop Julianus, said to have been Simon 
the Leper, died about this time ; but he is a different 
personage from St. Julian, the patron of hospitality, 
whose history is related here. 
Cap. XII. Anacletus the Pope, who is here said to be a different 
person from Cletus, died, and was succeeded by Evaristus. 
St. John, who had been banished by Domitian to Pat- 
mos, returns from exile on that emperor's death. 

The chief authorities for the earlier portion of the 

Christian history are St. Luke and Petrus, and for the 

latter portion Eusebius. 

British The notices of British history are very scanty, and 

.". are all from Geoffrey of Monmouth, except where Bede 

Cap. XXXI. is quoted about the invasion of Julius Caesar. They 

commence with the death of Morvidus the cruel,^ who 

was swallowed by a sea monster. Of his five sons, first 

reigned and died Gorbonianus the eldest. He was suc- 



^ Geoffrey tells of Morvidus that I the people who dwelt on the shore, 
he undertook to destroy this sea and that in the combat he was 
monster, which coming from the utterly defeated, and the beast de- 
mure Hibernicum used to devour | voured him " velut pisciculum." 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXI 



ceeded by Archgallo, whose cruelty provoked a rebellion, 
through which he was banished. The third brother, 
Elidurus, now succeeds, and in a hunting expedition in 
the forest of Galtres ^ finds his brother Archgallo in 
hiding, and induces the nobles to restore him to the throne. 
When Archgallo dies, Elidurus is again king, but is seized 
and imprisoned by the two younger brothers, Vigenius 
and Peridurus ; but when they are dead, he is released 
and made king a third time, and finishes his reign in 
peace. Of the next thirty -two kings,^ Bledgaret^ is 
the only one noticed, and is said to have been famed 
for his musical powers. Then reigned Hely, who 
left three remarkable sons, Lud, Cassibalanus, ^ and 
Nennius. Of whom Lud reigns first, and built Caer- Cap. xl. 
lud and Ludgate, by which he is remembered, and 
died leaving two sons, Andragius and Tenuantius, 
who were too young to reign ; Cassibalanus there- 
fore is made king, and was reigning when Julius 
Oa?sar invaded Britain. Cassibalanus was made tri- 
butary to Rome, and survived Caesar's invasion seven 
years. Andragius having incurred the anger of the Cap. xlii, 
king his uncle, went with Csesar to Rome. Tenuantius 
succeeds Cassibalanus, and no mention is made of Lud*s 



1 Of the name Yngelwode or 
Inglewode given to this forest in 
the MSS. CD., I can find no trace 
near York. There was an Ingle- 
wood forest in Cumberland, between 
Carlisle and Caldbeck, see Pearson's 
Historical Maps of England, p. 4.5, 
but no such name occurs in the 
neighbourhood of Galtres. The 
explanation of Calaterium in the 
text (p. 28) as the forest of Galtres 
appears to be due to Higden. It is 
not correct, however, to assign the 
other explanation, "juxta urhem 
" Alcluit," to Geoffrey. All that the 



latter says is, that Archgallo was 
found " in Calaterio nemore" and 
was taken by his brother " in civi' 
" tatem Aldud." Alclud is thought 
to be Dumbartonshire. See Pear- 
son, p. 20 ; also Bede, H.E. i. 12, 
and Alanus ab Insulis Explanat. in 
Merlini prophet, p. 214. 

2 For the list of their names see 
Geoffrey, book iii. chap. 19. 

3 The orthography of Geoffrey is 
Blegahred. 

"* Geoffrey spells his name Cassi- 
hellaunus. 

c 2 



XXXll 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cap. xLiv. third son, Nennius.^ Kymbelinus succeeds his father 
Tenuantius, and leaves two sons, Guyderius and Arvira- 

Lib. iv. gus ; the former of whom reigned first, and refused ta 
^^' ^^' pay tribute to the Romans, for which cause it was that 

Cap. VIII. Claudius invaded Britain. That Emperor visited the 
Orcades, and named his son Britannicus in honour of 
his British expedition. Laelius^ Hamo, one of Clau- 
dius' generals, slew Guyderius at Porchester. The same 
Hamo gave name to Hampton. Arviragus succeeds his^ 
brother, and was married to a daughter of Claudius. 
They were married at a place which received the 
name of Claudiocester, and is now Gloucester ; but 
Higden records another derivation for the name. Clau- 
dius sent his legions into Ireland. Arviragus after a 
time rebelled against the Roman rule. This rebellion 
led to the sending of Vespasian to Britain, and he 

Cap. IX. quelled it. Marius, the son of Arviragus, succeeds his 
father, and gains a great victory over the invading forces 
of Rodric, King of the Picts. Westmoreland has its 
name from this king. A stone which he set up in 
honour of his great victory, and inscribed " Marii Vic- 
torife," was mistaken by William of Malmesbury for a 
record of the Roman general Marius. But this was 
because William had never seen the British book, and 
did not know of Marius, King of Britain. The con- 
quered troops of Rodric were permitted by Marius to 
settle in Caithness.^ 

Cap. XII. Coillus, the son of Marius, was educated at Rome, 
and reigning after his father paid tribute duly and 



^ Much is said by Geoffrey of his 
prowess against the Romans, and 
how he got possession of Cajsar's 
sword, but in the end was killed by 
Caesar. Book iv. chapp. 3, 4. 



' Britannico vocabulo dicebatur 
Levis Hamo. Geoff, iv, 12. 

2 See lib. i, cap. Iviii. p. 144^ 
(vol. ii.) 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXlll 



led a peaceful life.^ He is the reputed builder of 
Colchester. 

In the preface to vol. iii. (p. xxvii.), it was suggested 
that Ceadholdes wigh (Cod. Dip. 427, 1198), in Berkshire, 
came nearer to the form of Cherdhole or Sherdehoole 
mentioned in vol. ii. (p. 22), than Cheddar, which had 
been suggested by Prof. Babington. Since that time I 
have been shown by Mr. W. Aldis Wright, a MS. in the 
Trinity College Library (R. 14. 7.), containing an account 
of the marvels of England, in which the first that is men- 
tioned is Chedirhole. This converts Prof. Babington's 
conjecture into a certainty. The whole piece in which the 
name occurs seems valuable as an illustration of portions 
of Higden's first book, I have therefore printed it in 
■extenso as an appendix to this volume. There is a some- 
what similar account of the marvels of England printed 
by Hearne as the first appendix to his edition of Robert 
of Gloucester. The orthography of all the names in his 
-account difiers from that of the MS. from which I have 
printed, and I have shown the variations in the notes. 
The first sentence in Hearne's copy, which is not con- 
tained in the Trinity MS., shows that Peccum, men- 
tioned by Higden (vol. ii. p. 22), is most likely the Peak 
in Derbyshire.^ 

Two more copies of Higden have been discovered by 
the researches of the Historical Documents Commission, 
•one in Countess Cowper's collection, the other in that of 
Mr. Ormsby Gore. From the descriptions given of them 



^ For an account of his corre- 
ispondencc with Pope Eleutherius and 
the steps that were taken to Chris- 
tianize Britain in his time, see 
Oeoff. iv. 19. 



^ It runs thus : " De cavernis 
" terrse ventus egreditur in monte, 
" qui vocatur Peec, tanto vigore, 
" ut vestes injectas rejiciat et in 
" altum elevet." 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

they are both of the same type as the MS. A of this 
editioD, having the continuations from 1326, the one to 
1346, the other to 1377. In the second report of the 
Commissioners are also found a few slight notices of 
John Trevisa as Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. 
They occur in the accounts of the Computi of Exeter 
and Queen s College. 

J. Kawson Lumby. 

Cambridge, 

Aug. 8th, 1872. 



XXXV 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 



BOOK THE TUmj)— (continued). 

Cap. XXX. 
The death of Alexander. 

Alexander comes to the trees of the sun and moon. Description 
of them. Alexander may not offer sacrifice to them. Certain 
responses given to him by them. He sends this and other 
information to Aristotle. A marvellous stone sent to Alexander. 
Its qualities, and the meaning thereof. Lucius Papirius 
dictator at Eome. Conquers the Samnites. Ambassadors 
from the west meet Alexander at Babylon. His joy makes 
him forget the warning of the trees. He hangs some unworthy 
prefects ; marries the daughter of Darius and hears from his 
mother of Antipater's treachery. Cassander, Antipater's son, 
brings poison to kill Alexander. Great strength of the poison. 
It is given to him at the house of Thessalus the physician. 
He names as his successor the most worthy, overlooking his 
son Arideus. When dying he gives his ring to Perdiccas 
Grief for Alexander's death. He is buried in Alexandria. 
Comments of philosophers on the life and death of Alexander. 
Division of his empire. - - - - PP» 4-16. 

Cap. XXXI. 

Of King Pyrrhus. 

Ptolemy Soter reigns in Egypt. Conquers Syria. Death of the 
high priest Jadus. Ptolemy restores Pyrrhus. Agathocles, 
tyrant of Syracuse. Age of Theophrastus and Menander. 
Seleucus, king of Syria. Simon the Great, high priest. 
Pyrrhus aids the Tarentines against the Romans. The Tar en- 
tines combine with the Carthaginians. Stories of the policy 
of Pyrrhus. Of the Roman velites, and their exploits against 
Pyrrhus. Of the treachery of Pyrrhus' physician. Of the 
response of Apollo to the inquiry of Pyrrhus. Prodigies in 
Italy. Seleucus, king of Syria, honours the Jews. Eleazar 



XXXVl SUMMAHY OF CONTENTS. 

tlie high priest. Eomans build Beneventum. Morvidus, king 
of Britain, succeeded by Gorbonianus, and he by Archgallo j 
then Elidurus succeeds. Thirty-two kings of Britain after- 
wards. Of Bledgaret, and Hely and his three sons. pp. 16-30. 

Cap. XXXII. 

Of the Septuagint and of other versions of the Old Testament 

Scriptures. 

Of Ptolemy Philadelphus. His release of Jewish captives. He 
asks Eleazar, the high priest, to send him some learned Jews, 
who should translate the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek. The 
character of their translation. Augustine's account of the 
mode in which this translation was made. Jerome's version of 
the same story. Of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion. Of 
Jerome's Latin translation. Of the extent of king Ptolemy's 
library. The dates of the several translations of the Old 
Testament. The first Punic War. At first in Sicily, then 
carried into Africa. Regulus conquered by Xanthippus. The 
embassy of Regulus to Rome. His death. War between 
Ptolemy and Antiochus,. Antiochus poisoned by Laodice. 
Silver coinage at Rome. - . - - pp. 30-46. 



Cap. XXXIII. 

Of Egypt, and the Second Punic War. 

Ptolemy Euergetes invades Syria, but is recalled by a conspiracy 
of the Egyptian nobles. The sons of Antiochus Galericus. 
Antiochus the Great defeated by Ptolemy Philopator. Birth 
of Ennius. He is brought to Rome by Cato. His mode of life. 
Unsuccessful expedition of the Gauls into Italy. Their oath, 
and its fulfilment. Ptolemy Philopator reigns seventeen years. 
In his time was written the earlier history of the Maccabees. 
His character. Expedition of Antiochus the Great against 
him. Ptolemy dies, leaving an infant son. Commencement 
of the second Punic War. Hannibal, sworn to make war on 
the Romans, besieges Saguntum. Unsuccessful Roman em- 
bassy to him. The ambassadors go to Africa, and return 
unsped to Rome. The Saguntincs burn themselves and their 
city. Hannibal leaves Hasdrubal in Spain while he crosses 
the Alps into Italy. Of his passage through Gaul. [Trevisa's 
explanation of the names Pyrenees and A'pennines.'] Prodigies 
in Italy. Battles of Ticinus and Cremera. Sempronius and 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. XXXVli 

Flamimus defeated by Hannibal. An earthquake during one 
battle unfelt by the soldiery. Fabius Maximus sent against 
Hannibal ; defeats him. The next commanders iEmilius Pau- 
lus and Terentius Varro are defeated at Cannae. Hannibal 
might after this have utterly destroyed the Eomans. Of the 
recruiting of the Roman army. Romans refuse to redeem their 
captives. Low state of Roman exchequer. Private offerings 
towards the war expenses. Romans propose to leave Italy, 
but are hindered by an oracle. The statue of Cybele brought 
to Rome. Received by Publius Nasica. Festival instituted 
in honour of the event. Hannibal approaches Rome. Engage- 
ment prevented by a storm. Hasdrubal conquered in Spain. 
Four separate expeditions of the Romans into Macedonia, 
Sardinia, Spain, and against Hannibal. Levinus, the consul, 
conquers Philip, king of Macedon. Hannibal in Campania. 
Two Scipios killed in Spain. Of Publius Cornelius Scipio. 
He takes New Carthage. His policy secures nearly all Spain. 
Fabius Maximus recovers Tarentum, Hasdrubal sent for 
into Italy; is killed. Hannibal's grief for him. Scipio 
recalled from Spain. - - - - pp. 46-72. 

Cap. XXXIV. 

Continuation of the history of Egypt, Judcea, and Home. 

Ptolemy Epiphanes begins to reign when five years old. His 
kingdom protected by the Romans. Ptolemy subjugates 
Syria, but his forces are soon repulsed. Ptolemy marries 
Antiochus' daughter, who has Syria for her dower. The Jews 
had thus to pay tribute to two kings. Onias the high priest 
protests, and his nephew Josephus obtains a remission. Of 
Hyrcanus, the son of this Josephus. His youthful dis- 
cretion. He is sent by his father to carry congratulations to 
king Ptolemy. His device for procuring the royal favour. 
His adventures at the Egyptian court. His brothers envy 
him. He establishes himself beyond Jordan, and wars on the 
Arabs. On the death of Seleucus, king of Syria, Hyrcanus 
commits suicide. Scipio the Great sent into Africa. Con- 
quers Hanno. Hannibal withdraws from Italy to Africa, 
where he is conquered. Scipio surna.med Africanus. End 
of Second Punic war. Plautus dies. Roman victory over 
the Macedonians. The Romans attack Antiochus, king of 
Syria, because he had received Hannibal. Antiochus re- 
jects Hannibal's counsel and is conquered. Antiochus 
Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the Great, taken as a hostage 
to Rome. Hannibal flees to Bithynia. Aids Prusias against 



XXXVlll SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 

Eumenes. Poisons himself. His character. A volcanic island 
appears in this year at the north of Sicily. Anecdotes of 
Hannibal. Death of Scipio Africanus. Traits of his character. 
Scipio ISTasica stops the building of a theatre at E-ome. Why 
the Romans instituted stage plays. Seleucus Soter rules in 
Syria and Asia. Fate of his father. - - pp. 74-102. 

Cap. XXXV. 

Antiochus Epiphanes takes Jerusalem. 

Ptolemy Philometor, king of Egypt. Simon, son of Onias, high 
priest, bought the priesthood. Seleucus interferes, but is 
prevented from spoiling the temple, and killed. Conflicting 
accounts of Josephus and the second book of Maccabees. 
Jesus son of Sirach flourishes. Aristobulus, a Jew, writes 
a commentary on the books of Moses. Perseus, son of Philip 
of Macedon, rebels against the Romans. Is conquered by 
^milius Paulus. Nobility of the conqueror. Bravery of 
Mennius (?) Cato. Macedonia becomes a province of Rome. 
.-Emilius Paulus brings books from Greece to Rome. Julius 
Caesar tried to form a library. Of the library of Pamphilus. 
Of the works of Origen and Augustine. Antiochus Epiphanes 
a hostage at Rome. He escapes. Succeeds his brother Se- 
leucus. Gives his sister in marriage to Ptolemy, whom he 
afterwards causes to be murdered. Antiochus besieges Alex- 
andria. Roman ambassadors sent to him. Their interview. 
Onias, the high priest, goes into Egypt and builds a temple at 
Heliopolis. This remained for two hundred and fifty years. 
The brothers of Onias contend for the priesthood. To please 
Antiochus they adopt Gentile names and manners. Antiochus 
first appoints Jason, but soon puts his brother into his place. 
The holy fire died out at the time of this traffic in sacred 
things. Antiochus takes Jerusalem and pollutes the temple. 
Mattathias and his sons rise against the Macedonians. Judas 
is made leader of the people. Death of Ennius. Successes 
of Judas Maccabeus. Institution of the Feast of Dedication. 
Terrible end of Antiochus. He is succeeded by Antiochus 
Eupator. He wars against the Jews. - - pp. 102-120. 

Cap. XXXVI. 

Of Jcivish affairs, and the Third Pmiic War, 

Demetrius Soter reigns in Asia and Syria. He had gone to Rome 
as a child to accuse his uncle Antiochus Epiphanes. He returns 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. XXXIX 

to his kingdom on his uncle's death. Alchimus and Bacchides 
sent by Demetrius against the Jews. Nicanor sent against 
Judas ; is slain. Judas slain. He is succeeded by his brother 
Jonathan. Alchimus dies of palsy and Bacchides returns 
home. Ptolemais occupied by Alexander, son of Ajitiochus. 
He, in league with Jonathan, kills king Demetrius. The son 
of Demetrius after some difficulties comes to his father's throne. 
League between Demetrius and Jonathan. Tryphon, one of 
the friends of Alexander, restores Alexander's son, Antiochus. 
He is friendly towards Jonathan. Friendship renewed between 
Jonathan and the Eomans and Spartans. The Third Punic 
war. The two Hasdrubals are leaders of the Carthaginians. 
They are defeated by the younger Scipio, and Carthage is 
destroyed. The wife of king Hasdrubal throws herself into 
the flames of the city and perishes as Dido had done before. 
Of Cato's wish, that Carthage should be destroyed. Nasica's 
opposition thereto. Evil consequences to Eome. pp. 120-130. 



Cap. XXXYII. 
Of the kings of Egyp t. 

Ptolemy Euergetes, king of Egypt. The younger Scipio defeats 
the Numantines. Tryphon meditates the murder of Antiochus, 
but is afraid of Jonathan. So he first kills the latter and then 
the former. Simon succeeds Jonathan and makes a league 
with Demetrius against Tryphon. But Demetrius is killed by 
the king of Persia. He is succeeded by his son Antiochus, 
who at first is friendly to Simon and attacks Tryphon, but after- 
wards attacks Judea. Simon renews the alliance with the 
Spartans and Romans. Attains leaves his kingdom to the 
Romans. Ptolemy, a governor of Jericho, kills Simon, who 
was his father-in-law, and is pursued and besieged by John 
Hyrcanus. His device for stopping the siege. Antiochus 

* Ponticus besieges Jerusalem. John Hyrcanus takes of the 
treasure in David's tomb to purchase the departure of An- 
tiochus. With some of the money he builds hostels for the 
poor. Great plague of locusts in Africa. Roman losses in 
Africa. Carthage restored and colonised. John Hyrcanus 
devastates Samaria. It is restored by Herod and named 
Sebaste. Callic expedition towards Rome. Eruption of 
Mount iEtna. Catana destroyed. The Romans remit the 
tribute of that town for ten years. - - pp. 130-138. 



xl SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 



Cap. XXXVIII. 

Life oj Cicero, with some part of the history of Rome and 

Judcea. 

Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt. Birth of Cicero. He was the 
Chrysostom of his time. His speech of the source of eloquence. 
He wrote the Iliad in such compass that it could be enclosed 
in a nutshell. His speech about buying a house. His jesting 
mode of answer when he was in fault. Death of John Hyrca- 
nus. His eldest son Aristobulus. Kills his mother and 
imprisons three brothers. He afterwards causes his fourth 
brother Antigonus to be slain. Kingdom of Judah restored. 
Death of Aristobulus. He is succeeded by his brother Alex- 
ander Janneus. His cruelty. His death. He leaves two sons, 
Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. Alexandra, wife of Janneus, rules 
after him. Marius defeats the Cimbri. Ptolemy Alexander, 
king of Egypt, Ptolemy Soter being expelled. Birth of 
Lucretius the poet. Of his writings and suicide. Syria 
becomes a dependency of Eome. Social war in Italy. 

pp. 138-150. 

Cap. XXXIX. 

Of Marius, Sulla, and Mithridates. 

Ptolemy Soter recovers the kingdom of Egypt. Sallust is born. 
Prodigies in Italy. The Gracchi. Eivalry of Marius and 
Sulla. Exile of Marius. His return. His seventh consul- 
ship. His attack on Rome. Dread of many lest they should 
fall into his hands. Mithridates vanquished by Sulla. Sulla's 
return to Eome. His cruelty. Number of civil wars of the 
Eomans. Of the younger Mithridates. His devices to avoid 
being poisoned. His conquest. The conduct of his wife. 
Death of Mithridates. Pompey makes Tigranes king of 
Syria, and sets fire to the temple at Jerusalem. - pp. 150-170. 

Cap. XL. 

Of Pompey and Ccesar. 

Ptolemy Dionysius, king of Egypt. Plautus flourishes at Eome. 
Death of Sulla. Death of Nicomedes, king of Bithynia. Of 
the war of the Eomans with Mithridates. War of the gladiators 
at Eome. Alexander reigns over the Jews. Virgil born. 
Pirates render the seas unsafe. Pompey's war against Mithri- 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. xli 

dates and Tigranes. Mithridates attacked by his son Phar- 
naces. Mithridates poisons his wife and daughters. Is killed 
by a soldier at his own request. Birth of Horace. On the 
death of Alexandra, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus contend for the 
succession. The Eomans interfere. Pompey takes Jerusalem. 
Gives the priesthood to Hyrcanus, and leaves Scaurus as 
prefect of Syria. Pompey commits a sacrilege in the temple 
at Jerusalem and is never successfal in battle afterwards. 
Triumph of Pompey. Catiline's conspiracy. Sallust wrote a 
history thereof. Livy born. Yirgil educated at Cremona. 
Julius Csesar consul ; afterwards has Gaul and Hlyricum as his 
province. His conquests. His invasion of Britain. He returns 
to Gaul. Death of Lud, king of Britain. His buildings. Cas- 
sabalanus, his brother, succeeds. Lud's sons are made dukes of 
Kent and Cornwall. One of these, Andragius, encourages 
Caesar's invasion. Crassus goes against the Parthians. Takes 
treasure from the temple at Jerusalem and is consequently 
conquered. His death. - - . pp^ 172-188. 

Cap. xli. 

Of the Civil War betioeen CcBsar and Pompey. 

Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Cause of the civil war between 
Ctfisar and Pompey. Ccesar desires to be honoured with a 
triumph. This is refused. Of the dictatorship. Of the first 
triumvirate. Fear of Pompey. He flies to Greece. Julius 
enters Rome. Distributes treasure to his soldiers. His con- 
quest of the Pompeians in Spain and Greece. Pompey's flight 
to Egypt. His death. Cossar's sorrow. Caesar's expedition 
to Egypt. Rebellion of the young Ptolemy. Caesar spent two 
years in Egypt. He corrects the calendar. Of the Roman 
calendar. Caesar overcomes Pharnaces. He is made consul 
for the third time. Vanquishes Scipio, Cato, and Juba in Africa. 
Of the death of Cato. Several persons called Cato distinguished. 
Caesar's fourth consulship. Defeats Pompey's sons in Spain. 
Makes himself emperor. Meaning of Imjperator and Ccesar, 
and Augustus. Cassar's pride and death. - pp. 188-206. 

Cap. XLII. 

Anecdotes of Julius Ccesar. 

Caesar is warned while going to the Capitol that he is in danger. 
He neglects the warning and is killed. No wound appeared 
on his body. His statue had previously been struck by light- 



xlii SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 

ning. Other portents. Praise of Caesar. His mental powers. 
His conduct to the traitor Domitius. His tolerance of 
comments upon himself. Of a visit made by him to Cicero. 
Anecdote of Accius the poet. Of two children who were brought 
to Caesar. Of Catiline's conspiracy. Comparison between 
Marcus Cato and Julius Caesar. Cassibalanus, king of Britain, 
dies, and is succeeded by Tenuancius, son of Lud, and brother 
of Andragius. Andragius went with Caesar to Rome. 

pp. 208-222. 

Cap. XLIII. 

Of the Emperor Augustus, and of the affairs of Judcea. 

Julius is succeeded by Octavianus. Octavianus had conquered 
Mark Antony at Mutina. Of the length of his reign. The 
reason of his name Augustus. An account of his parentage. 
He conquers Brutus and Cassius. Gives up Cicero to Antony. 
Fate of Cicero. Division of power between Octavianus and 
Antony. Death of Porcia, wife of Brutus- Ovid is born, and 
Sallust dies. Sallust always a rival of Cicero. Sallust first 
introduced the letter K into the Latin alphabet. Of the reign 
of Herodes Ascalonita. Of Antipater, the father of this 
Herod. Herod promoted through the favour of Antony and 
made king of Judaea. Antigonus opposes him, but after a 
contest of four years Herod obtains the kingdom. Of Herod's 
wives and children. Of a quarrel between Mariamne and' 
Salome. Mariamne is put to death. Herod's frenzy. He 
adorns the temple, restores Samaria, and completes Csesarea. 
The Jews are displeased with the respect he pays to the 
Eomans. - - - - - - PP- 228-238. 

Cap. XLIV. 

Of the death of Mark Antony, and of the parentage of Christ 
and of John the Baptist. 

Antony marries Cleopatra, and wars against Octavian. He is 
defeated at Actium, and flees into Egypt, where he kills him- 
self. Of Cleopatra's conduct and death, Egypt comes into 
the power of the Romans. Augustus favours Herod. Death 
of M. Terentius Yarro, and of Yirgil. Yirgil is buried at 
Naples. His epitaph. Of Virgil as a necromancer. Alexander 
do Natura is the authority for these stories. Yirgil frees 
Naples from a plague of blood-suckers. He knew how to keep 
flesh sweet for five hundred years. He made a wall of air for 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. xliii 

his orchard, and also a wonderful bridge of air. Of a dis- 
course which Virgil had with the nephew of Augustus. 
Varius and Tucta revise Virgil's ^neid. Birth and parentage 
of the Virgin Mary. Of her relatives. Kymbelinus, king of 
Britain. His two sons, Gu3'-derius and Arviragus. Death 
of Horace. M. Porcius Latro puts an end to his life. Of 
John the Baptist's birth. Points of difference between him 
and Christ pp. 238-250. 



BOOK THE FOURTH. 



History of the Worlds from the birth of John the Baptist to the 
Papacy of Leo the Saint. 

Cap. I. 

Of the Sixth Age of the World. 

Christ is conceived. Thus ends the fifth age of the world, in the 
forty-second year of Augustus. Various computations of its 
length. The sixth age begins, according to som.e, with the 
birth, according to others, with the baptism, or the death of 
Christ. Age of the world at that time. Of certain supposed 
coincidences of time in the events of Adam's life and that of 
Christ. Of the mode in which the three days of Christ's 
burial are to be reckoned. Visit of the Virgin Mary to Eliza- 
beth, and return to l^azareth. Hesitation of Joseph. Of the 
decree of Augustus, and the reason why it was made. Joseph 
and Mary go to Bethlehem. Christ is born. Events of his 
life at Bethlehem. Plot of Herod to kill the child. Flight 
into Egypt. The idols of Egypt fell down when Christ entered 
that country. Chronological discussion on the date of Christ's 
birth. Dijfficulty of such investigations explained. Of the 
length of Christ's life on earth. - - - pp. 252-278. 

Cap. II. 

Of Herod the Great and his family. 

Of the fountain of oil which flowed at Rome when Christ was 
born. Other wonders which happened at that time. Herod 



Xliv SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 

was summoned to Rome just at the time of Christ's birth. 
He was accused by his sons, Alexander and Aristobulus. Of 
the three most notorious members of the family of Herod, and 
first of Herod the Great. His design that Antipater should 
reign after him. He burns the ships of the people of Tarsus 
because they had conveyed the Magi. Reconciliation between 
him and his sons. On his return from Rome he slays the chil- 
dren at Bethlehem, and among them one of his own is slain. 
He puts to death his sons Aristobulus and Alexander. Anti- 
pater designs to poison Herod, and is imprisoned. Jocular re- 
mark made by Augustus. Grievous bodily ailments of Herod. 
Antipater is put to death. Birth of John the Evangelist. 
Death of Herod the Great. His device that he might cause a 
mourning at his death. His destruction of the Jewish archives. 
Contentions of the sons of Herod at his death. Jesus returns 
from Egypt. Of Christ in the temple. Accusation and 
banishment of Archelaus. Death of Augustus. Length of his 
reign. ..---_ pp. 278-292. 



Cap. III. 

0/ the Emperor Augustus. 

Popularity of Augustus. Of his policy. He added the letter 
X to the Roman alphabet. His boast about the improvement 
of the city. Of his moral character. The Romans would 
have paid him divine honours. Answer of the Sybil on this 
point. Vision of Augustus. His tolerance. An example of 
his clemency in his treatment of Cinna. Anecdote of a veteran 
soldier's remonstrance with the emperor. Of his purchase of 
certain birds trained to speak. How a Greek poet rebuked the 
emperor's parsimony. Augustus died at Nola. A saying of 
his recorded. How he trained his family. - pp. 292-310. 

Cap. IV. 
Of the reign of Tiberius, and some account of Pontius Pilate, 

Tiberius succeeds Augustus. Of his moderation in the early 
part of his reign. Of his attainments and character. Jocu- 
larly called Biberius Mero. Of his policy in the administra- 
tion of the provinces. AVhy he put an artificer to death. Ovid 
is banished. Probable reasons for it. Pilate made governor 
of Judaea. Of his birth, parentage, and early life. Herod 
Antipas gave him his first office in Judaea. Pilate tries to 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. xlv 

obtain a grant from Tiberius of tbe office he held from 
Herod. Pilate and Herod become enemies. Tiberius is 
afflicted with a sore disease. He hears that a physician in 
Jerusalem can cure diseases by a word. He sends to summon 
him. Finds out that Christ has been crucified. Of Saint 
Veronica and her linen cloth. Tiberius is cured by looking 
upon it. Pilate is summoned to Rome. He wears Christ's 
seamless coat. When he is stripped thereof, he is condemned. 
He is said to have committed suicide in prison. Of the three 
Jewish sects. Tenets of the Pharisees. Of the Sadducees. 
Of the strictness of the Essenes. They have a community of 
goods, and follow no trade. Will not take any oath. Of their 
mode of judging causes. - - . pp. 310-332. 

Cap. V. 

Of Chrisfs life and miracles, and some notice of John the 

Baptist, 

Three thousand years, according to some authorities, since the 
creation of Adam. Other opinions on this point. John the 
Baptist baptizes Christ. Of Christ's first miracle at Cana in 
Galilee. Of the meaning and application of Epiphania, 
Theopliania, Bethjpliania, and Phagojohania. Of the age of 
Christ at this jDeriod. Of the forty days' fast. Of the cleansing 
of the temple. The call of Andrew, Peter, Philip, and Natha- 
niel. Of the imprisonment of John the Baptist. Of certain 
differences between St. John's Gospel and the other three, and 
the reason thereof. John the Baptist beheaded. Of the place 
of his burial. The collection and ultimate destruction of his 
bones. The preservation of the finger with which he pointed 
at our Lord. Discovery, loss, and re-discovery of the head of 
John the Baptist. Of its present place of preservation. 

pp. 332-344. 

Cap. VI. 

Of the seven deacons : of Judas Iscariot : Roman and British 

history. 

Of the day of Christ's crucifixion. Of a great eclipse and many 
earthquakes on that day. This was the cause of the clefts in 
the rocks as they are now seen. Other portentous occurrences. 
Of James the Less, Bishop of Jerusalem. He first said mass. 
Of the seven deacons. Of Nicholas, one of the seven. Why 
VOL. IV. d 



xlvi SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 

James the Less was called the Lord's brother. Keason why 
Judas gave the Jews the sign of a kiss on our Lord's betrayal. 
Of the other appellations of James the Less. Of his great sanc- 
tity. Matthias is chosen into the place of Judas Iscariot. Judas 
was the son of Euben of the tribe of Issachar. Of his life 
before he became Christ's disciple. He was in the service of 
Pilate. He slays his own father and is married to Ciborea his 
mother. After the descent of the Holy Ghost the apostles 
are dispersed abroad, but first compile the Apostles' Creed. 
Stephen is stoned. Peter becomes a bishop in the East. After 
that he came to Antioch and then to Eome. Of the conver- 
sion of St. Paul and his various travels. He meets Seneca at 
Kome. Persius the poet is born. Death of Tiberius. He is 
succeeded by Gains the son of Germanicus. Death of Kym- 
belinus, king of Britain. His son Guyderius succeeds and 
offends the Bomans by the refusal of tribute. - pp. 344-362. 

Cap. VII. 
Of the Emperor Caligula. 

Why Gains was called Caligula. Of his wicked reign. He 
tries to put his statue in the temple at Jerusalem. Of his 
incest. He releases Herod Agrippa from prison and con- 
demns Herod Antipas. The earth swallowed the daughter of 
Herodias who danced before Herod. Pilate is banished to 
Vienne. Of his accusation by the Jews. He commits suicide 
in prison. Fate of his body. Another account of his banish- 
ment to Lyons. How the two stories may be made to accord. 

pp. 362-368. 

Cap. VIII. 
Of the reign of the Emperor Claudius, 

Claudius made emperor by aid of Agrippa. His most famous 
exploit was the subjugation of Britain. Of a law which he 
made. Of his three wives. Britannicus was the son of his 
second wife Messalina, who also bore him a daughter, Octavia. 
Octavia was married to Nero, who was the son of Agrippiua 
the third wife of Claudius. Agrippina poisons Claudius. Of 
Nero's crimes. Mention of Messalina by Juvenal. Of the 
famine about which Agabus prophecied. Of a visit made by 
Helen, queen of the Adiabeui, to Jerusalem. She is some- 
times confounded with Helen the mother of Constantinc the 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. xlvii 

Great. Sfc. Paul visits St. Peter at Jerusalem. Of the places 
to which the Apostles went. Of St. Mark and his ministry at 
Alexandria. Of his martyrdom. How he strove against being 
made bishop. Of Gfuyderius king of Britain, against whom 
Claudius made war. Claudius visits the Orcades. Of Loolius 
Hamo. He slew Guyderius, and gave name to Hampton. 
Arviragus, brother of Guyderius, taken into favour with Clau- 
dius, whose daughter Arviragus marries. Of the origin 
of the name Gloucester. Arviragus refuses to be subject 
to the Romans. Yespasian is sent against him. Of the 
death of Herod Agrippa I. Herod Agrippa's fortunes at 
Pome. Of his imprisonment there, and the cause of it. Of a 
})rophecy of one of his fellow prisoners. He is delivered by 
Caligula. Rivalry between Herod Agrippa and Herod Antipas. 
Death of Caligula. Claudius made emperor. Herod Agrippa 
slew James and imprisoned Peter. Of Herod Agrippa II. 
The Christians flee into his dominions before the destruction 
of Jerusalem. Death of the Virgin Mary. Crucifixion of 
Philip the apostle at Hierapolis. Lazarus, who had been made 
bishoji of Cyprus, dies. Paul, accused before Felix, appeals 
to Rome. Why many men left Jerusalem. Death of Claudius 
by poison. .'..-- pp. 368-390. 

Cap. IX. 

Of the reign of Nero, and the spread of Christianity. 

Xero was the son of Domitius and Agrippina. He gave himself 
much to the study of music. How he preserved his voice. 
He was much influenced by the advice of minstrels, and gave 
them large presents. Of his luxury and extravagance. How 
he set fire to the city of Rome. Of his effeminacy and vices. 
Of his reply to the physicians who reproached him. How" they 
escajDed his threats. Supposed origin of the name Laterana. 
How he made an imitation of the heavenly bodies and their 
motions. Of those whom he put to death, and particularly of 
Seneca. Of the death w^hich Seneca chose. Supposed pro- 
phetic character of his name. Of Seneca's brothers, Gallio 
and Mela. Seneca not to be decried. He was worthy to be a 
friend of St. Paul. Of the books which Seneca wrote. How 
St. Paul lived at Rome in free ward. St. Peter ordains two 
bishops at Rome, Linus and Cletus. The latter called some- 
times Anacletus. Cletus ascribed much virtue to pilgrimages. 
St. Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles at Rome. Longinus, 
who pierced the side of the Saviour, dies. He had become a 
Christian, and taught in Caesarea. Persius dies. Of poets and 

VOL. IV. e 



xlviii SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 

their duties. Lucan no poet. Martyrdom of James bishop of 
Jerusalem. Question about his parentage. St. Mark dies in 
Alexandria. His gospel written at Eome, and approved by 
St. Peter. Linus martyred. Why St. Peter went to Rome. 
Overthrow of Simon Magus. Nero arrests St. Peter. Of his 
escape from prison and return to Eome. He is crucified. 
Marcellus buries him in the Vatican. St. Paul martyred 
at Eome. Yespasian sent by Nero against the Jews. Of 
Nero's suicide. Clemens Eomanus succeeds St. Peter. Of his 
writings. Marius, king of Britain. The north of Britain in- 
vaded by the Picts under Eodricus. Marius slays Eodricus, 
and erects a pillar in memory of his victory. Origin of the 
name Westmorland. Mistake of William of Malmesbury. He 
had not seen the British book. Marius grants Caithness to 
the Picts who survived. - - - - pp. 392-418. 

Cap. X. 

Of the Emperors Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian. 

Galba elected by the soldiers in Spain. His age and virtues. 
He adopts Piso as his successor. Both Piso and Galba slain. 
Otho made emperor by part of the German legions, and Vitel- 
lius by the rest. Otho is at first victorious, but on a defeat 
slays himself. Of the cruelty and gluttony of Yitellius. He 
puts to death Sabinus, the brother of Vespasian. He after- 
wards tries to conceal himself, but is killed and thrown into 
the Tiber by the Flavian party. Vespasian was covetous, but 
not unjust. He left his son Titus to continue the siege of 
Jerusalem. Of his reply to the remark of a herdsman. Of 
Vespasian's conquests. Of an error in chronology. Of the 
siege of Jerusalem. Of the great number of the people in 
that city. How their number was estimated. Of the first at- 
tempts made by the Eomans against the walls. The devices of 
Josephus. Josephus is taken prisoner. His address to the 
Eomans. Of the continuation and miseries of the siege. 
Simon and John, the Jewish leaders, constantly refuse all 
terms. Of Jews who deserted to the Eomans. How they were 
treated. Horrors of the siege detailed. Of a mother who 
ate her own child. Of the bravery of Sabinus the Syrian. 
Josephus relates that Jerusalem was destroyed because the 
Jews killed James the Just, but it was rather because they 
crucified Christ. The Jews had many warnings of the coming 
destruction. Of Jesus the son of Ananias. The site of the 
temple ploughed over. Of Josephus and his writings. Death 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. xlix 

of Vespasian. Apollinaris martyred at E,avenna. How the 
birds assembled at Kavenna on his birthday. Hence the name 
of the place which first was Ravensburgh. - pp. 418-458. 

Cap. XI. 

Of the Emperor Titus. 

Titus succeeds his father. Of his learning and liberality. Of a 
day on which he gave no present. His sorrow on that ac- 
count. He had only one thing to regret on his deathbed. 
Julianus, the bishop of the Cenomani, dies. Of his virtues 
and miracles. Not to be confounded with St. Julian, the 
patron of hospitality. Of St. Julian's unfortunate slaughter 
of his father and mother, and the long penance of himself and 
his wife. He is divinely informed of the acceptance of his 
penance. Death of St. Julian and his wife. - pp. 458-466. 

Cap. XII. 

Of Domitian and Nerva, Emperors of Rome. 

Domitian succeeds his brother Titus. His wife first called 
Augusta. He builds the Pantheon, where now is the church 
of Sancta Maria Rotunda. He would have none but gold 
statues made of himself. Of his meanness of character. 
Domitian changed the names of the months September and 
October. Of Pope Anacletus. Different accounts of his 
nationality. The chronicle of Eusebius differs from other 
records. Cornelia, the Vestal virgin, burnt alive. Evaris- 
tus succeeds Anacletus as pope, and JSTerva comes to the im- 
perial throne when Domitian was slain. The persons banished 
by Domitian return. Among the rest, St. John the Evange- 
list. Of Ooillus, king of Britain, who is said to have founded 
Colchester. - - - - - PP- 468-474. 



Appendix. 
On the marvels of England - . - - pp. 477-480. 






POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 
MONACHI CESTRENSIS. 



VOL. IV. A 



POLYCHROXICOX EAXULPHI HIGDE^' 
MOMCHI CESTEEXSIS. 



LIBEH TERTIUS. 



Cap. XXX. 

[Aleccamlri mors.] 
Aburbe. PosT haec dum Alexander orientalem oceanum per- 

423. ' 
A transmi- ..... . .-, ... i»i 

gracione. agraret, xi. circiter anno regni sui/ occurrit ei antistes 

263, 

arborum solis et lunse pellibus ferinis indutus, dicens 
quod si a coitu essent impolluti locum intrarent de- 
positis vestibus et ornamentis. Et cum essent arbores 
illae centum pedibus altse, affirmabat Alexander eas 
frequentibus imbribus tantum crevisse. E contra 
sacerdos predictus asseruit ibi nunquam pluviam 
descendisse, nee feram nee avem ibi venisse, sed in 
eclipsi solis aut lunse eas flevisse.^ Petrus,^ centesvmo 
nonagesimo seiytimo, De pomis istarum arborum 



^ xt" . . . *«i] om. C.D. 
- Varied and slightly abbreviated 
in C.D. 



3 capituh, added in C. 



TpvEvisa's Tkanslation. 



Capituhcm tricesimum?- 

After ])is Alisaundre, aboute ])e enlevenjie Jere of his Trevisa. 

kyngdom, passede by pe Est occean ; and pe bisshop of pe 

treen^ of J>e sonne and of J?e mone come a^enst^ bym. pe 
bisshop was i-closed ^ in wylde bestes skynnes, and seide 
pat pey schulde entre into ]?e place J if )?ey were clone and 
noujt polute^ in likynge by wommen; but ])ey schulde of^ 
do ' her clo]?es and hire array. And for ])ilke ® trees were 
an hondred foot high,^ Alisaundi^e seide ])at it roon '^^ ofte in 
)>at place. " Nay", quo]? the preost, and seide fat fere come 
nevere reyn, no])er bridde, no]?er wilde ^^ beest ; but the trees 
hadde i-wope^^ in pe ecHpses of pe sonne and of pe moone. 
Petrits, 197. Preostes took 13 pe apples of pese^* ti^ees, and 



Anony^ious Translation of the Fifteenth 
Century. 



Capitulum tricesimum, 

Ab urbe. ALEXANDER after that compassenge abowte the Este ocean, MS. Hael. 
in the xjt^ic yere of his reigne, Jafe metenge to the bischoppe 2261. 
of the trees of pe sonne and of the moone, clothede with ^ 4^^!^^^. 
skynnes of wilde bestes. To whom the bischoppe seide that gracione. 
thei scholde entre and see the trees of pe sonne and off the 
moone if thei were clene from the synne of lecchery, theire 
clothes putte aweye ; whiche trees hade an c. foote in altitude ; 
wliiche trees were seide to wepe in pe eclippes of the sonne. 
Petrus, capitulo cejitesimo nonagesimo septimo, Prestes eit- 



^ Capitulum 31, )8. and Cx. 

- iren, $. et infra ; trees, Cx. 

^ ayenes, fi. 

"* i-clo\>ed, a. ; clothed, Cx. 

^ not pollute, Cx. 

6 doo of, Cx. 

" of added in a. 



^ )pulke, y. 

9 keiy, &. ; fote highe, Cx. 

^^ rone, .8. and Cx. 

^^ ne bi/rd ne wylde, Cx. 

^^ wepte, Cx. 

13 toke of Cx. 

1^ }peose, y. 

A 2 



4 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



sumentes sacerdotes per quingentos aiinos vivebant. 
Et quando radius Solaris arborem solis, aut radius 
lunaris arborem lunse tangebat, statim tota^ tremebat, 
et respousa circumstantibus dabat. Vincentius.^ Ad 
quas dum Alexander sacrificare vellet, respondit sacerdos 
nee ibi licere thus igne uri aut animal mactari. TJnde 
provolutus Alexander ad truncos arborum cum osculo, 
audivit in ortu solis ab arbore solis loquente Indice,^ 
et vespere oriente luna audivit a luna ^ loquente Grsece 
quod unus^ foret dominus orbis terrae, et quod in pa- 
triam suam non foret rediturus. Unde et consuluerunt 
ei ut^ declinaret accedere ad Babylonem. Alioquin 
in ea,^ non ferro sed veneno, anno sequenti ^ defi- 
ceret. Audivit etiam quod mater sua^ miserabiliter 
occumberet, et quod sorores suae diu feliciter viverent.^° 
Petrus, centesimo nonagesimo vii°. Ista et csetera 



^ tota] om. B. 

2 Tragus, lihro 12", CD. The 
complete reference is Vincentius, 
lib. xiii. cap. 43. 

^ in die, B. 

"• a luna] ab arbore lunae, CD. 



5 unus] om. CD. 

^ quod, A. 

7 eo, B. 

^ anno sequenti before non, B. 

^ mater sua] inter suos, C, not D. 

^*^ Transposed and varied in CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 5 

ly vede fyve hondred Jere ; and whan ]>e beme ^ of \>e sonue Tkevisa. 

touchede ]>e tree of f e sonne, o]7er f e beme ^ of J»e mone 

touchede ]?e tree ^ of fe mone, jjan anon j^e tre wolde schake,^ 
and ^eve answere to hem ]?at stood aboute. Vincentius. 
Alisaundre wolde ^ doo sacrefice to j)e trees, and J)e preost 
seide, " It is noujt leveful ^ to sette ensens ^ on fire in j)is 
" place, no)7ar ^ to slee bestes." pan Alisaundre fel doun and 
clipped and kissed® fe stokkes of J>e trees, and herde in J^e 
sonne risynge of J>e tree of J)e sonne spekynge in j^e longage 
of Ynde, and at eve^ in |7e mone risynge he herde [of the 
tree of] ^^ j^e mone spekynge in ])e longage of Grees, }?at oon 
schulde be lorde of al ^e worlde aboute, and fat he schulde 
nevere come home in to his owne contray ^^ ; and ])erfore he 
counsaillede hym pat he schulde nou^t come at Babiloyne, 
ffor y\i he dede ^^ he schulde be slawe ^^ ])ere, noujt wip egge 
tool 1* but wi}> venym, jje secounde Jere after. Also he herde 
pat his moder schulde wrechchedly deie, and his sustres lyve 
longe tyme in grete welpe. Petrus, 197. Alisaundre warnede 



Ab urbe. enge of the apples of these trees ly vede by v°. yere ; and alle MS. Harl. 
the tree of the moone schakede when the beame of the sonne 2261. 
towchede hit, and Jafe answeres to peple beenge abowte hit. ^ transmi- 
Vincentius. Alexander commenge to theyme wolde liaue doen gracione. 
sacrifice ; to whom the bischoppe seide that hit was not lawe- 
fuUe to do eny sacrifice to peim. Wherefore Alexander fallenge 
downe to the rote of the tre with kyssenge, herde at the risenge 
of pe sonne of the tree of the sonne in the langage of Ynde, 
and in the eve of the tree of the moone spekenge in Grewe, 
pat a man scholde be lorde of the worlde, and that he 
scholde not comme ageyne in to the propre place of his nati- 
uitie. Wherefore thei cownsellede hym that he scholde not go 
to Babilon ; for if he come to Babilon he scholde be sleyne by 
poyson, and not by batelle, in the yere folowenge. Also he 
herde that his moder scholde die miserably, and that his 
susters scholde reioyce longe in lyfe. Petrus, capitulo cen- 
tesimo nonagesimo septimo. Alexander schewede the mer- 



1 beame, Cx. 

^ treo, y. 

3 shake, Cx. 

** wold have, Cx, 

^ leeful, a. ; leful, Cx. 

^ afuyre, fi. ; encenae afire, Cx. 

7 ne, Cx. 



^ kuste, 7 ; clypped and kysshed, 
Cx. 

9 even, Cx. 

1° From Cx. (not in 7.) 

^1 countrey, Cx. 

*2 dide, fi. ; yfhe cam there, Cx. 

^^ slayne, Cx, 

1^ tole, Cx, 



6 POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 

Indiae^ mirabilia notificavit Alexander suo prsecep- 
tori Arisloteli. RanulpJius. Ferunt historise nonnullse 
quod dum satellites Alexandri abdita Indise loca per- 
lustrassent, affuit quidam ambitionem Alexandri ve- 
hementer redarguens, qui lapidem pusillum^ oculatum 
illis ^ tradidit, Alexandre perferendum, asserens pro- 
culdubio dominum illorum Alexandrum illi* lapidi 
per omnia fore simillimum.^ Relato lapide hsesitatum 
est diu quorsum congrueret similitude prselibata.^ 
Tandem lapis ille in statera positus tarn diu omnia 
applicita^ pondere suo elevavit quousque modica ar- 
gilla^ obvolutus levi libramine resultaret. Eutropius.^ 
Eo anno Lucius Papirius dictator Romanorum, qui adeo 
bellicosus fuerat ut ipse contra impetum Alexandri 
sufferendum^^ si Italiam ascendisset inter omnes Ro- 
manes eligeretur, Samnitas jam^^ per quadraginta novem 
annos Romanis rebelles ita splendide devicit, ut ruinas 



1 Indej A.E. 

2 modicum^ CD. 

3 ulis, A. 
* ibi, B. 

5 Varied in CD. 
" prcEtaxata, D. 
7 applicata, B, 



^ modica aryilla, from B. ; modico 
argiHOf MS. 

^ Full reference is lib. ii. ch. 8-9. 

^" sufferenduniy from A.CD. ; 
sufferent, MS. 

^^jani] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 7 

his maister Aristotle of ))is doynge, and of o]?er wondres of Trevisa. 

Ynde. $o. Meny^ stories telle]) ^ ])at whanne Alisaundre 

his kny^tcs wente aboute ]>e prive ^ places of Inde, )>ere was 
oon fat blamed greteliche ^ Alisaundre his covetise, and sent 
hym a litel stone wij? yene ^ by his kny^tes, and seide pat here 
lorde wij) oute dowte was Uche to here ^ stoon in alle manerc 
poyntes ; and whanne ]?e "^ stoon was i-brou^t me wondrede 
longe tyme in whiche ^ side of ])e stoon ])at liknesse schulde be. 
At ]?e laste ]?e stoon was leide ^ in a balaunce/^ and he weiej) ^^ 
up al J)at me myjte leie a^enst hym in fe o]5er ^^ side forto 
me leide ^^ a litel cley a^enst J>e stoon in fe balaunce in ])e 
o]?ere side, but j?at wey ^* up j^e stoon littliche i-now.^^ 
Eutropius. pat Jere Lucius Papirus, dictator of Kome, j^at 
was so noble a werriour,^^ was i-chose^^ among alle j^e 
Romayns to wi}>stonde Ahsaundre, and to putte hym of, ^if he 
wolde come ynto Italy. He overcome })e Sampnites so wor- 
schipfulliche ]?at he bent ^^ so doun ))e citees so fat f ey^ me 



Ab urbe. vellous thynges of Ynde to Aristotille his maister and mony MS. Harl. 
other moo. ^. Mony storyes reherse that a man come to the 2261. 

kny^htes of kynge Alexander serchenge the hidde places of 

Ynde, reprovenge gretely the ambicion of theire kynge, takengo ^ transmi- 



to theyme a stonne to be broujhte to theire lorde, seyenge 
that he was lyke to that ston in alle thynges. That ston 
broujte to Alexander, mony men hade meruayle wherein 
the similitude scholde be : at the laste that ston put in a 
balaunce weiede alle thynges downe, vn to the tyme that 
theke ston was lappede in cleye, and fen hit was but of a 
litelle weijhte. Eutropius, Lucius Papirius, a dictator of 
Rome, was so fortunate in batelles that he wolde haue Jiffen 
batelle to kynge Alexander if that he hade entrede the 
cuntre of Ytaly, whiche hade victory of the Sampnites by 
xlti yere, and destroyede theire cites, that the cite callede 



gracione. 



1 Many, Cx. 

2 teJlen, Cx. 
^ pryuyy Cx. 
^ gretely f Cx. 

^ ei^en, j8. ; yen, 7. ; c7/ew, Cx. 
^ \>t, a. ; that, Cx. 
" that, Cx. 
^ whuch, 7. 
^ laid, Cx. 
^° a halas, 7. 

" weygh, a. ; iveyy, fi. ; wayy, 7. ; 
weyed, Cx. 



^2 myghte be layde ther agayns on 
that other, Cx. 

^^ till they layde, Cx. 



14 



and it 



weyy, fi. ; wayy, 
weyed, Cx. 

^5 lyghtly ynowe, Cx. 

^6 ]pat repeated after werriour, in 
7. ; wereiour, Cx. 

^7 chosen, Cx. 

18 beet, Cx. 



8 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI ,HIGDEN 



urbium diruens : ^ hodie Samnium in ipso Samnio ^ 
requiratur et^ non reperiatur.^ Petrus, centesimo 
nonagesimo septimo. 
Ab urbe. Cum Alexander to turn Orientem subjugasset, in red- 

424. 
A transmi- , . i • /-v • i i • -t i 

gracione. eundo versus patriam propriam legati Occidentis, scilicet 



264. 



Africae, Hispanise,^ Ttalise, venerunt Babyloniam, ut 
ejus ditioni se subjicerent. lUe autem sperans ex hoc 
monarcham orbis se futurum, prse nimio gaudio oblitus 
responsi arborum solis et lunse, Babyloniam intravit 
praedictis nunciis locuturus.^ Tragus, lihro duodecimo^ 
Ibi quoque ^ prsefectos quos ad custodiam provinciarum 
dimiserat sibi occurrentes, sed acriter accusatos a com- 
provincialibus, in conspectu legatorum praedictorum 
suspendi fecit ; filiam Darii in matrimonium sumpsit, 
nobiles patriae ^ puellas Macedonibus ^^ suis maritavit ; 
veteran OS dimisit, juvenibus adhaesit. Litteras quoque 
a matre sua suscepit^^ de simultatibus Antipatri prae- 



^ utj added in B. 

2 Sampnia, B. 

' et] om. B. 

^ Much varied in CD. 

•^ cl] added in B. 

*» Varied and transpoKcd in C.D. 



' C. omits reference. D. has 
Justinus in the margin. 
^ Ibi quoque] ubi, D. 
^ patrice] om. C.D. 
1" Macedoniis, B. 
'' suncepit] om. B. ; acccpit, A. 



MONACHl CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 9 

soujt J?e^ Sampnium in J^at place Sampnium, it my^t noujt be Trevisa. 

founde. Petrus, 197°. 

Whanne Alisaundre hadde i-wonne ^ alle |>e est londes, and 
wente toward his owne contray, |?e messangers ^ of ]?e west 
londes,^ of AfFrica, of Spayne, and of Italy, come in to Babilon 
to Jilde^ hem to his lordschipe and mageste.^ Nofeles he 
hopede ]?erby to be kynge holiche '^ of al J)e worlde, and for 
grete likyng and ioye he format J?e answere of })e trees of the 
Sonne and of J)e mone, and wente in to Babilon to speke wip 
pese ® messangers. Trogus, libro 12^. Also )?e stewardes^ J)at 
he hadde i-made wardeynes and kepers of provinces and of 
londes 1^ [met wi]7 hym j^ere, and were grevousliche accused 
of men of provinces and londes],^i and heet hong hem ^^ j?ere 
in si^t of pe messangers ]?at were i-come^^ out of |>e west 
londes. Alisaundre took Darius doubter to wyve, and mariede 
noble maydons of J?e contray ^* to men of Macedonia. He 
lefte olde men, and took [to him] ^^ tongelynges. Also he 
fongis iiis moder lettres of J)e fraude and tresoun of Anti- 



Ab urbe. Sampnium is requirede of peple beenge in hit. Petrus, MS. Hael. 



capitulo nonagesimo septimo. Alexander subduenge to hym 
the este partes of the worlde, returnede tOAvarde his cuntre ; 
to whom the legates of the weste cuntre, as of Affrike, 
Ytaly, of Speyne, come to do hym reuerence, and to make 
theyme subiecte to hym, and tariede for hym at Babilon. 
Then Alexander, supposenge hym to haue the monarchye 
of the worlde, forgate for ioy the answere of the trees 
of the Sonne and of the moone, and entrede in to Ba- 
bilon to speke with the seide messyngers. Tragus, 
libro duodecimo. Alexander commaundede mony gouer- 
noures, whom he hade lefte to gouerne the cuntre in his 
absence, to be hongede, for cause of theire accusacion of 
the comprovincialles in the presence of the seide legates, 
takenge the dojhter of Darius to matrimony, and mariede 
the noble maides of that cuntre to men off Macedony. 
Wherefore Alexander levede olde men, and drawede to 
yonge men, receyvenge letters sende from his moder of the 



2261. 

A transmi- 
gracione. 



1 \>e'\ om. )8. 

2 wonne, Cx. 

3 messagers, Cx., et infra. 
^ landcs, Cx. 

^ yelde, Cx. 
^ viajeste, y. 

7 hoUiche, 13. ; holych, y. ; holly, 
Cx. 



^ \>eoSf y. 

^ stiwardes, )8., et infra. 

^^ oflandes and of provynces, Cx. 

^^ Added from o., )8., y., and Cx. 

^2 hete hem hange hem, Cx. 

^' comen, Cx. 

^^ countrcy, Cx. 

^* receyved, Cx. 



10 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHl HIGDEN 

fecti MacedonisD,^ qui videns suos a rege interfectos, 
seque pro immensis laboribus irremuneratum, deterio- 
raque timens, filium suum Cassandrum ad pr&eoccu- 
pandum^ regem per venenum^ subornat. Cujus veneni 
tanta* vis fuit ut non ?ere, non ferro, non denique 
quovis metallo, sed ungula dumtaxat equina contineri 
posset. Igitur ad coenam Tbessali medici inter epulas 
Alexander intoxicatus, velut gladio confossus ingemuit, 
tactus hominum tanquam vulnera abhorruit, ferrum in 
remedium doloris deposcit, amicis autem ejus causam 
morbi intemperantiam coense ^ arbitrantibus.^ Petrus, 
centesimo nonagesimo septimo. Igitur amisso usu 
linguse, extremam voluntatem scripto expressit, et noluit 



^ D. adds : " cvocavit Alex- 
" ander Antipatrum de Macedonia." 
2 occupandum, A.B.C.D. 
•^ veneno, B. 



4 causata, A, 

'' cibi, CD. 

« Varied in CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



11 



pater ^ steward of Macedonia : he sigh ^ jjat fe kynge hadde Trevisa. 

i-slawe his men, and fat noujt^ he hym self was noujt 

rewarded for his grete travailles, and henge hym self,* and 
di'edde ful sore leste hym schulde worse byfalle, and ordeyne ^ 
his sone Cassandrus to occipie^ ]?e kyng wij? venym. pe 
strengl^e and J»e malice of f is venym was so grym and so 
grisliche ^ fat no bras, ne ^ iren,^ ne ^^ non manere metaille ^^ 
myjte it holde, but oonliche fe hoo ^^ of an hors foot myjte 
it holde. pan at ^^ soper of Tessalus fe fisician,^* among greet 
service of mete and drynke, Alisaundre was i-poysoned, and 
grente as he were i-stiked^^ wij> a knyf^^ foru^ pe body, 
and dradde fe handelynge of manis hond as sore as harcle 
woundes, and axede ^^ a tool to slee [hymself in remedie of 
sorwe. His frendes trowede fat unsete ^^ mete fat he hadde 
i-ete^^ at soper was cause of his siknesse.^^ Pefrus, 197^. 
panne Alisaundre loste his speche, and wroot his laste wille, 



Aburbe. falsenesse of Antipater, gouernoure of Macedony. This MS.Harl. 
Antipater seenge hym not to be rewardede for his grete 2261. 

labores, and his cosynnes to be sleyne, and dredensre him , ,' . 

selfe to be pereschede, sende Cassander, his son, to poyson gracione. 
hym. The my^hte of that venom was soe stronge fat hit f. 106. b. 
myjhte not be contenede in brasse, yrne, or in eny ofer 
metalle, but in the hoofe of an horse. Alexander was poy- 
sonede at the soper of Tessalus the leche, sorowenge as if 
he hade bene woundede thro the body with a spere, abhor- 
renge the towchenge of man as woundes, willenge to sle 
hym selfe for peyne, his frendes iuggenge that passion to 
haue common by the intemperance off meytes. JPetrus, ca- 
pitulo centesimo nonagesimo septimo. Alexander, loosenge 
the vse of speche, wrote his wille ; willenge not the monarchye 



^ Antiparte, Cx. 

2 sawe, Cx. 

3 now^f] om. Cx. 

"* hym self^ om. a., yS., 7., ; ira- 
uailes and huge and dradde, jS. ; and 
huge, 7. ; and henge hymself, om. 
Cx. 

5 ordeynde, a. ; ordeyned, Cx. 

^ occupie, )8. ; occupye, 7. ; em- 
poysen, Cx. 

7 soo vyolent and tynynge, Cx. 

^ noon, a, 

9 yre, 7. 



^^ we] om. a. 
'^ metalle, Cx. 

12 hoof, Cx. 
^3 atte, Cx. 

^■^ phicicien, Cx. 

15 yave a groone as though he had 
be stykked, Cx. 

i" \)orw \)e body wi\> a swerd, a., 
$., 7., and Cx. 

1' axide, /8. 

1^ unholsomme, Cx. 

13 eten, Cx. 

20 sekenesse, Cx. 



12 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



monarchiam suam in aliquem unum transfeiTe, ne 
aliquis ei apud posteros par legeretur. Sed duodecim 
juvenes quos ab adolescentia socios habuit regni suc- 
cessores instituit.^ Quae institutio non diu ^ duravit, 
nam quatuor ex his, ceteris abjectis,^ regnaverunt, 
sicut in Daniele comprehensum est. Trogus, lihro xii^. 
Cum igitur amici Alexandri eum omnino ^ deficere vi- 
derent, quaerunt ab eo quern hseredem imperii^ faciant ; 
ille ^ respondit, " Dignissimum/' Tanta enim^ illi ^ mag- 
nitude animi fuit, ut cum haberet Herculem filium, 
Arideum fratrem, Roxanem^ quoque uxorem prseg- 
nantem videret/^ oblitus est ^^ necessitudinum/^ dignis- 
simum nuncupavit successurum. Videns autem^^ hoc 
dicto suo ambitiosam ^* semulationem ^^ suscitari, cum 
loqui non posset, extractum ^^ a digito suo ^^ annulum 
Perdiccse cuidam tradidit in simum successionis.-^^ 
Decessit igitur Alexander duodecimo anno regni sui, 
setatis vero ^^ tricesimo tertio ; quem alieni ut paren- 
tem extinctum luxerunt,^^ propinqui vero ut hoste 
devicto plaudebant.^^ Mater vero Darii mortem sibi 



^ instituit'\ om. B. 
2 diu'] om. B. 
^ subjectis, B. 
** nunc, B. 
^ regni, B. 

6 illel om. B. ; vero, added in CD. 
" enini] om. A. 

8 Tanta enini illi] illi namque 
tanta, B. 

^ Rcxancm, A. ; Rosonam, CD. 
'•^ gravidam haberet, CD. 
" est] om. B. 



^2 vicissitudinum, B. 
^3 in, added in A. ; ex, in B. 
^^» militum, CD. 
'5 in scisma, C.D. 
^" extracto, B. 
*7 auum, A. 

^^ successionis, B. ; much varied 
in CD. 

19 SMfl", B. 

-" hixerant, B. 
-' Varied in CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



13 



and wolde noujt make oon man heier ^ of his hole kyngdom, Trevisa. 

for me schulde [rede] ^ after hym of no man J)at were his pere, 

but he made twelve Jong men ]?at were his felawes of Jowj)e 
successoures to ]>e^ kyngdom ; but J^at ordynaunce durede 
nou^t longe, for foure of hem regnede, and ]>e opere were for- 
sake, so it is comprehended in Daniel. Trogus, libro 12°. 
Whanne ^ Alisaundres frendes seigh ^ J^at he schulde deie, 
fey axede of hym who schulde be his eire ^ and emperour 
after hym. ** pe moste worJ?y," quoj) he. He was so stoute 
and so ^ greet of herte pat ^ J)ey he hadde a sone Hercules and 
a bro]>er Arrideus,^ and sigh ^^ also his wif Raxones wi]> childe, 
be formate pe ofspringe and lynage, and ordeyned pat pe wor- 
pyeste schulde be his successour and hire ^^ emperour. He 
seigh 1^ also pat of pis manere spekynge and doynge myjte 
come greet stryf, for covetise ^^ and envie. Whan he myjt not 
speke, he took pe ryng of his fynger and Jaf it to oo Perdica 
in tokene pat he schulde be his successour. Alisaundre deide 
pe Jere of his kyngdom twelve, and the Jere of his age pre and 
pritty. Strounge ^^ men made sorwe for his deep as peygh he 
were here fader; and pey pat were next hym made ioye as 
pey^^ here enemy were overcome. Darius his moder ^^ ordeyned 
for his deep, nou Jt forto putte her enemye to fore ^^ her sone, 

Aburbe. of the worlde to be taken to oon man, leste eny man scholde MS. Harl. 
be rehersede egalle to hym afterwarde, ordeynede xij. yonge 2261. 

men to be successores to hym, whiche were felawes to hym . , . 

of theire yowthe. But that institucion indurede not longe, gracione. 
for iiij. of theyme reignede, the oper viij*''^ expulsede, as hit is 
schewede in Daniel. Trogus, libro duodecimo. The frendes 
of Alexander seenge hym lyke to dye, inquirede of hym 
whom he wolde haue to succede in his realme, he ansuerede 
and seide, "The worthieste man." Whiche laborenge pro 
infirmite and passion, thenkenge debate to sprynge by that 
answere, and hauenge no myjhte to speke, toke a rynge from 
his finger, and Jafe hit to a yonge man, Perdica by name, in 
the signe of succession. Alexander diede pe xij. yere of 
his reigne, and in the xxiij*' yere of his age ; whose dethe 
straunge men sorowede as the dethe of theire faders. An 



^ heyr^ Cx. 

2 From a. )8., 7., and Cx. 

3 of his, Cx. 

^ that, added in Cx. 

5 syy, )8, ; sawe, Cx., et infra. 

^ heyi', Cx. 

7 se\ om. Cx. 

^ \>ai] om. Cx. 

' broder Arydeus, Cx. 



^^ sawe, Cx. 

^^ hire] his, a. ; om. fi. and Cx. 
^^for covetise'] om. Cx. 
*' Stronge, a. ; Straunge, /3. 
Strange, y. and Cx. 
» \>ouy, $. 

^5 Darius moder^ $, and Cx. 
^^ byfore, Cx. 



14 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

conscivit/ non ut hostem filio prseferret, sed quia 
pietatem filialem in ipso sensisset.^ Amici quoque ejus, 
response accepto per oraculum Jovis, ipsum apud iEgyp- 
tum sepeliendum fore decreverunt, non quidem^ in 
Memplii,^ sed in urbe Alexandria quam ipse construx- 
erat.^ Policratica, lihro quarto. Alexandre in Grsecia 
nemo major; ei tamen non suus, sed filius saltatricis 
Perdiccas legitur successisse. Karus imperatorum ^ 
aut nullus filium reliquit successorem ; sed hseredes 
habuerunfc aut hostes aut ignotos. Trogus, lihro 
duodecimo. Sepulto Alexandre, convenerunt philosophi 
dicentes: "Alexander^ ex auro fecit ^ thesaurum; nunc 
" est e contrario." ; Et alius : " Heri non suffecit ei totus 
" orbis, hodie sufficiunt quatuor ulnte." Et alius : 
" Heri populis^ imperavit, hodie populus sibi." Et 
alius : " Heri duxit exercitum ; hodie e contrario, quia 
" exercitus ducit eum." Et alius ^^ : " Heri premebat/^ 



' constituit, B. 

2 JustinuSj lihro 12"., added in 
CD. 

•^ (juibus, B. 

4 Memphis, MSS. 

** Varied in CD. 



•^ imperator, B. 

7 heri, C. (not D.) 

^ fecit] facit, A. ; oni. B. 

"•^ populo, B. 

^" sic, added in A.B. 

" terram, added in B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



15 



but for sche liadde i-founde wij? hym myldenesse as it were ]>g 
myldeste ^ of here sone. Also his frendes preyde to lubiter, 
pat pey ^ had answere, and ordeyned forto burye hym noujt ^ 
in Egipt, noujt in Memphis, but in pe citee Alexandria Jjat he 
hadde i-bulde.^ Policratica, libro 4*'. In Grees was no^ 
man grettre fan Alisaundre; noJ»eles Perdica, a tombester^ 
sone, was his successour, and nou^t his owne sone. So it is 
i-rad seelde oj^er nevere Jjat ]?e emperours chidren were'' }?e 
fader heyres : [for they hadde her owne enemyes to be her 
heyres, or els heyres] ^ J>at ]jey knewe noujt. Tragus, libro 
12^. Whanne Alisaundre was i-buried, philosofres come to 
gidres, and seide : " Alisaundre ha]? i-made tresour of golde, but 
" now is pe contrarie." Anofer seide, "AlJ)e world was solitel 
" for ^ hym ^isterday,^*^ and nowe foure elnes bee]? ^^ inow at ]?e 
" fulle."^2 Ano]?er seide, " Jisterday^^ he hadde J?e peple at his 
" hestes, and now ]?e peple ha]? hym at here heste." Ano}?er 
seide, " jisterday ^^ he hadde ^* an oost ^^ ; to day is ]?e contrarie, 
" for an oost ^^ lede]? hym." Another seide [that] ^^ ^isterday ^^ 
he bare doun ^^ men, and to day ^^ he is i-bore doun under er]?e. 



Trevisa. 



Ab urbe, answere hade by the oracle of lubiter that he scholde be MS. Harl. 
beryede at Egipte, not in the cite of Memphis, but in the 2261. 
cite of Alexandria, whom he edifiede. Trogus, libro duo- ^tmismi- 
decimo, Alexander beryede, diuerse philosophres comme to gracione. 
his berialle, the firste of whom seide, " Alexander was wonte 
" to make a treasure of golde, but now golde makethe a trea- 
" sure of hym." The secunde philosophre seide, " Alle the 
'' worlde^ was not suflEiciaunte to hym Jisterday, and iiij. 
" elnes of clothe be sufficiaunte to hym this day." The 
thridde philosophre seide, " Alexander hade ^isterday lorde- 
" schippe of the peple, but peple haue lordeschippe now of f. 167. a. 
" hym." The iiijt^e philosophre seide, "Alexander ledde 
" an hoste ^isterday, and he is ledde nowe in this day 
" of an hoste." The v*^^ philosophre seide, *' Alexander 
" pressede downe the erthe Jisterday, and he is pressede 



^ myldenesse^ a., j8., and Cx. ; 


^ to )8., 7., and Cx. 


myldenes, y. 


^^ yurstonday, 7. et infra. 


2 )>at \>ey'] and, o., ^8., 7., and Cx. 


^^ jfoure elnes of clo\tbu]>ynow . .. 


3 now^f] om. Cx. 


7. ; elhes iSf Cx. 


^ hylde, Cx. 


''fone,y. 


^ never, Cx. 


^3 yurstenday, 7. 


^ tomblestres, )8. and Cx. 


^4 iadde, a. ; had, Cx. 


7 Emperours his cliilder wer 


^5 hooste, Cx. 


. . ., 7. ; for it is a comyn sawe, 


I'' Cx., not fi. nor 7. 


Sylde owther never emperours chil- 


^7 adowne, Cx. 


dren were, Cx. 


1^ this day, Cx, 


8 From i8. and Cx. 





16 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

" liodie premitur^ a terra." ^ Petrus, centesinio nona- 
gesimo octavo. Post Alexandrum magnum, juxta 
quatuor orbis plagas, ad occidentem in Macedonia 
Grsecise regnavit Philippus, qui et Arideus, frater Alex- 
andri ; ad septentrionem Asise et Ponto Antigonus ; 
ad orientem Syrise et Babylonise Seleucus ^ Nicanor. 
Post quern Antiochus Soter, a quo subsequentes reges 
ibidem dicti sunt Antiochi ; qui sunt Antiochus Theos,* 
Antiocbus Galericus, Antiochus Magnus,^ Antiochus 
Epiphanes. Ad meridiem quoque in iEgypto regnavit 
Ptolomeus Lagi filius, a quo subsequentes dicti sunt 
Ptolomei qui sunt Philadelphus, Euergetes, Philopator 
qui et Eupator, Epiphanes, Philometor, Euergetes, Soter. 
Josephus, lihro duodecimo.^ 



Cap. XXXI. 

[De Pyrrho, Epirotarum rege, et qucedam de rebus 

Britannicis.'] 



Ptolomeus, Lagi^ filius, post Alexandrum regnavit 



Ab urbe 

425. 
A transmi- 

'^'^265"^* ^° -^gyP^o quadraginta annis, qui vocatus Salvator et 



^ primitur, B. 

2 Varied and transposed in CD. 

^ Leucus, C. 

'' Antiochus Theos"] om. B. 



^ Antiochus Magnus'] om. B. 
^ A. omits reference. It is lib. xii. 
cap. i. 
7 LagiJi space left in B. 



MONACHl CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. l7 

Petrus, 197. After ]>e grete Alisaundre, in J^e foure parties Trevisa. 

of ])e world regnede foure kynges. Phelip Arrideus,^ AH- 

sfiundre his bro]>er, regnede in ])e west in Macedonia in 
Grees; Antigonus regnede in |?e nor|) of Asia and of Pontus ; 
Sileuchus ^ Niclianor regnede in pe est of Siria and of 
Babilon, and, after Nichanor, Antiochus Sother. Kynges ])at 
regnede ]?ere after hym hadde ])e name of hym, and were 
i-cleped ^ Antiochi, and everiche in ]7e singuler ^ nombre was 
i-cleped Antliiochus. pe kynges pat come after ^ hym were 
Antiochus Theos, Antiochus Galericus, Antiochus J^e Grete, 
Antiochus Epiphanes. Also in jje sou]?, in^ Egipt, regnede 
Tholomeus, Lagus his sone. Of hym kynges hadde ])at name, 
and were i-cleped Tholomei ; the whiche '' kynges were Phila- 
delphus, Euergetes, Philapator Jjat heet^ Eupator also, Epi- 
phanes, Philometor, Euergetes, Sother. losephus, libro \2^.^ 



Capitulum tricesimum primum}^ 

Tholomeus, Lagus his sone, regnede after Alisaundre in 
Egipte fourty J ere, and was i-cleped Savyour, and hadde pat 



Aburbe. " downe of the erthe nowe this day." Petrus, capitulo MS.Karl. 
centesimo nonagesimo septimo. Arrideus, the brother of 2261. 
Alexander, reignede in Macedony, in the londe off Grcce, . frTrisiiii- 
after the dethe of Alexander ; Antigonus at the northe of gracione. 
Asia and of Pontus ; and Seleucus Rucanor at the este 
of Siria and of Babilon ; after whom Anthiocus Sother 
reignede, of whom other kynges succedenge were callede 
Anthiochi. Whiche be Anthiocus Theos, Anthiocus Galericus, 
Anthiocus Magnus, Anthiocus Epiphanes. Also Tholomeus, 
the son of Lagus, regnede at the sowthe parte in Egipte ; 
after whom kynges folowenge were callede Ptholomei. 
Whiche be Philadelphius, Euergetes, Philopater or Eupator^ 
Epiphanes, Philometor, Euergetes, Sother. losephus, libro 
duodecimo. 

Capitulum tricesimum primum. 

Ptholomeus, the son of Lagus, began to reigne in Egipte 
after the dethe of kyuge Alexander, whiche contynuede per 



^ Arydeus, Cx. 

2 Seienchus, Cx. 

^ 7iamed, Cx. 

'* evert/ in the single?', Cx. 

^ succeeded, Cx. 



G 0/, Cx. 

7 whoche, y. 

^ Philopater otherwise called, Cx. 

3 120, Cx. 

^*^ Cap. xxxii. in /8. and Cx. 



VOL. IV. B 



if 



18 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

cognominatus est Soter ; qui regno suo Syriam adjiciens 
debellavit JudsDOS, in diebus Sabbatorum^ otiantes, 
captivosque ex eis trahens venditioni exposuit. In 
cujiis diebus Jadus pontifex Judseorum obiit, cui Onias 
filius suus successit, cui Simon Justus, cui f rater suus 
Eleazarus.^ Iste Ptolomeus adeo fortis fuit quod ^ 
Pyrrlium regem Epirotarum expulsum restitueret* in 
regnum, et devicto Demetrio filio Antigoni partem regni 
ablati Seleuco^ regi Syrise restitueret.^ Agathocles,' 
cujus mira primordia apud Trogum^ leguntur, apud 
Aburbe. Syracusam ^ excercet tyrannidem. Ptolomeus dolose 

427. "^ '^ 

A transmi- . . . 

gracione. ccpit Jerusalem, et plures Judseorum captivavit et 
vendidit. Theophrastus ^^ philosophus, qui ob divinita- 
tem loquendi tale nomen sortitus est, et ^^ Menander ^^ 

^^"S'®- clarent.^^ Ab isto anno historia Macliabeorum com- 

442. 
A Iransmi- 

gracione. — — 

282. 



^ in diebus Sahbatorum] Sabba- 
torum diebus, B. 

^ pro Onia filio SimoniSf adhuc 
parvulo constituitur. Added to this 
sentence in CD. 

3 ut, B. 

^ restituit, B. 

^ Sileuco, A. 

^ Appius Claudius consul sive 
censor Romce claret^ qui aquam 
Claudiam urbi induxit et viam Ap- 
piam stravit, added in CD. 



" AgagodeSf CD. 

s The reference is Trogus, 
xxii. 1. 

'-♦ Siracusan, A. ; Saracusananif 
B. 

^" Thesatus, A. ; TJieofatus^ B. ; 
Theophatus, MS. ; Theophrastus, 
from Petrus, whence the passage is 
taken. 

^^ philosophus, C. 

^- Venandum^ B. 

^3 claruitf B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 19 

name Sother for a sarname.^ Heputte^ Siria to his kyng- Trevisa. 
dom, and werred wi]? ]?e lewes J)at were ydel in fe holy day, 
and took prisoners of hem, and settc hem to sale. In his 
dayes deide ladus bisshop of lewes. After ladus, his sone 
Onias was bisshop ; after [hym] ^ Symon 'pe ri^Jtful ; after 
hym his broj^er Eleazarus. pis ^ Tholomeus was so strong ])at 
he restored Pirrus kyng of Epirotes^ to his kyngdom a^en, 
after fat his enemys hadde i-putte hym out of his kyngdom, 
and he overcome Demetrius, Antigonus his sone, and restored 
som of 'pe kyngdom to Seleucus ^ kyng of Siria, ffor pe] kyng- 
dom was bynome Seleucus to forehonde.^ Agatocles use]) 
tyrauntise ^ in Siracusa : of his wonderful bygynnynge me 
redej> in Trogus his bookes. Tholomeus took Jerusalem^ 
by fraude and by ^^ gile, and took meny lewes prisoners, and 
solde hem for covetise. Theophatus ^^ pe philosofre hadde ])at 
name Theophatus for his noble spekynge of God allemyjty. 
This Theophatus and Menander ^^ beej> in hir ^^ floures. 
From ])is Jere [pe storye] ^* of Machabeyes acounte]? ^^ noujt ^^ 

Ab urbe. by xl^» yere, whiche was callede Saluator, other elles Sother, MS. Haul. 
whiche caste to his realme Siria, and toke mony lewes, beenge 2261. 
ydelle in the Sabbate day, and solde peim. In the tyme of ^ transmi- 
whom ladus, the bischop of the lewes, diede, whom Onias, his gracione. 
son, succedede ; after hym Symon lustus ; and after hym 
Eleazarus, his brother. This Ptholomeus was so myjhte 
and stronge that he restorede Pirrus, kynge of Epirotes, 
expulsede from his realme, to hit, and restorede to Seleucus 
a parte of Siria taken from hym, hauenge victory of Deme- 
trius, son of Antigonus. Agatocles exercisede grete cru- 
delite at the cite callede Siracusan, whiche hade a meruellous 
begynnenge, as Trogus rehersethe. Ptholomeus toke leru- 
salem by gyle and disseyte, and toke mony of the lewes in f. 167. b. 
captiuite, and did selle theyme. The philosophre Theofatus, 
takenge name for the excellence of eloquency, and also 
Menander, were in this tyme. The story of Machabes comp- 



^ hadde a surname Sotlier, a., /8., 
and Cx. 

- put to, Cx. 

^ From a., /3., 7., and Cx. 

** \>es, 7. 

5 Epurtes, Cx. 

^ Salencus, Cx. 

7 hyfore^ Cx. 

^ usi\> tirauntre, $. ; tyraundyse, 
y. ; Agathocles used tyrannt/e, Cx. 

^ Iherusalenif Cx. 



10 byl om. Cx. 

11 Theophratus, Cx., et Infra. 

12 Menand, a., )8.,and 7. (without 
any abbreviation mark) ; Menandis, 
Cx. 

^^ be in theyr, Cx. 
1^ From a., $., 7., ; Cx. has the 
history e. 

^^ acompted, Cx. 

^^ now^f] om, /3. and 7. 

B 2 



20 



POLYCHROXICON RANULPHl HIGDEN 



pntat regnum Gnecorum.^ Seleucus rex Syrije* 

ciroi luec tempora Antiochiam, Laodiceam, Seleuciam 

Abnrbe. condit' SimoQ magnus/ Onise filius,^ claret, qui 

446. 



i^neiane. propter piuiQ cultiim dictus est Justus,^ Tarentioi " 



286. 



dehonestaverunt nuncios Romanomm. Unde et Pyr- 
rhum regem Epirotarum cum octoginta millibus pedi- 
tum, septem millibus^ equitum, viginti elephantis* 
venientem ^' secum contra Komanos attraxenmt,^ sed 
victus Pvrrhus in tertio congressu ad partes suas rediit.^- 
Post luec Tarentini conjuncti Carthaginiensibus contra 
Komanos bellaverunt, et ex tunc bella Punica surrex- 
erunt.^* Eutropius}* Pyrrhus praelio primo Roman os 
vicit, ac usque ad Pnenestem urbem, octavodecimo ab 
urbe milliario, Italiam occupavit ; captivos ^^ qui vivi 
fuerant absque pretio remisit, occisos sepelivit, quos 
dum adverso vulnere et truci vultu jacere vidisset,^* 
erectis manibus ait se orbis dominum fore potnisse si 



» Varied in C J). 
- GrUtf'B. 
*eom££i,B. 

* Magus, A. 
^pomtifez, added in CJ). 

* Sli^itly Tailed in C J). 
' qmi » ultima Italia smut, 

act Romtamerum dekameMiamUs, plu- 
rimto fimi^mtorum juUi presidio, 
PyrrhMm regem Epiri in Gretda, 
de tramsmtarimis vccavenokt, added 
in CD. 
^ mHUbuM] om. B. 



^ Aha«d to eUpkoMtibu* in A. 

^ vemiemtet, B. 

" attraxenat . . . Romemogl om. 
B. 

«Port, A. 

" Varied and abbferiated in C. 

^ C. omits rebseBce, which in 
fioll would be lib. ii. ch. 1 1-14. 

^ captirotj fiom B. ; eaptim, 
MS&aL 

>« vidiati, R 



MONACHt CESTREXSIS, LIB. III. 21 

\>e kyngdom of Grees, regnum Grecorum. Aboute pis tyme Trevisa. 

Seleucus kyng of Siria bulde Antiochia, Laoclicia,^ and Seleu- 

cia. pe grete Symon, Onyas his sone, is in his floures,^ and 
is i-cleped rijtful for his rijtful byleve and worschippinge of 
God. pe Tarentes dede grete vilouie '^ to ]>e messangers ^ of 
Rome; ferfore ])ej took wi]? hemPirrus kyng of Epirotes, with 
fours score jjowsand of ^ foot men, and sevene ])Owsand of 
horsmen, and twenty oliphauntes, a^enst the Romayns ; but 
Pirrus was overcome in the pridde fijtynge, and tornede home 
a^en to his owne contray. After jns pe Tarentynes and pe 
Cartaginiensis to gidres ^ werrede a^enst pe Romayns, and 
panne arise '^ the batailles pat beep i-cleped Bella Punica. 
Eutropius. Pirrus overcom pe Romayns in pe firste bataille, 
and occupiede Italy anon to^ pe citee Prenestes, ey^tetene 
myle from Rome, and sent home ^ pe prisoners pat were 
i-take on lyve ^^ wip oute raunsoun, and buried alle pat were 
i-slawe ^^ ; and whaune he seigh hym ligge wip grisliche ^^ 
woundes and sterne semblant and cruel,i^ he ^af^^ up his 
hondes,^^ and seide pat he my^te be lord of pe worlde J if he 



Ab urbe. tethe the reigne of men of Grece from this yere. Seleucus, MS. Harl. 
the kynge of Siria, edifiede the cites of Anthiochia, Laodicia, 2261. 
and of Seleucia abowte this tyme. Symon Justus, the son . ^ " . 
of Onias, was abowte thys tyme. The Tharentynes Jafe gi-acionc. 
rebuke to the messengers of the Romanes, whiche attracte un- 
to theim Pirrus the kynge, with iiij^. m"*" of fote men, and 
vij. mt of horse men, with xx. elephauntes, of Avhom the 
Romanes hade victory ; and in the thridde conflicte Pirrus 
the kynge returnede to his awne cuntre, from whiche tyme 
the batelles punicalle began to sprynge. Eutropius. That 
kynge Pirrus hade victory of the Romanes in the firste con- 
flicte, and causede theym to go backe to a cite callede 
Prenestes, by xviij. myles from the cite of Rome, and occu- 
piede Ytaly, and sende to Rome his prisoners withowte eny 
redempciou, and beriede the men sleyne ; whiche. percey- 
venge the Romanes so mythty in batelle, seide, that ho 
my^hte be lorde of the worlde if that his men were so 



^ LeodiciUf Cx. 

2 prosperyte, Cx. 

3 fylany,y. ; vylemj, Cx. 
'* messagiei's, Cx. 

of^ om. Cx., et infra. 



^ hem, Cx. 

10 taken alyve, Cx. 

11 slayne, Cx. 

1- beheld them lye zoith grisely, Cx. 
'3 criavel, fi. and y. 



^ toyeder, Cx. i^ haj\ fi. and y. 

"^ ryse, a., 7.; aiid rise, /3.; and ^^ sterne, terrible, and cruet, he heef 

reysed the, Cx. ! jip his hand, Cx. 

^ unto, Cx. I 



22 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



tales sibi milites contigissent.^ Cum ergo^ Pyrrhus 
Fabricium Komanorum legatum/ oblata quarta parte 
regni qusesiti, corrumpere non posset ut eum in partem 
suam attraberet, misit cum immensis donis Cineam* 
legatum suum ad Eomanos, sequis conditionibus pacem 
petens. Trogus, xvii^,^ Sed neminem inveniens 
cujus ^ domus muneribus ejus pateret, repulsus est ; 
insuper et captivi ab eo nuper remissi infames babe- 
bantur eo quod armati capi potuissent.^ Keversus 
Cineas^ dixit Pyrrbo se regum^ patriam vidisse, ubi 
omnes fere tales fuissent qualis^^ solus Pyrrbus apud suos 
Aburbc. habebatur. Secundo igitur praelio Pyrrbus victus est, 
gracione. elepbauti ^^ ojus occisi, viginti millia^^ hominum csesa 
sunt. BanulphusP Nam/^ sicut dicit Isidorus, Ro- 
mani^^ ordinaverant -^^ sibi velites, id est expeditos^^ 
juvenes retro equites sedentes, qui in aggressu prselii 
desilirent de equorum dorsis, et cum scabris ferreis 



' Varied in CD. 

2 igitur f B. 

3 Romanorum legatum] om. B. 
^ Syneam, B. 

s B.C. omit reference. It should 
be lib. xviii. cap. 2. 
^ ejus, B. 

7 Slightly varied in CD. 
3 Syneas, A. 
* Space left in B. ; regiam, C.D. 



^" equates, A. 
^^ elephantes, D. 
^2 millia] om. A.B. 
^^ Ranulplius . . . occisus est] om. 
CD. 

" Nam] om. B. 
^^ Romanos, B. 
^^ ordinaverunt, A. 
^7 expedites, MS. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 23 

hadde suche kny^tes. Pirrus profrede "pe ferj^e ^ part of his Trevisa. 

kyngdom ];at he hadde i-gete ^ to oon Fabricius, messanger '^ 

of Rome, forto ^ holde wij? hym and be on ^ his side ; and 
Fabricius wolde noujt assente. [panne Pirrus sente] ^ oon 
Cinea come "^ wij? grete Jiftes in message to ])e Romayns, and 
axede ^ pees wi]> skilful condiciouns \_Trogus, decimo sep- 
timo] ^ ; but he fonde ^^ no manis hous J>at wolde fonge ^^ his 
tiftes, but was i-put of; and ]>g prisoners ])at were i-sent^^ 
a^e ^^ were i-sclaundred for evermore, for j^ey were i-take 
prisoners while pej were i-armed. \^Titus.']'^'^ Cineas come 
ajen, and seide to Pirrus fat he hadde i-seie J^e contray ^^ of 
kynges ; and seide [that] ^ nygh al ]7at were fere were suche 
as Pirrus was i-holde ^^ among his owne men. panne in fe 
secounde bataille Pirrus was overcome, and his olyphauntes 
were i-slawe^^ and twenty fowsand of his men. For, as 
Isodorus 1^ seif, f e Romayns hadde i-ordeyned ^^ swift ^onge- 
lynges sittynge byhynde horsmen, fe whiche ^ongelynges 

Ab urbe. bolde. This kynge Pirrus offrede to Fabricius, a legate MS. Haul. 
of the Romanes, fe iiij*^® parte of thempire of Rome, to con- 2261. 
descende and to helpe hym to gette hit ; whiche messyngere ^ ^ ._ 
wolde not condescende to hym in eny wise. The kynge gracione. 
seenge that he myjhte not be corrupte with eny money, 
sonde hym to Rome with grete Jiftes, and desirenge pease 
of feyme. Trogus, libro septimo decimo, Cyneas, the legate 
of Pirrus, sonde with grete tiftes to the Romanes, cowthe 
not fynde oon man that wolde receyve the Jiftes of his 
kynge ; and also the men taken in captiuite, and sonde to 
Rome, were hade in derision and contempte in that thei 
my^te haue been taken in armes. Cyneas the messenger 
returnenge, seide to Pirrus, that he hade seene the londe 
of kynges, where alle men were like as Pirrus the kynge 
was amonge theyme. Then Pirrus the kynge was deuicte f. 168. a. 
in the secunde batelle and conflicte, his elephantes sleyne, and 
xxti m^ of his men. ]^. For, as Isidorus rehersethe, the 
Romanes ordeynede to theyme wijhte yonge men, whiche 
sittenge behynde the horsemen, lepede downe from the horses 



^fourth, Cx. 

2 geten, Cx. 

2 messagyer^ Cx. 

^forl ova., p. and Cx. 

^ 171, a.; ijn, y. 

^ From a., 13., 7., and Cx. 

7 come'] om. a., 7, , and Cx. 

^ desired, Cx. 

'•> From k., 7., and Cx. 

^^Jbunde, Cx. 



11 receyve, Cx. 

12 i-~\ om. a. and Cx. 
'3 agayne, Cx. 

1^ From Cx. 

^5 sene the contreyC) Cx, 

16 holden, Cx. 

I'' slayne, Cx., et infra. 

1^ Isoder, Cx. 

i'-' yordeyng, 7. 



24 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



frontes elepliantorum scalperent donee caderent et 
exspirarent. Post hoc Pyrrhus sic devictus secessit 
Tarentum, ct inde Grseciam transfretavit, ubi et post- 
modum occisus est.^ Eutropius.^ Cum Pyrrhus et 
Fabricius vicina castra haberent, medicus Pyrrhi de 
nocte ad^ Fabricium veniens, promisit so dominum 
suum sibi traditurum si merces sibi sufficiens daretur. 
Quern tamen vinctum Fabricius ^ ad dominum suum 
misit cum doli denudatione. Tunc rex admirans ait : 
" Iste est Fabricius, qui difficilius ab honestate quam 
" sol a cursu suo flectitur.'' ^ Orosius,^ lihro quarto. 

Pyrrhus itaque invitatus a Tarentinis contra Romanos, 
consuhiit Apollinem de belli eventu ; qui respondit ei 
amphibolice ^ sic : Dico te, Pyvrhe, Romanos vincere 



' See note ^3, p. 22. 

2 CD. omit reference, and add, 
Fabricius contra Pyrrlmm mittitur 
et as an introduction to the next 
sentence. 

3 cum, A. 

'• Fabricius after suum in B. 

5 Varied in CD. 

•"• Orosius . . . recessit^ CD. sub- 
stitute this passage : " Inde Tirrus, 
" occisis viginti uno [tribus, D.] 
" millibus de suis, Tarentum se- 



cessit, et apud Argos Graiciaj 
tandem occisus est. Filius Cas- 
sandri cepit regnare in Mace- 
donia anno quarto. Censu Romaj 
agitato inventa sunt civium 260 
miha. Macedonum rex Deme- 
trius regnavit annis sex. Legati 
Alexandrini a Ptolomeo rege 
Egypti Romam missi amicitias 
impetraverunt " 
' aiiiphibologice, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



25 



leep 1 douii lijtliche in )?e fijtynge, and clawede and frotedc ^ Trevisa. 

];e oliphauntes in ]>e forhedes wij? horscombes, forto ^ ]?e oly- 

phauntes fel* doun and deide rijt J^ere. pan Pirrus was 
overcome, and wente into Tarent, and seillede ^ pennes in to 
Grees, fere he was afterward i-slawe. Valerius. Pirrus 
and^ Fabricius hadde castelles nyh to gideres,^ and Pirrus 
phicician come to Fabricius, and byhet^ hym j^at be woldc 
take to hym his lorde, yd he wolde take to ^ hym a covenable 
mede. panne ))is Fabricius bonde ])is phisician,!^ and sente 
hym to his lorde, and messangers ^^ to warne hym of pe 
tresoun and of pe falshede.^^ pan pe kynge wondrede and 
seide : " pis is Fabricius, Jjat is hardere to be i-torned ^^ out 
" of honeste fanne is ]?e sonne to be torned out of his cours." 
Titus. Pirrus was i-praied^* of ]>e Tarentinus^^ to werre 
ajenst pe Romayns, and [he] ^^ axede of Appolyn what 
ende ^^ J>e bataille schulde have ; and Appolyn answered hym 
amphabolice,^^ J?at is, [that] ^^ he Jaf hym an answere of 
double understondynge : " It may falle ^^ J^at^^ Pirrus to scomfite 



Ab urbc. in the metenge of the hostes, whiche hade instrumentes of yrne MS. Harl. 
to scrape the forehedes of the elephauntes vn til that thei 2261. 
felle and diede. After that, Pirrus the kynge wente to . , . 
Tarentus, and after pat to Grece, where he was sleyne gracione. 
afterwarde. Valerius. When hit was so that Pirrus and 
Fabricius hade theire hostes nye to geder, a leche of Pirrus 
come to Fabricius in the nyjhte, promysenge that he wolde 
betray Pirrus, his lorde, if that he wolde Jiffe to hym a con- 
digne rewarde. Fabricius, the gouernoure of the Romanes, 
herenge that, sende hym bownde to his lorde, expressenge 
the treason of his seruaunte. Then Pirrus the kynge 
hauenge meruayle seide, " This Fabricius is as indeclinable 
" from honeste as the sonne from his naturalle cowrse." 
Titus. This Pirrus, desirede gretely off the Tarentynes to 
schewe they me helpe ageyne the Romanes, askede cownselle 
of AppoUo of the victory, whiche Jafe to hym an answere, 
seyenge amphibologically : " I say to the thou may ouer- 



^ "yonglingis leepe, fi. ; yonge men 
lepte, Cx. 
'^ frotide, )8. 
•^ unto, Cx. 
\ftjlle, Cx. 
^ naylcd, Cx. 

^ and'] om. Cx., in mistake. 
'' vyglie iogeders, Cx. 
^ biheet, 0. ; promysede, Cx. 
'' yeve, a. and Cx. 
^'^ phicicien, Cx. 



•' viessagyers, Cx. ^-falsed, y. 
^^ tourned, Cx., bis. 
^'* praysed, Cx. 
^^ Tarentines, Cx. 
16 In $. and Cx. 
1'' ynde, Cx. 

1^ amphibolice, P. and y. ; amphi- 
bolyce. Cx. 
1« From Cx. 

'•0 befalle the Pirrus, Cx. 
21 \>ei, fi. ; \>e, y. 



26 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



posse. Quo responso animatus venit apud Heracleam 

urbem Campanise, ubi primo die Komani, perterriti ex 

elephantorum mole, forma, et odore, diffugerunt ; sed ^ 

Ab urbe. secundo prsolio Pyrrhus vulneratus in brachio ^ reeessit.^ 

454. 

grackme!' In plufibus locis Italise cruor de fontibus fluxit, et''' 

294. 

458. ' pluvia lactea descendit.^ Seleucus rex Syriae transtulit 

A transmi- 

^298^^' multos Judseos in urbes regni^ sui, sequalem illis cum 

Ab urbe. 

Atransmi- GrsBcis honorem concedens.'^ Eleazarus frater Simonis 

gracione. 
304 

pontifex claret.^ Komani condiderunt Beneventum in 
Samnio. Gaufridus et^ Alfridus. Circa hsec tem- 
pora regnavit apud Britannos ^^ Morvidus crudelis 
filius Danii, ex Tangustela ^^ concubina progenitus, qui ^^ 
post multa ssevitisB suae ^^ gesta devoratur a belua ma- 
rina, relictis post se quinque filiis, quorum primogenitus 
Gorbonianus, sequitatis amator, aliquantisper regnans 
obiit.'* Deinde Archgallo ^^ secundus natu ^*^ regnavit, 



1 sec?] om. A. 

2 in brachio'] om. B. 

3 See note ^, p. 24. 

4 a, A. 

^ et de nubihus in speciem pluvia 
lac descendit, CD. 

•"' regni'] om. A. 

7 conscdens, A. 

^ Much varied in C, which 
adds : " Macedonum Pyrrluis reg- 
" navit menses sex. Seleucus capto 
" in Silicia Demetrio Syriac et Asia) 



" imperat. Macedonum Lysima- 
" chus regnavit annis quinque." 

^ Gaufridus et] om. C.D. 

^^ Britanniam, A.B. 

^^ Tangustena, D. 

^^ qui] om. B. 

^^ suce sevitior, B. 

1* Varied in C.D. 

^^ Gargallo, C. ; Reragalb, D., 
et infra, Argallo. 

•^ natus, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 27 

" \>e Eomayns." Pirrus was comforted by his ^ answere, and Trevisa. 

come to Eraclea ])G citee of Sampnia ; fere fe Romayns ])e 

firste day were aferd and agrised ^ of J?e hugenesse ^ and schap 
and smyl of fe^ olyphauntes, and fligh ^ awey for drede ; but 
in pe secounde bataille Pirrus was sore i-wounded^ in his 
arme, and went his wey pens. In meny places of Italy blood 
sprang and ran out of ])e^ welles, and reyn^ of melk come 
doun from hevene. Seleuchus^ kyng of Siria took many 
lewes in to pe citees of his kyngdom, and graunted hem as 
greet worschippe as pe Grees ^^ hadde. Eleazarus, Symon his 
broper, is bisshop of lewes. pe Eomayns bulde Benevent in 
Sampnium. Gaufridus et Alfridus, Aboute pis tyme Morin- 
dus pe cruel, sone of Damus,^^ regned in Bretayne ; ^^ his 
moder heet ^^ Tangustela, and was Damns his ^^ concubine. 
pis Morindus ^^ dede ^^ meny cruel dedes, and was i-ete at ^'' pe 
laste of a greet beest of pe see, and lefte after hym fyve sones. 
pe first heet ^^ Gorbonianus, and i^ loved wel ri^twisnesse, 
and regnede a whyle, and deide.^^ pan pe secounde sone Arch- 



Ab urbe. " comme the Romanes." Pirrus made bolde thro that answere, MS. Harl. 
come to Erechea, a cite of Campany, where the Romanes, 2261. 
fexede of the elephauntes, fledde in the firste batelle. But . 

Pirriis woundede soore in the secunde batelle returnedc. gracione. 
Bloode did renne downe of welles in mony partes of Ytaly, 
and reyne descendede like to mylke. Seleucus, kynge of 
Siria, hade mony lewes to inhabite cites of his realme, 
grauntenge to theyme egalle honoure with men of Grece. 
The Romanes edifiede the cite of Beneuent in the cuntre 
of Sampnites. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Moruidus, the cruelle 
man, and son of Danius, geten of Tangustela his concubine, 
reignede abowte this tyme in Briteyne, whiche was deuourede 
of grete bestes and fisches, after grete exercise of his crudelite, f. i68. b. 
levenge after hym v. sonnes. Gorbonianus, the firste childe, 
and luffer of iustice and equite, reignede a season and diede. 
After that Archagallo, the secunde childe, reignede with grete 



1 with thisy Cx. 

2 agrise, fi. ; agryse^ y. 



3 horrible gretenesse, Cx. 
■* J>e] om. 7. 

^ fly^i 7« ; smelle of ohjfauntes 
and fedde, Cx. 

^ soore wounded, Cx. 
7 >e] om. p. and Cx. 
^ rayncj Cx. 
^ Setencus, Cx. 



10 Grekes, Cx. 

i^ Danius, a., /8., 7., and Cx. 

12 Brytayne, Cx. 

13 was called, Cx., et infra. 
1^ Damns', Cx. 

15 MorynduSf P, 

16 did, Cx. 

17 eten atte, Cx. 

18 he, Cx. 
1^ deyde, 7. 



28 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

et regnum^ crudeliter tractavit. Quo tandem per popu- 
luin expulso, Elidurus tertius natu plus ^ in regnum 
substituitur ; qui post quinquennium suscepti regni 
venatui intendens apud nemus Calaterium,^ Ranul- 
'phus,^ quod hodie Caltres^ dicitur, juxta Eboracum,® 
Gaufridus, ^ juxta urbem Alcluit, fratrem suum 
Archgallonem, nuper de regno expulsum, errabundum 
reperit, quem latenter in camera sua occuluit, lan- 
guoreque simulato proceres regni ad se vocavit, quos 
fratrem suum in regnum^ restituere coegit. Tandem 
Archgallone post decern annos obeunte, Elidurus rursum 
restituitur in regnum.^ Sed residui ^^ duo fratres, Vige- 
nius et Peridurus, expugnaverunt eum, [et]^^ apud urbem 
Trinovantum incarceraverunt ; quibus vicissim regnan- 
tibus, et tandem obeuntibus, Elidurus d^. carcere leva- 
tus ^^ jam tertio in regnum restituitur, et extunc vitam 



^ et regnuTii] om. B. 

2 priuSy A. 

•* (Jaleterhtm, A.B. 

^ CD. omit reference. 

* Ynyelwode, C. ; Inglewode, D. 

^ juxta Eboracuni] om, CD. 



' Gaufridus'] oin. CD. 

^ regno, B. 

' in regnuni\ om. A.B. 

*" reliqui, B. 

11 ef] from A.CD. 

^- elevatuSf A.B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 



29 



gallo regiiede cruelliche,^ and was at ]>e laste i-put out by ]>e Trevisa. 

peple.2 panne \>e |)ridde sone Elidurus, a mylde man and 

softe, was i-made^ kyng, and after fyve* ^ere of his kyngdom 
he hontede ^ in a woode ])at heet Caltum,^ 5^/ pat now 
hatte Caltrees,^ bysides Jork. Gaufridus. Byside pe citee 
Alclud^ he fond his bro])er Archgallo maskynge, ]?at was 
i-putte 1^ out of his kyngdom, and kepte hym priveHche ^^ in 
his chaumbre, and lay on ^^ his bed, and feyned hym sike,^^ and 
sente for J^e lordes of J^e londe, and compelled ^^ hem to restore 
his broper Archgallo to ]>e kyngdom. pan Archgallo regnede 
ten ^ere, and deide. pan Elidurus was restored efte to his ^^ 
kyngdom ; but his tweyne ^^ oj^er breferen, Vigenius and Peri- 
durus, werred wip hym, and prisoned hym in Trinouantum, put 
is, Londoun, and pej tweyne ^^ regnede by stempnes,!^ eipev 
after o]?er, and deide at ^^ pe laste. panne Elidurus was i-take ^^ 
out of prisoun, and restored to pe kyngdom, fo ^i pe ]?ridde ^^ 



Ab urbe. crudelite, wherefore he was expulsede by the peple from the MS. Hael. 
londe ; and Elidurus, the thridde son, a man of mekenesse, 2261. 

was substitute in to the kynge. This Elidurus ^iffenge at- . 

tendaunce to huntenge, after pe v^^^ yere of his reigne, at a gracione." 
woode callede Calaterium, now callede Galtrees, nye to Yorke, 
\^Gaufridus^ founde his brother Archagallo expulsede from 
that realme J>er, whom he hidde priuely in his chamber ; whiche 
fenynge hym seke, movede the noble men of the realme to 
restore his bro])er and to make hym kynge. Then Archagallo 
restorede and made kynge diede after that he hade reignede 
X. yere ; and then Elidurus was electe in to theire kynge. 
But the oper ij. brej^er, Vigenius and Peridurus, expugnede 
hym and putte hym in prison at the cite of Trinouante, whiche 
reignenge diuerse tymes, and dyenge, Elidurus was take from 
prison and made kynge the thridde tyme, lyvenge in peace 



^ cruwelich, j8. ; cruwelych, y. ; 
cruelly, Cx. 

2 atte last by the peple was putte 
out, Cx. 

3 madey Cx. 

5 hunted, Cx. 

^ Caltrium, a., $. ; Calterium,y. ; 
Calcum, Cx. 

7 ?L] om. Cx. 

8 Caltres, P. and y. ; Caltras, Cx. 
^ Alcluit, a. fi. ; Acliut, Cx. 

^° putte, Cx. 



^ pryvely, Cx. 

■^ in, ^. and Cx. 

^ seke, Cx. 

* compellide, fi. 

^ }pe, a. ; the, Cx. 

^ twey, fi. and Cx. 

' twey, Cx. 

^ stemnes, y. ; tymes, Cx. 

3 deyeden atte, fi. ; atte, Cx. 

20 take, Cx. 

21 ))o] om. Cx. 

22 \>rid, &. 



30 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



pacifice peregit. Post quern xxxii. reges apud Britannos 
consequenter regnaverunt. Inter quos rex Bledgaret 
omnes prsedecessores ^ in musicis melodiis ^ prseeellebat, 
ita ^ ut deus joculatorum diceretur. Post hsec Hely per 
xla annos regnans, tres illustres filios post se reliquit, 
Lud, Cassibelanum,* et Neninum.^ 

Cap. xxxii. 

[De versione Septuagintavirali, et de aliis Scrip- 
turarum versionihus. De hello Punico primo.] 

Ab urbe. Ptolomeus Phikdelphius, ^gyptiorum secundus, reg- 

465. 

gracione. navit annis triginta octo,^ quern tradunt patrem pro- 
prium vicisse, ducenta millia^ peditum, viginti millia 
equitum, duo millia^ curruum, quadringentos elephantes 
in exercitu suo^ habuisse.^ Petrus, ducentesimo. 
Iste Judseos qui in iEgypto erant dimisit liberos,^** 
numero centum viginti millia, dans dominis eorum pro 



^ suosy added in B. 

^ musicis melodiis'] musicalibus, 
CD. 

3 ita] om. A. ; adeo, CD. 

^ Cassebelarium, A. 

^ Ncnnium, A.B.; Neninum^QiD. 
and much varied throughout. In 
MS. a w is written in a later hand 
above the second letter of the word. 



'^ cujus anno primo Demetrius 
seipsum Seleuco tradidity added in 
CD. 

7 millia] om. A.B. 

^ suo] om. B. 

'•^ Much varied in CD., which 
quote Dionisius as the authority. 

1" qui, added in B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 31 

tyme, and lyved afterward in pees to his lyves ende. After Trevisa. 

hym two and ]?ritty kynges regnede among the Britouns^ 

everich after ojjer ; among ])e whiche kyng Bledgaret passede 
alle his predecessoures in musik ^ and in melodie, so fat he 
was i-cleped ^ god of glee men. After ]?at Hely regnede fourty 
^ere, and lefte J>re noble sones on lyve after hym, Lud, Cassi- 
belanus, and Nemius.* Petrus, capitulo 200. 



Capitulum tricesimum secundum,^ 

Tholomeus Philadelphus, pe secounde kyng of Egipt, regnede 
eyjte and pritty^ ^ere. Me seip J>at he overcome his owne 
fader,^ and hadde in his oost ^ two hondred J>owsand foot men, 
twenty J»owsand [horsmen, two ]?owsend] ^ chariotes, and 
foure hondred elephauntes.^^ Petrus, SOO.^^ pese ^^ dely- 
vered fe lewes fat were in Egipt, and lete hym i^ goo fre, 
sixe score fowsand by tale, and payde to here lordes for every 



and tranquillite after that tyme. After whom xxxij. kynges MS. Harl. 
reignede in Briteyne ; but Bledgarec kynge precellede alle 2261. 

other in musike and in melodyes, in so moche that he was . , . 

callede god of disporters. After that Hely, reignenge amonge gracione. 
the Britones by xl^» yere, lefte thre noble childer behynde 
hym, Ludde, Cassibelanus, and Neninus. Petrus, capitulo 
ducentesimo. 



Capitulum, tricesimum secundum, 

Ptholomeus Philadelphius, the secunde kynge of men of 
Egipte, began to reigne, whiche reignede by xxx^^viij. yere. 
Somme men reherse this Ptolomeus to haue hade victory of 
his awne fader, and to haue hade in his hoste cc. mt of foote f. 169. a. 
men, xx^^ m^* of horse men, ij. thowsande of charietes, and 
cccc. elephauntes. Petrus, capitulo ducentesimo. This Ptholo- 
meus sende the lewes taken and putte into captiuite vn to 
lerusalem, takenge to the lordes of theym for euery man cxx. 



^ Brytayns, Cx. 

2 musicke, Cx. 

^ called^ Cx. 

■* Vennius, y. 

^ Cx. has no division here. 

^ thyrtty, Cx. 

T fadir, $. 



^ hoost, Cx. 

'•^ From a., j8., 7., and Cx. 

^^ olyfantes, Cx. 

11 200, 7. and Cx. 

^" }pis, 0. ; \ies, 7. ; This, Cx. 

^3 ham, 7. 



32 POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 

quolibet Ccapite centum viginti -^ drachmas ^ argenti,^ id 
est'* viginti quinque^ solidos nostrae monetEe. Vasa 
etiam ^ votiva misit Eleazaro pontifici Judseorum. 
Consilio quoque Demetrii ductus, quern bibliothecse suse 
prsefecerat, rogavit per nuncios Eleazarum pontificem 
ut mitteret sibi Judseos peritos qui legem Moysi' ex 
Hebrjieo in Grsecam transferrent linguam. Eleazarus 
vero transmisit regi ex qualibet ^ tribu sex viros, 
qui reddunt Ixxii. Sed consuetude scripturse est 
modicum numerum, si superfuerit, subticere.^ Isti ^^ 
sunt septuaginta interpretes, qui regem Ptolomeum de 
unius dei ^^ cognitione, et de regni sui gubernatione 
instruxerunt, legem, psalmos, et prophetas transtulerunt. 
In quo opere ubi aliquid de Trinitate occurrebat, aut 
siluerunt aut senigmatice illud ^^ transtulerunt, ne tres 
deos colendos tradidisse viderentur.^^ Similiter in Isaya 



' viginti] om. A. 

- dragmas, MSS. 

^ Egipti, CD. 

'• id est] om. B. 

^ quindecim, A. 

c et, A. 

7 Moysi] eorum, CD. 



^ omnif B. 

9 subticere] space left in B. ; 
slightly varied in CD. 

10 Isti] Hii, B. 

" Dei, from A.CD. ; Diei, MS. 

1- illud] om. B. 

1^ Varied slightly in CD. 



Ab urbe. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 33 

pol twenty [dragmes of selver, ]?at is, fyve and twenty] ^ Trevisa. 
schillynges of oure money, and sente J?e vessel ^ |>at were 
i-halowed ^ by lewes to Eleajarus bisshop of lewes. Also, by 
counsaille of Demetrius, ])at was wardeyn^ of his bookes, he sente 
messangers^ to Eleajarus Ipe bisshop, prayenge ^ J?at he wolde 
sende hym wise men of [the] '^ lewes, ^at schulde torne Moyses 
lawe out of Ebrewe in to Grewe.^ [Than Eleajarus sente 
unto the kyng of every lygnage vi. men, that ^ draweth to thre 
score and twelve ; but the Scripture usith ofte time ^*^ to speke 
not of the litel nombre yf it be ^^ odde over the grete. Thes be ^^ 
called the seventi, that torned holy Scripture out of Hebrewe 
into Grue],i3 and enformede Tholomeus pe kyng of ]?e know- 
leche of oon God, and of ]>e governaunce of pe kyngdom, and 
translated ])e lawe, psalmes, and prophecies. In J)at transla- 
cioun, where pey fonde out ^* of fe Trinite, ]7ei speke ^^ not 
ferof, o])er J^ey translated it in a rebel ^^ wise, leste we wolde 
wene pat pey speke ^^ of pre Goddes. Also in Isay aboute pe 



dragmas of siluyr, whiche is xxxv. schilenges of oure moneye, MS. Harl. 
sendenge precious veselles to Eleazarus, bischoppe of lerusa- 2261. 
lem, by the cownselle of Demetrius, preyenge Eleazarus by ^ transmi- 
discrete messyngers that he wolde sende to hym noble clerkes gracione. 
of the lewes, that thei my^te translate the lawe of Moyses 
owto of Hebrewe in to Grewe. Eleazarus sende to hym 
vj. men of euery tribe, Ixxij. in nowmbre, but the consuetude 
of scripture is to omitte the litelle nowmbre if pat hit 
remayne after the grete nowmbre. These men be the Ixx*' 
interpretatores, whiche instructe lawe and psalmes of the 
cognicion of oon God, and gubernacion of theire realme, and 
translate prophecies, kepenge silence or spekenge similitu- 
dinary where eny thynge of the Trinite was in theire wcrke, 
leste that hit scholde seme theyme to haue taken iij. goddes 
to be worschippede. Also thei putte but oon name of God 
in the processe of Ysay, whiche was the angelle of grete 



1 From a., )8., 7., and Cx. 

2 vessels, /3. ; vessaile, Cx. 
^ halowide, )8. ; y/ialwed, 7. 
'' warden, Cx. 

^ messagers, Cx. 

^ praiynge, )8. 

7 From Cx. 

^ Gru, 7. ; Hebrew into Grue, 
Cx. 

^ \>at wole he }pre score, $. ; \>at 
wol he \>o, 7. 



^^ time'] om. jS. 

" yif it is, /8. 

^2 \>ens huj), 7. 

13 From fi., 7., and Cx. 

1* ouyt, a., fi., and Cx. ; oyt. 7. 

15 spake, Cx. 

^^ a redel, a., )8., 7., and Cx. 

17 spak, Cx. 



VOL. IV. C 



34 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



circa incarnationem Christi; ubi sex nomina de Deo in- 
venerunt, unum solummodo ^ posuerunt, id est, magni 
concilii angelus, ne forte hominem deificatum^ dixisse 
viderentur. Istud autem opus sub septuaginta duobus 
[diebus] ^ consummaverunt. Sed Augustinus de Civitate 
Dei, libro xviii. capitulo xlii., videtur velle quod isti sep- 
tuaginta interpretes seorsum in singulis cellis id idem 
sine aliqua verborum dissonantia aut sensuum transtu- 
lerunt. Jeronimus vero sentit quod simul* in eodem 
conclavi, vel certe quod opus sex dierum in Sabbato 
simuP conferrent et conflarent. Augustinus de Civi- 
tate.^ Septuaginta viri senes de singulis tribubus electi, 
singuli in singulis cellis seorsum, in ^Egypto apud Alex- 
andriam divinam scripturam de Hebrseo in Grsecum 
transtulerunt, neque in verborum valore ^ aut ordine 
discrepantes.^ Et licet fuerint alii sub novo testa- 



^ solomodo, MS. 

'^ forte here in B. 

2 diebus'] added from A.B.C.D. 

^ simul etf A. ; et smul, B. 

^ simul] om. B. 



^ libro 18, capitulo 42, added in 
A.D.; /. 18. ca. 22, in B.C. 
7 volare, B. 
^ Varied in CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



35 



incarnaciouii of Crist, ];ey founde sixe names of God, and sette Trevisa. 

but oon ; ]?at name ^ is Angelus magni consilii, an aungel ^ of 

greet counsaile, [leste] ^ me wolde wene ]?at ]}ej wolde mene 
J)at mankynde ^ and manhede schulde be [fe] ^ kynde ^ of God 
and of^ godhede. pey fulfilled^ J>is work in ]>re score dayes 
and ten ; but it seme]? pat Seint Austyn,^ de Civitate [Dei,] ^ 
libro IS*', capitulo 42°, wil mene ]?at pis seventy ^^ were 
departed everich i^ by hym self in a celle,^^ ^nd translated ]?e 
lawe wij> oute discorde of wordes ^^ oper of menynge. lero- 
nimus wil mene^^ pat pey alle were i-closede in oon hous, 
oper pat pey come to gidres pe Saturday, and examyned [and 
correctede] ^^ here werkes^^ of sixe dayes. Augustinus de Civi- 
tate [Z>ez],^ libido 18^, capitulo 42^, Seventy olde men of al 
])e lynages of Israel, everiche ^^ by hym self, at Alexandria in 
Egipt, tornede holy writt out of Hebrewe in to Grewe,^'' and 
descordede not ^^ in wordes, in menynge,!^ noper in settynge of 
wordes. And pough ^o pere were opere in pe tyme of pe newe 



Ab urbe. cownselle, leste that hit scholde seme theim to haue seide MS. Harl. 
man to haue bee deificate, in whiche processe thei fownde 2261. 
vi. names of Godde. These noble clerkes finischede that . , . 

A lT3jT1S1I11* 

laboure in Ixxij^i dales. But Seynte Austyn, de Civitate Dei, gracione. 
libro octavo decimo, capitulo 42°, semethe to wille that the 
Ixx^' interpretatores were diuidede into diuerse chambres, and 
that thei alle accordede in oon. But Seynte lerom semethe 
to vnderstonde that thei were alle in oon chambre, other 
eUes that thei, diuidede by vj. dales, mette to gedre in the 
Sabbatte day, and combynede and compilede theire maters 
togedre. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro suo octavo decimo. 
Ixx^i men of diuerse tribus, departede in diuerse celles 
at a cite callede Alexandria in Egipte, translate diuine 
Scripture owte of Hebrewe in to Grewe, not discordenge in 
eny thynge, neiper in valoure of wordes, neither in ordre. 
And thaw^e per were men that did translate owte off. 169. b. 



^ name] om. Cx. 
2 angel, Cx. 

^ From a., i3., 7., and Cx. 
* mankunde, 7. 
^ kunde, 7. 
'' of] om. a. and Cx. 
" Hyfolfulde, 7. 
^ Augustyn, Cx. 
'•^Cx. 

^" understandeth that these seventy, 
Cx. 



^^ every, Cx. 
^2 selle, Cx. 
^^ or sentence, Cx. 
^* lerom holdeth, Cx. 
^5 From a., /8., and 7. ; and cor- 
recte, Cx. 
^^ \>e work, 7. 
^"^ Grue, Cx., et infra. 
^^ discordide nouxty /3. 
^^ sentence, Cx. 
-0 \>eyi 7. 

c 2 



36 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

mento qui de Hebrseo in Graecum ^ transferrent, utpote 
Aquila, Symmachus,^ Theodotion, et quinta editio cujus 
auctor ignoratur, his tamen omnibus Ixx^-. interpretes 
prseferuntur. Fuit etiam^ temporibus nostris^ pres- 
byter quidam Jeronimus, homo doctissimus, trium lin- 
guarum peritus, qui de Hebrseo in Latinum transtulit. 
Cujus litteratum laborem quamvis Judsei contendant 
esse^ veriorem, Ecclesise tamen Christi tot hominum 
auctoritati neminem judicant ^ prseferendum. Nonnulli 
autem interpretationem Ixx. interpretum per Hebrseos 
codices emendare volentes, nee ^ tamen ausi sunt ^ 
detrahere quod Ixx^ amplius habebant quam Hebrsei. 
Sed ibi apposuerunt virgulas jacentes quemadmodum 
uncisD scribuntur [ ]. Quse etiam obeli vocabantur ^ e 
ad denotandum superabundantiam. Quod autem Hebrsei 
amplius habebant et Ixx^-. minus, ilia asteriscis, id est 
signis ad modum stellarum factis*, notabant, quasi ad 
illustrandum defectiva.^^ Isidorus, libro ^^ sexto. Iste 
Ptolomeus septuaginta millia librorum-^^ in sua biblio- 
theca fertur habuisse. Petrus super Genesim, capi- 
tulo xv^.'^^ De diversis translationibus sufficiat semel 



* similiter, added in CD. 
- Simachus, MSS. 

•' etiam'] om. B. 
4 nostris] ora. E, 

* cateris, added in CD. 
" esse, added in A.B. 

' non, 15. 



^ audentes, B. 

^ vocanlur, A. 

^" Varied in CD. 

'• Ethymoloyiarum, added in CD. 

'- millia lihros^ B. 

'•* capitido ory.] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTllENSIS, LIB. III. 



37 



testament ]?at tornede holy writ out of Hebrewe into Grewe ; Trevisa. 

]>at were Aquila, Simachus,^ Theodocion, and j^e fifte transla- 

cioun ])e auctor ]?erof is not knowen,^ pese^^ seventy beep 

i-sette to fore^ alle opere. In oure tyme oon leronimus, a 

preost, a wise man, and a ^ konnynge in J^re longages, tornede 

holy writt ^ out of j^e Hebrew into Latyn. lewes telle]? ^ pat 

his translacioun is trewest ; nopeles holy chirche deme]> no 

man to be i-putte tofore ]>e auctorite of so meny men. Som 

men wolde amende pe translacioun of pe seventy by bookes of 

Hebrew ; but pey durste ^ not wij? drawe what pe seventy 

hadde ^ more pan pe Hebrewes ; but pere pey made strikes ^^ 

liche as ounces ^^ beep i-write, and beep ^^ also i-cleped oboly,^^ 

to schewe pat j^ere is more pan is in pe Hebrewes ^^ bookes. 

But what the Hebrewes hadde more pan pe seventy pey marked ^^ 

wip markede wip ^^ markes pat hatte^^ astarisces, and beep 

i-schape^^ as sterres, at it were to hi^te pe defaute. Ysidorus, 

libro 6°. Me seip pat pis Tholomeus hadde seventy powsand 

bookes^^ in his librarie.^^ Petrus, libro 21 15<^. Of dyvers trans- 



Ab urbe. Hebrewe in to Grewe in the Newe Testamente, as Aquila MS. Harl. 
Simachus, Theodocion, and the v^^'^ edicion, the auctor 2261. 
of whom is ignorante, Jitte the Ixx*^ interpretatores be ^ transmi- 
preferrede afore theyme. Mony men willenge to amende gracione. 
the interpretacion of the Ixx*' interpretatores by bokes of 
Hebrewe, hade noo audacite to detray that the Ixx'^ inter- 
pretatores hade more then men of Hebrewe, puttenge signes 
per callede obeli, to betokyn superhabundaunce. And thei 
made signes in the maner of sterres in the places where the 
Ixx" interpretatores hade lesse then the men of Hebrewe, as 
to make brithte thynges defectiue. Ysidorus, Eth : libro sexto. 
This Ptholomeus hade Ixx*^ bookes in his bible. Petrus, 
capitulo quinto decimo. Hit is sufficiaunte to speke at oon 



^ Symachus, Cx. 

2 unknowen, Cx. 

^ \>eos, 7. 

■* be sette br/fore, Cx. 

5 a] om. a., iS., 7., and Cx. 

^ translated holy Scripture, Cx. 



say. 



Cx. 



^ \>urste, 7. ; dar, Cx. 
'•* liadden, /8. and Cx. 
'" strickes, /8. ; strikkes, 7. 
'^ unces, a., /8., 7., and Cx. 
^^ be wrytton, and be, Cx. 



'^ oheli, 7. 

1"* Hebrewe, a., 7., and Cx. ; He- 
brue, fi. 

^5 merkede, 7. 

^^ markede wi]>~\ repeated by error 
of the scribe. 

^' be called, Cx. 

'^ be shapen, Cx. 

^'^ bokes, 7. 

'^^ lybrary, Cx. 

2^ capitulo, Cx. 



38 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



dicere. Ante incarnationem Domini annis trescentis 
quadraginta uno Interpretes Ixx^-. flomerunt. Item post 
ascensionem Domini annis centum viginti quatuor, 
sub Adriano principe, Aquila transtulit. Deinde post 
annos quinquaginta tres, sub Commodo principe, floruit 
Theodotion. Deinde post annos triginta, sub Severo 
principe, Symmachus. Deinde post annos octo Hieroso- 
lumis-*^ reperta est quinta editio, quse idcirco vulgata 
dicitur quia ejus auctor ignoratur. Deinde post annos 
octodecim, sub Alexandro principe, Origines transtulit 
cum asterisco et obelo, sed postmodum transtulit sine 
his. Hi omnes de Hebrseo in Graecum transtulerunt. 
Qui autem de Grseco in Latinum plures fuerunt. 
Ultimo tamen^ Jeronimus de Hebrseo in Latinum 
transtulit, cujus editio, praeter quam in psalterio, ubique 
fere servatur.^ ^Eutropius,^ 



• Irlumisy MS. 

2 autem, A.B. 

3 Varied and abbreviated iu CD. 



^ Antigonus regnavit Macedo- 
niam annis 36, added in CD. 
^ libro primOf added in C.D; 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



39 



laciouns it is inow to speke at ones. Tofore ^ ]>e Incarna- Trevisa. 

cioun of oure Lord ])re hondred ^ere [and] ^ fourty and oon, 

J?e seventy pat tornede holy writt out of Hebrewe into Grewe 
were in here floures.^ Also, after pe Ascencioun of oure 
Lord sixe score ^ere and foure, in Adrian Jje princes tyme, 
Aquila made a translacioun. panne, after fre and fifty ^ere, 
in Comodus ]?e princes tyme, Theodocion was in his floures.'* 
panne after J^ritty Jere, in Severus Ipe princes tyme, Sima- 
chus ^ made his translacioun. panne after eijte Jere ]?e fifte ^ 
translacioun was i-founde^ at Jerusalem, and is i-cleped ]>e 
comoun^ translacioun, ffor he pat made it is unknowe. panne 
after eijtene^ ^ere, in Alisaundre f>e princes tyme, Origenes 
made a translacioun wij? signes ]?at beep ^^ i-cleped astarisces ^^ 
and obelus, and afterward he made anoper translacioun wip ^^ 
signes ^^ and merkes ; and alle pese translated out of Hebrewe 
into Grewe.i* Meny translated out of Grewe ^* into Latyn ; 
but at pe laste lerom translatede out of Hebrewe in to Latyn, 
and his translacioun is i-holde nygh ^^ in every place out take 
in pe Psawter.i^ Eutropius. pe Romayns dede pe firste 



Ab urbe. tyme of diuerse translaciones. The Ixx*^ interpretatores MS. Harl. 
were afore the incarnacion of Criste by ccc. and xlj. yere. 2261. 

Also Aquila did translate in the tyme of Adrian the prince, . 

after the Ascencion a c. and xxiiij. yere. After pat Simachus, gracSme!* 
by xxx*^ yere, did translate in the tyme of the prynce 
Seuerus. After pat viij. yere the v*® translacion was founde 
at lerusalem, pe auctor of whom was not knowen. After 
that by xviij. yere Origenes did translate, with asteriscus 
and obelus, in the tyme of pe prince Alexander ; after pat 
Origenes did translate hym selfe withowte peim. Alle these 
men did translate from Hebrewe in to Grewe. But mony 
men did translate owte of Latyn in to Grewe. Neuerthelesse 
Seynte lerom did translate laste owte of Hebrewe in to 
Latyn, whose translacion is obseruede allemoste, excepte the 
translacion in his psawter. Eutropius. The Romanes haue 



1 Byfore^ Cx. 

2 In Cx. 

3 in prosperyte^ Cx. 

^ in his prosperyte, Cx. 
5 SymachuSf Cx. 

' founden, fi. and Cx. 

^ comyn, fi. and y. ; coniune, Cx. 

^ eyytetene, y. 



^0 be, Cx. 

^^ astaryches, Cx. 

^'^ wip oute suck signes, y., cor- 
rectly. 

13 Here )3. and Cx. have siches 
signes. 

1^ Gru, y. ; Grue, Cx. 

15 neiy, )8. 

^^ Sauter, a., P., y., and Cx. 



40 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Ab urbe. 

431. 
A transmi- 
gracione. 

311. 



Primum bellum Punicum contra Afros Romani 
gesserunt, quod^ dicitur Punicum seu Carthaginense. 
Et quamvis Romani usque ad haec tempora extra 
Italiam arma^ non movissent, ut^ plenius sciren- 
tur* copise^ Romanorum, censu habito inventa sunt 
civium capita ducenta nonaginta duo millia trescenta 
triginta quatuor,^ quamquam ^ a condita urbe bella nun- 
quam cessassent. Sicque per quinque continuos annos 
Romani apud Siciliam ^ contra Hieronem ^ regem Sicilise 
et contra Afros victores fuere/** Unde et Romani in 
Africam primum bellum transtulbrunt, duce ^^ Regulo 
consule, qui primo naves eorum aut cepit aut demersit 
aut fugavit. Tandem tres duces Afrorum devicit, ex- 



' quia, B. 

2 hella, B. 

3 turn, added in A.B. 

^ scirentur~\ from A.C.D. ; scirent, 
MS. 

^ capita, B. 



6 292134, CD. 

~ quamquam.., Hieronem] om. B. 

^ Ciciliam, A. 

'^ fuerunt, B. 

10 Marco, added in A.B. 



MONACHl CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



41 



bataille, )?at is i-cleped bellum Punicum, in ^ Cartagiuense ^ Trevisa. 
ajenst J>e Affres, pat bee])^ men of Affi'ica, bee]?'* i-cleped 
Affrica, and ^ fey ^ bee]> i-cleped Affi-i, Puny,^ Peny, Puncy/ 
Punices, and Cartaginenses ; Jjerfore pe bataille J^at is ajenst 
hem [is cleped bellum Punicum, and ^ Cartaginense also, as it 
were the bataylle that is ayenst hem that be called] ^ Puny ^^ 
Punices, and Cartaginenses. panne it folowej) in pe storie. 
[Though] 11 pe Romaynes hadde i-meoved ^^ noon armour ^^ wij> 
oute Italy to fore ^^ ]?at tyme, no]?eles forto knowe certen- 
lichei^ pe somme and noumbre of Romayns pej payede a 
certayn, and were acounted, and i-founde two hondred pow- 
sand [foure score ]?owsand twelf ])Owsand] ^^ }}re hondred and 
foure and J?ritty. J)e batailles cesed noujt ^'^ si]?])e pe citee was 
first i-bulde. And so pe Romayns fyve Jere continualliche ^^ 
in 1^ Sicilia ayenst leron ^^ kyng of Sicilia, and ayenst pe 
Affris 21 were victors, and hadde l?e maistrie. panne pe 
Romayns Jaf pe firste bataille in Affi-ica. Here 22 ledere was 
Markus 23 Regulus, consul of Rome ; and first fey took hir 
schippes, and drenched hem,2* ofer 25 chased hem and her 
schippes ; and at 2^ pe laste he 27 took pre dukes of Affrica, and 



Ab urbe. doen a Punicalle batelle, or Cartaginense, ageyne men of MS. Harl. 
Affrica, in whiche tyme the cite of Rome hade men in hit 2261. 
ij^. m"^ xcij. m^ ccc. and xxxiij*» men, thauthe batelles seasede a t"I7~m*- 
never fer from the edifienge of the cite of Rome un to that gracione. 
tyme. And the Romanes were victores by v. yere continually, 
wherefore the Romanes transferrede the firste batelle to men 
of Affrike, Marchus Regulus electe to be pe gouernoure of 
the Romanes and a consul ; whiche toke firste theire schippes, f. 170, a. 
other drownede theyme, other elles causede the peple to flee. 
At the laste he ouercomne iij. dukes and gouernoures of men 



' and, a., fi., and Cx. 

2 Cartaginensem, Cx. 

3 A caret is placed here in MS. 
Addit., but no word supplied. 

4 bee]> . . . \>ey] for this )8., 7., 
and Cx. have : Trevisa : Men of 
Affrica . . . 

5 an(r\ om. a. 

^ Primi, Peni, Punici, Cx. 

7 Puvici, fi. and 7. 

8 bellum, added here in 7. 
a From /8. and Cx. 

10 Punici, Cx. 

11 From Cx. ; \>ei/, 7. 
*- moved, Cx. 

^3 armure, )8. ; armur, 7. 



^^ hyfore, Cx. 
^^ certainly, Cx. 
^^ From o., /8., 7., and Cx. 
^7 never, fi. ; nevere se\>the, 
batayll cessed never sith, Cx. 
^^ continually, Cx. 
^^ and, Cx, wrongly. 
-0 Ikeron, ^., 7., and Cx. 

21 Affers, Cx. 

22 Her, Cx. 

23 Marcus, Cx. 

2^ drynchede ham, 7. 
2^ ether, Cx. 
2''> atte, 13. and Cx. 
27 they, Cx. 



42 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



ercitum contrivit, elephantos plures cepit, viginti sep- 
tem millia captivorum Komam transmisit.^ Inter hsec 
apud flumen Bagrada^ serpentem ingentem occidit, 
cujus coriura Komse delatum centum ^ viginti pedum 
spectaculo fuit.'^' Tunc devicti Carthaginienses ^ pacem 
petierunt, quam cum Regulus nisi durissimis ^' condi- 
tionibus dare noUet,^ Afri ^ attracto Xanthippe ^ rege 
Laccdsemoniorum, Marcum Regulum cum toto exercitu 
suo ultima pernicie^^ devicerunt. Ita ut duobus tan- 
tummodo ^^ Romanis fugientibus, xxx^ millibus occisis, 
ipse-^^ Marcus Regulus cum quingentis captivis in vin- 
culis ^^ diu teneretur. Postmodo Romani navali certa- 
mine et terrestri ita Afros devicerunt, ut ducentis 
millibus hostium caesis, centum triginta elephantis cap- 
tis, Carthaginienses Marcum Regulum Romam mitterent, 
permutationem captivorum implorantes.^* Augustimis 
de Civitate, lihro primo, capitulo quintodecimo. Prse- 
stito tamen juramento ut, si quod petebant minime 



1 Varied and abbreviated in CD. 

2 Bagrada, from D. ; Bragada, 
MSS. 

2 centum~\ ova.. B. 

'^ fuit] fuerunt, B. 

•^ CartaginenseSj A.B. 

^* duris, B. 

7 vellct, B. 

^ Afri] om. B. 



^ Zansippo, MSS. 

10 pej-nicie] from A.B.C.D. ; pro- 
vincice, MS. 

^^ tantomodoj A. CD. and MS. 

^2 ipse'] om. B. 

^^ vinculis] from B. ; vinciila, 
A.CD. and MS. 

'^ Varied in CD,, which omit re- 
ference. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 43 

beet ^ doun pe oost,^ and took meny olyphauntes, and sent Trevisa. 

sevene and twenty [fowsand]^ prisoners to Rome. Among 

pese * dedes, at ^ J^e ry ver Bragada he slou^ ^ a grete serpent, 
and sente ]?e skyn J>erof to Rome for a greet wonder ; ffor pat 
skyn was sixe score foot ^ long, panne pe Cartaginenses, men 
of Affrica, were overcome, and axede pees ; and Marcus Rega- 
ins wolde graunte no ^ pees but uppon wel harde condiciouns. 
panne ]>e Affres ^ gat wip hem ^anjippus ^^ kynge of Lacede- 
monia, and overcome Marcus ^Regulus wi]> al his oost^^ at 
J)e laste mescheef,^^ so pat onliche ^^ tweyne of ]>e Romayns 
scapede and fligh,^* pritty powsand were deed i-slawe,^^ Mar- 
cus Regulus and fyve hondred prisoners were i-holde longe 
in bondes. Afterward pe Romayns overcome pe Aifres in 
werre in see [and] ^^ in lond, so pat pey slou^ ^"^ of here ene- 
myes two hondred powsand, and six score olyphauntes and 
ten were i-take ; and pe Cartagynenses Affres sente Marcus 
Regulus to Rome, and prayde pat pey wolde chaunge prisoners. 
Augustinus de Civitate \_Dei\,^^ libro primo. Nopeles an op 
was i-swore pat Jif pat ^^ pey axede schulde noujt be i-doo, 



Ab iirbe. of Affrike and theire hoste, and toke mony elephantes, and MS. Harl. 
sende xxvij. m^' men taken in captiuite to Rome. After that 2261. 
he did sle a serpente at the water callede Braarada, the skvnne . ; . 
of whom brou^te to Rome was of a cxx. foote. Then men of gracione. 
Cartago deuicte desirede peas, whiche Marchus wolde not 
grawnte to theyme peas, but on soore condiciones, and also 
grevous. Men of Affrike attracte to theym Zanjippus kynge 
of Lacedemonia, and hade victory of the Romanes, in so moclie 
that xxx^ m* of theyme sleyne, Marchus Regulus was taken 
and putte in prison with v.*'. After that men of Affi'ike were 
deuicte bothe by see and londe, that ij.^. m^' of theyme sleyne, 
and a c. and xxx^i elephauntes taken, men of Cartago sende 
Marcus Regulus to Rome, desirenge the permutacion of 
theire men in captiuite. Augustinus de Civitate Dei^ libro 
primo. An othe made that Marchus Regulus scholde not ^o 



* hent, 7. 

2 hooste, Cx. 

3 From a., 7., and Cx. 

* \>eus, 7. 

^ atte, $. and Cx. 

6 thei/ slow, Cx. 

"^fote, iS. and Cx. 

s none, Cx. 

^ Affers, Cx., et inJfra. 

1" Zansippus, /3., 7., and Cx. 

" hoost, Cx. 



12 meschef, P. ; atte last meschief, 
Cx. 

^3 onl?/, Cx. 

i4^z/> , )8. ; escapede and Jledde, 
Cx. 

^5 dede slayne, Cx. 

16 From a., )8., 7., and Cx. 

17 slewe, Cx. 

18 From Cx. 

1^ \>at] om. Cx., wrongly. 
20 Sic. 



44 POLYCHllONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

fieret, Marcus Carthagini rediret, perrexit ille, et tan- 
quam non esset Romanus uxorem a complexibus 
amovit. In senatu contraria legationi suse^ per- 
suasit, asserens non esse utile Romanse rei publicse 
propter ipsum jam senem tot nobiles captivos per- 
mutare ; quod et fa,ctum est. Nee post banc per-^ 
suasionem Marcus redire com pulsus est, Romanis 
prsesertim ^ eum ad morandum hortantibus ; sed quia 
redire juraverat, et honesti* civis auctoritatem in urbe 
post captivitatem habere non poterat, redire praeelegit. 
Ubi Afri eum in ligno angusto clavis acutis introrsus 
hispido incluserunt,^ circumcisis palpebris sic stare et 
vigilare usque ad mortem ^ fecerunt.'^ Petrus, sexa- 
gesimo octavo,^ Ptolomeus^ pugnavit contra Antio- 
chum Theos, regem Syrise, sed postquam ^^ foederati ^^ 
sunt ; nam Antiochus duxit in uxorem Berenicam ^^ 
filiam Ptolomei, Laodice priore uxore repudiata ; quae 
tamen^^ Laodices, cum postmodum redisset in gratiam 



* suce'] om. B. 

- per] om. B. 

** prceceptis, B. 

■* honestCf B. 

•' et, B. 

^ usque ad mu/icm] oin. B. 



7 Varied and transposed in CD. 

8 168, CD. 

^ Philadelphius, added in CD. 
^° postmodum, A. ; postea, CD. 
" postmodum confitdcrati , B. 
'- Berenicam, MSS. 
^'^ tameti] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



45 



Regulus schulde torne ajen to Cartage. He wente for]?, and Trevisa. 
dede ^ awey his wif from his bed, as J^ey ^ he were no 
Romayn ; and in ]>e counsaille of senatoures i-gadered to 
gedres,^ he counsaillede fe contrarie of his owne message, 
and seide j^at it was nou^t profitable'* to ]?e comounte^ of 
Rome to chaunge so meny noble prisoners for suche an olde 
man as he was. pe Romayns dede ^ by his counsaille. No}?e- 
les he was not compelled for to goo a^en, but ]?e Romayns 
counsaillede^ hym specialliche forto abide '^ at Rome; but for he 
swoor ^ at Cartage fat he schulde come a^en, and ^ he my^t 
noujt have auctorite of an honest ^^ burgeys in J>is citee of 
Rome after ])at he was prisoner, he chees ^^ for to goo a3en, 
and wente a^en. pere ]>e Affres closed ^^ hym in a streijt i^ 
tree ]>at was ])icke ^* pikede wij> ynne wi]? longe and scharpe 
nayles,^^ and parede of his ^^ y^e liddes, and made hym stonde 
so pere and wake to his lyves ende. Petrus, 168. Tholomeus 
fau^t a^enst Antiochus Theos kyng of Siria, but afterward 
]?ey were confethered to gidres^^; ffor Antiochus weddede 
Beronica, Tholomeus his doubter, and forsook his ra]?er wif 
Laodices ; but at the laste Laodices hadde grace of here hous- 



Ab urbe. comme to Cartage ageyne, whiche Marchus seide that hit MS. Harl. 
was not profitable to the commune vtilite to permute so mony 2261. 

noble men for oon olde man, makenge a protestacion that he . 

wolde goe ageyn, and specially for this cause, in that he myjhte g^S^!" 
not haue the auctorite of an honeste citesynne in. Rome after 
his captiuite. Men of Aifrike putte hym in a streyte tre fulle 
of nayles, with his eien open, and the liddes of theyme fixede 
with nayles, and so thei causede hym to stonde and to wake vn 
to the that he diede. Petrus, capitulo sexagesimo octavo. 
Ptholomeus Jafe batelle ageyn Anthiocus Theos, kynge of 
Siria, but after that thei were confederate, for Anthiocus 
mariede Beronica, the do^hter of Ptholomeus, geten by Lao- 
dices his firste wife refusede from hym; whiche commenge 



^ dide^ Cx., et infra. 

2 though, Cx. 

^ togeder, Cx. 

'* not prouffitable, Cx. 

^ comynte, j8. and 7. 

^* counceiliden, )8. 

T forto abyde specyalych, y. 

^ but bycause he sware, Cx. 

^ yf, Cx. 

^" onest^ 7. ; honneste hourges of 
the, Cx. 



^^ cheSy $. ; chese, Cx. 

^2 closiden, $. 

^^ streyt, 7. ; strayte, Cx. 

I'* J/ic/ee] om. 7. ; ymked, a. and 0. 

^^ that was ful of pykes within 
forth of sharpe nayles, Cx. 

^6 )pe, a. ; ]pe lydes and made, fi ; 
hys ye lydes, 7. ; the lyddes of his 
eyen, Cx. 

^' togadris, $. ; confedered to- 
gyder, Cx. 



46 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



viri/ occidit eum veneno, et filium quern de Berenica 
susceperat ; filium vero suum, Antiochum Galericum, 

Aburbe. prsefecit Syrise.^ Argenteus nummus primum in urbe 

^gJSS!" Roma figuratur.3 Petrus, Ixiii.^ 

318. 



Cap. XXXIII. 
[De rebus JEgyptiis, et de hello Punico secundo.'] 

Ptolomeus Euergetes, frater'^ Philadelphia u^gyptio- 
rum^ tertius, regnavit annis sexdecim.^ Hie in ul- 
tionem sororis^ Berenicse, cujus maritus et filius occisi 
fuerant, vastavit Syriam, Ciliciam, partem Asise, et fati- 
gavit Antiochum Galericum, sed audito quod principes 
iEgypti in ipsum absentem conspirassent, rediit in 
iEgyptum, trahens secum prsedam multam et simula- 
crorum duo millia sexcenta.^ Porro Galericus duos 
filios reliquit, Seleucum et Antiochum Magnum ; sed 
tandem Antiochus, occiso fratre suo, regnavit in Syria 



^ sui, B. 

2 Varied in CD. 

^ " Zeno Stoicus philosophus mo- 
ritur. Nichomedes rex Bythy- 
niae Nichomediam condidit. 
Romani bello navali Carthagini- 
enses superant, et centum urbes 
Libyae capiunt. Manasses avun- 
culus Eleazari accepit pontifica- 
tum. Carthaginienses 90 naves 
Romanorum capiunt in Sicilia, 
Metello consule fugato. Giral- 
dus. Parthis a Macedoniae im- 
perio recedentibus primus in illis 
regnavit Arsaces, a quo sequentes 



" reges dicuntur Arsacidse. Hie 
" primum illos legibus informavit, 
" legit militem, castra munivit, 
" urbes firmavit, [immunivit, D.] 
" Seleucum regem Syriae superavit. 
" Tandem regnum Hyrcanorum 
" suo adjecit imperio." Petrus^ ca- 
pitulo 168. Added in CD. 

■* sexagesimo octavo^ A. ; capitulo 
8, B. 

^filius, CD. 

^' rex, added in B. 

' 24, C ; 46, D. 

^ sua, added in B. 

^ Slightly varied in CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



47 



bonde,^ and come to hym aje,^ and punysshed ^ hym and his Trevisa. 

sone J)at he hadde i-gete^ on Beronica, and made her owne 

sone Antiochus Galericus ^ kyng of Siria. A peny of silver 
is first i-schape ^ in Rome. 



Capitulum tricesimum tertium? 

Tholomeus Euergetes, Philadelphius his bro]?er, was ]?e ])ridde 
[kyng] ^ of Egipt, and regnede sixe and twenty Jere. pis in 
wreche of his suster^ Beronica, for here housbond and here 
sone were i-slawe ^^ wi]? venym, destroyed ^^ Siria, SiHcia, a 
party of Asia, and greved Antiochus Galericus. But whan 
he herde Jjat }>e princes of Egipt hadde conspired ajenst hym 
in his absence, he tornede a^en into Egipt, and ladde wi|> 
hym grete^^ prayes, and two fowsand and sixe hondred of^^ 
mawmettis.i^ Antiochus Galericus lefte tweie sones after,^hym, 
Seleucus ^^ and j?e grete Antiochus ; but at fe laste Seleucus 
was i-slawe, and his broker Antiochus regnede in Siria sixe 



Ab urbe. and obteynenge grace and fauor of her howsebonde poysenede MS. Harl. 
hym. A peny of siluyr was made and institute firste in Eome 2261. 
aboute this tyme. ., . 

'' A transmi- 

gracione. 

Capitulum tricesimum tertium, f. 170. b. 

Ptholomeus Euergetes, broj^er to Philadelphius, the 
thridde kynge of men of Egipte, began to reigne, whiche 
reignede xxvj*^ yere. This Ptholomeus wastede Siria for 
the dethe of the howsebonde of Beronica, and of her childe 
also, and Silicia a parte of Asia, and causede Anthiocus 
Galericus to fie. Whiche herenge his princes to haue con- 
spirede his dethe in his absence, returnede into Egipte, takinge 
with hym mony preyes, and ij. mt and vj.^. of similacres. 
Galericus lefte his ij. sonnes, Seleucus and Anthiocus Magnus ; 
but at the laste Anthiocus reignede in Siria, his brother dedde. 



^ hir hushondy Cx. 
^ agayne, Cx. 
^ puysondey y. 
^ begeten, Cx. 
5 Galericus] om. Cx. 
^ shapen, Cx. 

7 Here Cx. agrees with MS. 
the numbering of the chapters. 



in 



s From Cx. 

^ soster, 7. 

^0 slayn, Cx., et infra. 

" destruyede, 0. ; destruyde, 7. 

12 good, Cx. 

'3 of] om. Cx. 

^^ mametes, 7. 

'^ Selenchus, Cx., et inli*a. 



48 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Ab urbe. 

517. 

A transmi- 

graciono. 

357. 



Ab urbe. 
526. 
A transmi- 
gracione. 
366. 



triginta sex annis.^ Qui postmodum congressus cum 
Pliilopatore ^ rege ^gypti, victus est, et ^ fugiens paene 
captus.* ^ Ennius ^ poeta apud Tarentum nascitur. 
Qui a Catone qusestore Komam translatus habitavit 
in monte Aventino parco sumptu et unius ancillae 
ministerio contentus. Quo in tempore ^ virgo ^ vestalis 
a servo corrupta seipsam occidit.^ EutropiuSy lihro 
secundo. Quadraginta ferme millia Gallorum, qui 
Alpes jam transcenderant, caesa sunt a Romanis.^^ Hi 
nempe Galli, Britomaro duce, juraverant non prius 
se baltea militaria deposituros quam Capitolium 
occupassent.^^ Et factum est ita. Nam victos eos 
jErailius ^^ codsuI in Capitolio discinxit. Antiochus 



^ 36 annis'] om. CD., but insert 
it later on, note ^, p. 50. 

2 Pliilopatore, from A. ; Philefa- 
tore, B. ; Philopatre, MS. 

•* per desertum, added in CD. 

^* est, added in B.C.D. 

^ Macedonum Demetrius regnavit 
annis decern, added in D. 

" Emenius, D. 

7 Quo in tempore^ om. CD. 

^ qucedam, added in A.B. 

^ Macedonum Antiyonus coepit 
regnare, et regnavit annis quindecim, 
added in CD. 

^^ CD. abbreviate the previous 



sentence, and add here : "Eutropi2is. 
" Gallorum quidem animi feroees 
*' corpora plusquam hum ana erant, 
" sed experimento deprehensum est 
" quod virtus eorum, sicut primo 
" impetu major quam virorum est, 
" ita sequens minor est quam foemi- 
" narum. Alpina namque corpora 
*' humente coelo educata quoddam 
" simile suis habent nivibus, quai 
" pingui calore in sudorem resolutae 
" quasi sole laxantur." 

^^ incendissent, CD. 

'" Emiaus, C 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



49 



and ])ntty }ere, and fau^t afterward wi]? Philopater kyng of Trevisa. 
Egipt, and fli J,^ and was wel nygh ^ i-take.^ Ennius ])e poete 
is i-bore* at Tarent. Caton^ j>e questor broujte hym to 
Rome. Trevisa. Questor is he ]?at gadre]? tribut ^ to Rome, 
and }>e domesman was somtyme i-cleped questor. Also [the] '' 
wardeyns of ]>e tresorie^ were i-cleped questores. But now 
cherles ^ and pardoneres ^^ bee)? i-cleped questores. panne it 
folowe]) in pe storie.^^ Ennius ]?e poete wonede ^^ in fe hillc 
Aventinus with litel cost, and hilde hym apayed wi]> ]?e ser- 
vice of oon ^^ wench e. pat tyme a bondeman lay by a mayde 
of ])e temple of ]?e goddes Vesta, and pe mayde slowj hir self 
for sorwe. ^* Eutropiu^, libro 2^^. Aboute ^^ [this tyme] ^ 
fourty ])owsand of ^^ Galles passede ^^ ]>e hilles Alpes, and were 
i-slawe^^ of Romayns. pese Galles hadde a ledere |?at hi^t ^^ 
Brytomarus, and fey made here avow and swore ^^ J?at ))ey 
wolde nevere doo of hire girdelles ^i of kny^thode ar ^2 j^ey 
come in [to] ^3 jje capitol of Rome. And so it byfel ^* ; ffor 
whanne pey were overcome, Emylyus^s ]?e consul dede^^ hem 



Aburbe. by the space of xxxvj. yere, whiche metenge in batelle with MS. Harl. 
Philopator, kynge of Egipte, was ouercommen and allemoste 2261. 
taken. Ennius the poete was borne at Tharentus this tyme, ^ transmi- 
whiche broujte to Rome by Cato, a questor, dwellede in the gracione. 
mownte Auentyne, was of litelle meite contente with the 
ministery of oon goose. Eutropius, libro secundo. xl*^ m^" men 
of Fraunce were sleyne of the Romanes, whiche hade com- 
men to the hilles Alpyne. These men of Fraunce hade made 
an othe that thei wolde not putte awey theire girdelles of 
knyjhtehode vn til thei hade occupiede the capitoly. And so hit 
was ; for the consul Emilius destroyede and pereschede theyme 



^fledde, Cx. 

^ neiy, $. 

^ taken, Cx. 

"* borriy Cx. 

5 Cato, Cx. 

^ gadred trybute, Cx. 

7 From Cx. 

^ tresour, Cx. 

^ churles, Cx. 

^° pardneres, P. ; gyllours and 
pardeners, y. 

^^ history, Cx. 

^2 dwellyd, Cx. 

^^ and was content with the service 
of a, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



^^ sorowe, Cx. 

^^ Aboute an fourty, 7. 

16 of] om. Cx. 

17 passiden, /8. 

1^ slayne, Cx., ut passim. 

19 callyd, Cx. 

20 swar, Cx. 

21 gurdles, 7. ; gurdels, Cx. 

22 er, fi. ; till, Cx. 

-3 From a., 7., and Cx. 

25 Emilus, 7. and Cx. 
2^' dude, 7. ; putte, Cx. 

D 



50 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



magnus hoc anno coepit regnare super Syriam.* 
^529!*^* I^tolomeus Eupator seu^ Philopator, filius Euergetis, 

A transmi- 
gracione. 

369. regnavit ^Egyptiis annis ^ xvii^ ; sub quo principe 
geruntur ea quse de primis^ Machabeis^ scribuntur.^ 
Trogus, lihro tricesimo? Iste Ptolomeus ex magni- 
tudine facinoris sortitus est nomen Philopatoris. 
Quippe ^ omisso ^ actu militari, otio, luxurise, crepundiis, 
atque parricidiis se dedit. Noctes stupris, dies conviviis 
consumpsit.^^ Denique occisa Eurydiee/^ quse et sibi ^^ 
soror fuerat et uxor, meretricibus adhsesit. Inde pro- 
vocatus Antiochus Magnus ^Egyptum subegisset, nisi de 
Grsecia conducto exercitu impeditus fuisset. Tandem 
mortuo isto Ptolomeo meretrices ejus sunt suspensse, 
relicto ad regimen regni puero quinquenni quem ex 



^ The whole much varied inC.D. 
2 sive, B. ' 
^ annis] om. B. 
^ primis~\ om. CD. 
^ primo Machabeorum, B. 
^ Slightly varied in CD., as are 
the six following sentences. 



' The reference is chapp. 1 , 2. 
^ Qui priuSy B. 

^ omissd] from A. ; amisso, MS., 
CD. 

'^^ depuiavit, CD. 

" Erudice, A. ; Eruduce, MS. 

^" sibi et, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



51 



to de]?e in ]>e capitol^ of Rome.^ And so it byfel. For Trevisa. 

whanne ^ ]?at Jere ,' [jpe grete] * Antiochus gan ^ to regno in 

Siria, Tholomeus Emperator,^ ]?at heet ^ Philopator also,^ 
Euergetes his sone, regnede in Egipt seventene Jere. In his 
tyme were ]?e dedes i-doo ]7at beef i-rad ^ of the firste Ma- 
chabeis. Trogus, libro 30°. pis Tholomeus ^^ for his evel 
lyvynge was i-cleped Philopator, for he left [of] ^^ fe dedes 
of kny^thode, and taf hym to slewfe, to leccherie,^^ to 
children nysete,^^ to manslaujter,^* and to sle his piers.^^ He 
spendede ^^ fe nyjt in hordom/^ and pe day in festes ; at fe 
laste he slowj Erudices, fat was his suster and his wif, and 
Jaf hym al to strompettes and to hoores.^^ perfore pe grete 
Antiochus was wroof , and wolde have ^^ i-wonne Egipt, ne 
hadde ^^ he be i-lette by an oost ^i ]?at was i-hered 22 out of 
Grecia.23 At fe laste he ^^ was deed, and lefte a childe 
of fyve ^ere olde ^^ to kepe ]?e kyngdom, ]?at he hadde i-gete ^ 

Ab urbe. taken in captiuite in the capitoly. Anthiocus Magnus began MS. Hael. 
to reigne in Siria abowte this tyme. Ptholomeus Eupator or 2261. 
Philopator, son of Euergetes, began to reigne amonge men of "" — . 
Egipte, whiche reignede xvij. yere, in whose tyme those gracione. " 
thynges happede whiche be wryten of the pennes^^ of the 
Machabees. Trogus, libro tricesimo. This Ptholomeus was 
namede Philopator for the magnitude of his trespas ; for he 
lefte })e actes of cheuallery and ^afe hym to ydelnes, lecchery, 
and to superfluites, wastenge ny^htes in lechery and synne, 
and the dales in festes and in superfluites. After that Erudix 
f. 171. a. his wife y-sleyne, and sustyr to hym, he drawede un to women 
of ylle disposicion. Anthiocus Magnus provokede thro that 
hade occupiede alle Egipte, but that an hoste of men hyrede 
Jafe to hym resistence. At the laste, this Ptholomeus dedde, 
the women of ylle disposicion to whom he drawede were 
hongede, levenge after hym a childe of v. yere in age, whom 



^ capitoilj /8. ; capitoyl, 7. ; capy- 
toyle, Cx. 

2 of Borne . . . whanne] om. i8., 
y., and Cx. 

•^ For whanne] om. a, 

■* From a. and Cx. 

5 by gan, Cx. 

^ Eupator, )8. and 7. 

7 Eupator, otherwise callyd., Cx. 

^ also] om. Cx. 

^ that he redde, Cx. 

^° Ptholomeus, a. 

^^ From a., 7., and Cx. 

^^ lecherye, Cx. 

^^ childrens nicetCy Cx. 



^^ manslauyt, )8. and 7. 

^5 peres, )8. and 7. ; peeres, Cx. 

^6 spende, fi. and Cx. 

^7 hourdom, 7. ; hoerdome, Cx. 

1^ harlattes, Cx. 

i9 han, Cx. 

20 nadde, a., /3., and Cx. ; nad,y. 

21 hoost, Cx. 

22 huyred, fi ; yhuyred, 7. 

23 huyred oute of Grece, Cx. 

24 he] om. a. ; This Tholomeus, $. 
and Cx. 

23 of age, Cx. 

25 bygoten. Cx. 
27 Sic. 

D 2 



( PUBLIO 



V'* 



Jtfc«5 



52 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Eurydice ^ susceperat. ^ Eutropius, libro tertio, et Oro- 
Ab urbe. sius, Uhvo ouarto.^ Hoc anno coepit * secundum ^ 

533. 

^graSS!* Vellum Punicum, durans per septemdecim annos, in 

373. 

quo Romani magis erant contriti quam victores. 
Nempe Hannibal filius Hamilcaris,^ puer nonennis 
quondam juraverat patri suo ad aras deorum quod quam 
cito posset bellum Romanis inferred ^ Hannibal 
ergo ^ vicesimum jam ^^ agens annum, Saguntum flo- 
rentissimam Hispanige civitatem Romanoque ^^ populo 
amicissimam octo mensibus obsedit.^^ Mittunt Romani 
legatos Jid Hannibalem, ut ratione foederis inter eos 
nuper initi ab obsidione desistat. Contempta hac^^ 
petitione procedunt ulterius legati ad Africam de 
rupto foedere conquerentes, sed cum nihil proficerent 
Romam redierunt. Interim medio tempore deletum 
est Saguntum in hunc modum. Afflicta nimium per 
obsidionem et famem Sagunto, accessit ad urbem qui- 
dam de militibus ^* Hannibalis, sed amicus civitatis, 



J Erudice, MSS. 

2 CD. add : " Macedonum Phi- 
" lippus regnavit annis quadraginta 
" duo. Victi sunt Juda;i ; quadra- 
" ginta millia armatorum ex illis 
" cajduntur." 

^ CD. omit reference. 

^ incepit, A.B. 

^ secunduin] cm. A.B, 

G Amilcari,\M.^^. 

7 Varied and abbreviated in CD. 



^ Eutropius, added as authority 
in CD. 

^ igituTy B. 

^^ jarti^ om. B. 

^^ Romanorum, B. 

^2 obsedit'} subvertit, dura responsa 
Romanorum legatorum dedit, in 
CD., the succeeding passages, as far 
as suum below, p. 54, being omitted. 

^'^ ac, A. 

^^ dc viilitibus'] om. A. 



MONACHI CESTRENS18, LIB. III. 53 

on Erudices. panne his strompettis were an ^ hanged every- Trevisa. 

chon. EutropiuSf libro 3°. pat ^ere bygan pe secounde 

bataille jjat^ hatte bellum Punicum, and durede seventene 
Jere. In j^at bataille j^e Romayns were overcome more ^ j^an 
victors, and hadde more harme |)an |>ey quytte* ; fFor Hanybal, 
Amilcarius ^ his sone, a childe of nyne Jere olde, hadde 
i-swore ^ to his owne fader at pe au^tres ^ of goddes, ]?at he 
wolde Jeve |)e Romayns a bataille as sone as he myjte. 
panne Hanybal, in his twentij)e ^ Jere of age [and] ^ 
eyjte mon]?es, bysegede ^^ Saguntum, j^e faireste ^^ citee of 
Spayne, and moste frend to pe Romayns. pe Romayns sende|> 
messangers^^ to Hanybal, prayenge J?at he wolde leve ]?e 
seege, bycause of covenant J>at was bytwene hem rajjer. pis 
axinge ^^ was ^^ despised, and ]?e messangers ^^ wente forJ> into 
Affrica to pleyne of ]?e covenant i-broke^^ ; but pey seigh ^^ J>at 
it was for noujt, and tornede home a^en to Rome, panne, 
in \Q mene tyme, Saguntum ^® was destroyed in ))is manere : 
Saguntum was hugeliche i-greved ^^ by J)e sege, and by [the] ^o 
grete honger, and oon of Hanybal his knyjtes, f>at was frende 

Ab urbe. he gate by Erudix his wife and sustyr. Eutropius, libro tertio. MS. Harl. 
The secunde batelle Punical began, continuenge by xvij. yere, 2261. 
in whom the Romanes were more deuicte then victores. . , ~._ 
Hanibal, the son of Amilcarus, a childe of ix. yere in age, gracione. 
made a promyse to his fader, at the awters of theire goddes, 
])at he wolde ^iffe batelle to J»e Romanes as soone as he 
my^hte. Hanibal hauenge xx*^ yere in age segede a cite in 
Speyne, Saguntum, moste lufFenge to the Romanes, by viij. 
monethes. The Romanes sende messyngers to Hanibal that 
he scholde leve the segenge of that cite by reason of promysse 
made betwene peyme. Hanibal despisenge theire message, 
the messynge to Affrike ^^ compleynenge of the promyse broken 
to feim, whiche reioycenge noo comforte returnede to Rome. 
Whiche cite was destroyede in pis maner folowenge : A 
kny^hte longenge to Hanibal, and luffenge that cite, come to 



^ ari] om. Cx. 

2 called^ Cx. 

3 more overcome, a. and Cx. 
^ than they were quytte, Cx. 

^ Amilcarus, ^. ; Amilcaris sonne, 
Cx. 

^ sworn, Cx, 

7 auctres, /3. and y. 

^ twenty, Cx. 

9 From fi. and Cx. 

'" bisegide, $. ; bysegede eyi,te 
monthes S.^y. ; besieged Saguntin,Cx.. 



^^fayrste, y. 

^2 sente a messager, Cx. 

^"^ prayer, Cx. 

" ^/s, y. 

^5 messager, Cx. 

^^ broken, Cx. 

^7 siy, /8. ; sawe, Cx. 

^^ Saguntin, Cx. 

^^ gretely agreved, Cx. 

20 From Cx. 

21 Sic. 



54 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



consulens cives ut urbem redderent cum omni^ ar- 
gento et auro suo, cum^ aliis rebus ^ ipsi vivi eva- 
derent. At illi deliberate consilio ignem incendunt, in 
quo argentum et aurum projiciunt, et post semetipsos^ 
immergunt. Deleta igitur civitate, Hannibal fratrem 
suum* Hasdrubalem in Hispania reliquit. Ipse cum 
centum millibus peditum, decern millibus equitum, 
quadraginta elepbantis, verno tempore ^ transpenetra- 
tis^ Alpibus usque tunc immeabilibus, Italiam venit, 
Cornelio Scipione, Romano tribuno, Hispanias interim 
debellante J OrosiuSj Iviiii .^ Igitur ^ Hannibal Py- 
renaeos montes transgressus, inter ferocissimas Gallo- 
rum^^ gentes ferro^^ viam sibi fecit, et nonodecimo 
die a Pyrenseis usque ad Alpes pervenit, ubi per qua- 
triduum a Gallis infestatus ferro et igne viam sibi 



^ omni] om. A.B. 

2 et, B. 

3 seipsos, B. 

4 suum. See note 11, p. 52. 
^ verno tempore'] om. B. 

^ transpenctratis] from A.B.C.D. ; 
iranspenetrans, MS. 



7 Varied in CD., which omit the 
reference. 

^ libro quarto, A. correctly ; libro 

8% B. 

9 Sed, C, and from Ptjreneos to 
Verumtamen omitted. 
*" Galliarum, B. 
^^ ferro ofter fecit, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



5d 



to jjecitee, wente to j^e citee, and counsaillcdc ^ ]>e men of ])C Trevisa. 

citee to Jildc up ]?e citee 2 wi]? al Ipe gold and selver and o]?ere 

richesses^ fat was pere ynne, and ]?ey schulde skape^ hem 
self on lyve^; but ]>ej avised^ hem, and took counsaillc, 
and made wel huge fuyre,^ and J)rewe ]?erynne al fe gold 
and silver, and hem self at the laste. Whan ])is ^ citee was 
destroyed, Hanybal lefte his broJ>er Asdrubal ^ in Spayne, and 
he hym self wij? an hondred jjowsand [of ^^ foot men, and ten 
]70wsand] ^^ of horsmen, and fourty olyphauntes, passede J?e 
hilles Alpes in springynge ^^ tyme, fere no man hadde i-passed 
to forehonde,^^ and wente into Italy, pe mene tyme Cornelius 
Scipio, consul of Rome, werrede in Spayne. Orosius. panne 
Hanibal passede ]>e hilles Pireneus,^^ and made hym away wif 
iren ^^ and wij) fuyre ^^ among fe cruel peple of Galles ; and 
he come fe nyntefe day among i'' from ]>e hilles Pireneus to 
Alpes. pere he was harde a ^^ sette ^^ foure dayes wi}> Galles ; 
but he made hym ^o way wif iren and wif fuyre amonge pe 



Ab urbe. the peple of hit, after that thei hade suffrede grete hungre, MS. Harl. 
cownsaylenge theyme to yolde vp the cite with alle theire 2261. 
goodes, hauenge your life grauntede to yow. This peple of ^ traiism'- 
the cite takenge cownselle togeder, sette fire in the cite, in gracione. 
to whom thei keste alle theire golde and siluyr, and after that 
they felle in to }>e fire and were brente. That cite destroyede, 
Hanibal lefte Asdrubal his broker in Speyne. This Hanibal 
hauenge with hym a c. m''' of fote men and x. m^* of horsemen, xl^ 
elephauntes, passenge the hilles Alpyne in the tyme of ver, come 
to Ytaly, Cornelius Scipio beenge that tyme occupiede in 
batelle in Speyne. Orosius. This Hanibal passenge the hilles 
Pirene, made weye to hym with his swerde and with fire f. 171. b. 
amonge the cruelle peple of Fraunce, trowblede soore with 
theyme by the space of iiij. dales ; whiche was conclusede with 



^ counceiled, fi. ; consailde, 7. 

2 yelde it up^ Cx, 

3 ryches, Cx. 

* ascape, j8. ; shold escape, Cx. 
^ hem silf alyve, )8. ; hamsylf a 
lyve, 7. ; themselfa lyve, Cx. 
^ advysed, Cx. 

7 a grete fire, Cx. 

8 the, Cx. 

9 Astrubal, Cx. 

10 o/] om. Cx. 

11 From a,, )8., 7., and Cx. 



12 



springgyng, 7. 



^'^ passed hyfore, Cx. 
^^ Pirenes, fi. and 7. 
Pyrenes, Cx., et infra. 



et infra ; 



' !/re, 7. 
^6 and wi\> fuyre'] om. /8., 7., and 



Cx. 

^" among'] 
rightly. 



om. /3., 7., and Cx. 



^s a] om. Cx. 
'9 asset, 7. 
"0 hym] om. 7. 



56 POLYCHRONICON RANTTLPHI HIGDEN 

fecit. Verumtamen in summo Apennino monte nivibus 
biduo fuerat conclusus,^ ubi jumenta, homines, et ele- 
phantos quamplures amisit. Eutropius, lihro tertio} 
Tunc Romanes mira prodigia terruerunt ; nam apud 
Arpos sol cum luna pugnare,^ apud Capenas duse 
lunse exortse, apud ^ Faliscos ^ coelum scindi vide- 
batur. Audito igitur Hannibalis adventu, Cornelius 
Scipio de Hispaniis revocatur, quem apud Ticinum 
occurrentem Hannibal primo devicit, contrito exercitu 
Romano, deinde apud flumen Cremeram ^ cum suo 
exercitu prorsus detrivit.^ Tertio Sempronium de 
Sicilia ^ redeuntem cum suo exercitu contrivit. 
Quarto Flaminium consulem, csesis viginti quinque 
millibus, interemit, sex millia cepit. OrosiusP Ubi 
tam acriter pugnatum est, ut cum terrae motus urbes 
diruens montesque^'^ scindens tunc accideret, bellantes 



^ inclusus, A. 

2 CD. abbreviate greatly and 
omit reference. 
^ pugnasse, CD. 
" ad, B. 
* Falisccs, B. 



<5 Creniam, MSS. 

' Much shortened in C.D. 

^ Cicilia, A. 

^ B. omits reference. 

'" et monies, B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 



57 



cruel peple.i No))eles [in] 2 j^e hi^est hille Appeninus,^ Trevisa. 

Hanibal was closede tweie dayes wi]? snow ; J)ere he loste meny 

men, olphantes,^ and o]?ere bestes. Trevisa. Pyrenus is an 
hije hille of Spayne, and meny sigh ^ hilles in f»at side beej? 
i-cleped montes Pirenei.^ Alpes bee]> hije hilles in J)e side 
of Italy, perfor]) Hannibal wente to Rome, and Hanibal heet 
Penitus also, j^erfore Alpes beej> i-cleped Appenini, as ]>ey it 
were Penitus is hilles.^ Eutropius. pe^ wonderful mer- 
vailles ferede ^ j^e Romayns ; for among ]?e Arpes ^^ hit semed 
Jjat pe Sonne fau^t wi^ j^e mone, among ^e Capenes hit 
semed ]?at tweye mones were aryse,ii among ]?e Phalisces ^^ 
hit semed J»at hevene was i-clove.^^ pan whanne }>ey herde 
J}e comynge of Hanibal, Cornelius Scipio was sente after out 
of Spayne,^^ and Hanibal mette wi)? hym [and overcom 
hym] ^^ first at Ticinum, and beet ^^ doun f e oost ^^ of Rome ; 
and he overcome hym eft ^^ at J)e ry ver Erenia.^^ At j^e j^ridde 
tyme he beet ^o doun 21 Sempronius wi]> his oost pat come out of 
Sicilia.22 At ]?e fourj7e tyme he slow^ Flamens J?e consul, and 
fyve and twenty ]?owsand of his oost, and took sixe J^owsand 
prisoners. Titus, pere was so harde fi^tinge pat pe fijtinge 
men woste ^3 nou^t of J>e erpe schakynge pat was while pey 

Aburbe. snawe by ij. dales in the hille Appenyne, where he loste mony MS. Harl. 
men, bestes, and elephauntes. Eutropius. Mony meruellous 2261. 
signes causede the Romanes to be aferde ; for the sonne was . , . 
scene to fi^hte with the moone at Arpos, and ij. mones were gracione. 
seen at a place callede Capena, and the firmamente was seene as 
to haue ben diuidede at Faliscos. The Romanes herenge of the 
commenge of Hanibal, Scipio was desirede to comme from 
Speyne, whom Haniballe mette at Ticinus, and hade victory of 
hym ; after that Hanibal hade victory of Sempronius commenge 
from Sicille. After that Hanibal hade victory of Flammens, 
consul, sleenge xv. m^ of Romanes, and takenge vj. mt in cap- 
tiuite. Titus. Where the peple did fijhte soo soore, that when 
there was that tyme a movenge of the erthe, destroyenge cites 



^ amonge \>e cruel peple~\ om. o., 
iS., 7., and Cx. 

2 From )8., 7., and Cx. 

3 Appenninus, Cx. 
■* olyjfaunteSy Cx. 

^ hy-^, a. and 7. ; hei"^, $. ; hyghe, 
Cx. 

^ Pireni, $. and Cx. 

7 Penitus hilles, $. and Cx. 

"^ \>o, )8. and 7. ; Tho, Cx. 

^ feered, Cx. 

10 Alpes, Cx. 

^^ risen, Cx. 



^^ Falisces, 7. and Cx. 

^^ cloven, Cx. 

^'^ forth to Spayne, Cx. 

^5 From a., )8., 7., and Cx. 

^^ bent, fi. and 7. 

^' hooste, Cx., et infra. 

^^ wi\> his ost, added here in 7. 

19 Crema, a., fi., 7., and Cx. 

2" bent, )8. ; beat, 7. 

^1 scomfyt, Cx. 

22 Scicilia, /8. and Cx. 

2^ wist, B. ; waste, 7. ; wyst, Cx. 



58 



POLYCHKONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



hoc non sentirent. Eutropius} Quinto Fabius Maxi- 
mus contra Hannibalem ^ missus, per summa montium 
et abdita nemorum^ casfcra ponens, Hannibalis^ fer- 
vorem ^ eludens, reperfca occasione devicit.^ S exto 
consules Romani, Lucius iEmilius Paulus, et Caius^ 
Terentius^ Varro, contra Hannibalem mittuntur, quos 
tamen praemunierat ^ Fabius Maximus, quod Hanniba- 
lem pugnsG impatientem non aliter devincerent quam 
pugnam differendo. ^ Ipsi tamen contra consilium 
impatientius agentes victi sunt apud Cannas, vicum ^^ 
Apulise, juvantibus Hannibalem potissime vento et arena 
levata, ubi csesa sunt Romanorum equitum quadra- 
ginta millia, militum quinque millia, consulares viri et 
senatores^^ aut capti aut occisi. Nee dubium ultimum 
diem Romani status tunc fuisse, si Hannibal uti ^^ vic- 
toria sicut^^ vincere scivisset. Banulphus. Id est/^ 
si statim post victoriam ill am ad urbem capiendam 



^ Eutropius] om. B. 

2 Anibalem, B. 

•^ et^ added in B. 

"* Hanibalem, B. 

^ fervor e, B. 

^ Much varied and abbreviated in 
CD. 

7 Puhlius, MSS. 

^ Thus in MS. and A.B. ; prce- 
munivit, C.D. 



^ Varied and abbreviated in C.D. 

^" vicuni'] om. B. 

^' et senatores'] om. B. 

'^ uti . . . Eutropius] statim post 
victoriam ad urbem accessisset, — 
substituted in C.D. 

13 si, B. 

1^ Ranulphus. Id est] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



59 



foutte, and ))rewe a^ doun citees and cleef ^ hilles. Eutro' Trevisa. 

pius, libro 3^. At pe fifte ^ tyme Frambius ^ Maximus was 

sent ajenst Hanybal, and pi^te his pavylouns ^ in J»e hi^este 
hilles and in J?e^ prive^ places of wordes,^ and scornede 
Hanybal his streng]?e, and wayted his tyme, and overcome 
hem. pe sixte ^ tyme fe consuls of Rome, Lucius Emilius 
Publius, and Paulus ^^ Terrencius and FaiTO,ii were sent ajenst 
Hanibal. But Fabius Maximus warnede hem ]?at Hanibal was 
so froward ^2 and so cruel ^^ in fijtinge, pat pey schulde nevere 
overcome hym but by tarienge ^^ of pe bataille and of pe fi^t- 
ynge. pey were fervent, and dede^^ ajenst counsaille, and 
were overcome at Canna, a strete of Appulia.^^ pere pe 
wynde and pe gravel pat was arered wip pe wynde halpe 
wel Hanybal. pere were dede^^ fourty powsand knyjtes of 
Romayns, and fyve powsand [of] ^^ peres of consuls and 
of the 1^ senatoures were dede oper i-take. Hit is no doute 
po hadde i-be pe laste day of the state of Rome, ^if Hanibal 
cowpe as wel use ^^ pe victorie as he coupe wynne it yn fi^t- 
inge. 1^. Hadde he i-goo ^^ anon after pe ^^ victorie for to take 



Ab urbe. and diuidenge hilles, hit was not perceyvede of theyme. Eu- MS. Harl. 
tropins, libro tertio. Fabius Maximus sende by the Romanes 2261. 
to ^iffe batelle to Hanibal, kepenge coverte places and fyndenge . , .^ 
avauntage, hade victory of Hanibal. After that consules of gracione. 
Rome were sende to ^iffe batelle to Hanibal, whiche were 
Lucius Emilius Paulus and Publicus Terencius Varro, whom 
Fabius monyschede that Hanibal was invincible withowte that 
thei differrede batelle. But these consulles doenge not after 
the cownselle of Fabius, were deuicte at Cannas of Apulia, the 
wynde helpenge Hanibal and the grauel lifte vp by hit, where 
xl*^ ml* of horsemen of the Romanes and v. m* men consulares 
and senatores other sleyne or taken. And withoute dowte the 
laste batelle of the Romanes hade ben finischede if that 
Hanibal hade goen to the cite and taken hit after that batelle. 



1 a] om. Cx. 

2 clef, j8. ; and clyfand huUes,y. ; 
claf, Cx. 

3 Attefyve]>e, fi. 

'* Fabius, o., $., and Cx. 
5 pavilons, Cx. 
^ he] om. a., /3., 7., and Cx. 
7 pri/vate, Cx. 
^ modes, )8., 7., and Cx. 
^ sixete, a. 

"^^ Paulus and Publius, a., ^., 7., 
and Cx. 



11 Varro, )8., 7., and Cx. 

^'^ fr award, 7. 

^^ cruwel, fi. 

" tarijyng, 7. 

^^ dide, Cx. 

^^ streyte of Apulea, Cx. 

'7 slayne, Cx. 

IS From j8,, 7., and Cx. 

J9 the'] om. a., ;8., 7., and Cx. 

^^ have used, Cx. 

21 gone, Cx. 

^H ))at,7. 



60 



POLYCHliONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 



accessisset. Titus. Tanta autem facta est strages 
Romanorum ut Hannibal suos parcere csedi juberet. 
Eutropius. Varro autem consul^ evadens cum solis 
quinquaginta equitibus ad urbem rediit. Qui ^ a 
senatu laudatus quod rempublicam non desperasset 
barbam capillumque ^ non rasit, nunquam accubando 
se refecit, honores non admisit, donee ultionem de Han- 
nibale vidisset. Tunc, quod antea nunquam visum est, 
servi manumissi, latrones, homicidse, incarcerati, facti 
sunt milites.* Orosius. Et^ etiam proletarii, qui ad 
prolem gignendam erant deputati. Qui tunc Romanam 
militiam vidisset rubore perfundi merito potuisset ; 
nam tunc omnis miles et ipse senatus novitius erat.^ 
Eutropius. At cum Hannibal Romanis obtulisset ut 
suos captivos redimere possent, responsum est a senatu 
illos cives nequaquam fore necessaries qui armati capi 
potuissent. Idcirco Hannibal captivorum aliquos occi- 



* consul] om. B. 

■2 Qui] from A.I>. ; Quia, MS. 

•* capillum quofjue, B. 



■* Slightly varied in CD. 

' El . . . depulati:] oin. C.I). 

^fuity B. ; much varied iu CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. 111. 



61 



}>e citee. Titus, pere was so grete slaujter ^ of Romayns ])at Trevisa. 

Hanibal heet ^ his men spare |)e Romayns.^ Eutropius. 

Farro * ]>e consul tornede to Rome wij) fifty horsmen and 
na^ mo. pe senatoures preysede hym^ wel, for he hadde 
nou^t disparaged J)e comynte of Rome. He schavede ^ nevere 
his heed, noJ?er his berde,^ he eet ^ nevere liggynge, he wolde 
have no worschepe, er he seigh ^^ wreche of ^^ Hanybal. po 
as ^2 it were nevere i-seie to forehonde,^^ bonde men and men 
fat were i-made ^^ free, jjeeves, [and] ^^ mansleers, and prisoners 
were i-made knyjtes. Orosius. Also proletarii,^^ J?at were 
i-ordeyned forto ^'^ gete children, were foo ^^ i-made kny^tes. 
Who fat sigh f o ^^ f e chivalrie of Rome my^te be wel sore 
aschamed, for fo everiche knyjt and fe senatoures were noujt 
wise, 20 and cowfe noujt hire craft.^i Eutropius. And^^ Hani- 
bal profered hem here prisoneres to raunsoun. pe Romayns ^^ 
answerde ^* and seide, fat f e burgeys ^5 fat my^te be i-take 
i-armed ^6 were nou^t nedeful to f e citee. perfore Hanibal 



Ab urbe. For f er was so grete murdre of the peple of Rome that he MS. Hakl. 

commaundede his peple to sease from the sleenge of theyme. 2261. 

Eutropius. Varro, the consul, returnede to the cite, whiche . , . 
-* 1 T p T , , ' A transmi- 

was commendede oi f e senate that he putte not the commune gracione. 
vtilite in despeire, and hade not schaven his berde and heire ; f. 172. a. 
whiche slepede not vn til that he hade taken vengeaunce of 
Hanibal. In that tyme seruauntes of Rome were made fre, 
thefes and also mansleers were made kny^htes. Orosius. And 
also men lefte in of er tymes in the cite for multiplicacion ; for 
that tyme alle the senate was but as a nouice. Eutropius. 
Hanibal offrede to the Romanes that thei scholde redeme the 
Romanes in captiuite. The senate seide those citesynnes be 
not necessary that be taken in to captiuite hauenge armor on 
theyme. Wherefore Hanibal did slee somme of theyme, and 



^ slauyt, y. 
2 bade, )3. ; bad, Cx. 
^ t)a< Hanybal heet spare )>e fyy 
tyng, y. 

4 Varro, /8., 7., and Cx. 

5 no, /8., 7., and Cx. 
^ hem, Cx. 

7 schamede, a. 

^ his berde nor his heede, Cx. 

9 et, 7. 

siy, i8. ; ar he syy, 7. ; til he 



10 



sawe, Cx 



on. 



Cx. 



^- as^ om. Cx. 
^2 seen byfore, Cx. 



^^ men ofwerre made, Cx. 

15 From Cx, 

1^ proUtarii, 7. ; poletarii, Cx. 

'7 /or] om. Cx. 

1^ }pan, fi, and Cx. 

1^ sawe than, Cx. 

^^ unwys, 7. 

'^^ for than the knyghtes ne the 
senatoures were not wyse, ne couth 
not other craft, Cx. 

22 whanne, added here in 7. 

23 )>e Romayns^ hy, 7. 
2^ answeriden, )3. 

25 bourges, Cx. 

26 taken armed, Cx. 



62 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

dit, aliquos ^ ad diversas ^ regiones vendidit. Et tres mo- 
dios^ annulorum aureorum, quos de manibus militum 
Eomanorum detraxerat,* in signum victoriso^ Cartha- 
ginem misit.^ Titus LiviusJ Tanta fuit tunc attri- 
tio rei publicse ut 8es et ferrum de templis spoliaretur 
ad arma reparanda, quia arma quae prius secundum 
consuetudinem post victoriam oblata fuerant in tem- 
plis et diis dicata ^ tunc reassumebantur. Item remiges 
non sufFecerunt ad naves regendas, nee serarium pub- 
licum suffecit ad stipendia bellatorum. Quamobrem 
e dictum exiit a ^ consulibus et senatoribus ut privatse 
personse opes *^ saas ad serarium deferrent. Inde gravis- 
sima seditio inter senatum et plebem exorta est, quam 
tamen consul ita compescuit, dicens quod sicut magis- 
tratus praecedunt ^^ plebem in dignitate et honore, ita 
prsecedere debent in onere et subventione subeunda. 



^ aliquos'\ om. A. 
- diver sas~\ om. B. 
^ modulo s, A.B. 
'• detraxeranty MSS. 
^ victoria'] om. B. 
^ Varied in CD. 



7 Titus Liviiis to coegit (page 
68) omitted in CD. 
^ dedicata, A. 
3 de, A. 
^° opus, A. 
^^ prcBcedit, A, 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



63 



slou^ som of ]?e prisoners, and soldo som in to dyvers londes, 
and sente J^re busshelles ^ of golden 2 rynges, pat were i-take 
of ]}e hondes of fe kny^tes of Rome into Cartage, in tokene 
of ])e victorie. Titus, po ^ ]?e comouns ^ of Rome was so 
i-bore adoun,^ and so bare, ]?at pey spoylede J>e temples of 
bras and of iren ^ for ^ to make hem armow ^erof ; ifor ]>e 
armour ^ ]?at were i-offred in Rome ^ in temples, and were ^^ 
i-halowed ^^ to hire goddes, as J>eyJ ^^ ^g^d to doo after ]>e ^^ 
victories, ]?ey ^* were i-take ajen out of J>e temples ^^ for grete 
nede and raeschief pat pey were ynne.^^ Also hem lakked 
schipmen to governe here schippes, and here tresorye^^ suffised 
nou^t ffor wages of werrioures.^^ perfore pe consuls and pe 
senatoures heet i^ pat every man schulde brynge his riches 
in to pe tresorye. perfore bygan greet stryf bytwene pe 
comouns ^o and pe senatoures. But oon of pe consuls aleyde ^^ 
pe strif in pis manere, and seide as pe grete passep pe com- 
ouns in worschippe and yn dignite, so pey schulde passe 
hem in coste and in22 berynge of charge in helpe of pe 



Trevisa. 



Ab urbe. solde somme into other regiones, sendenge to Cartago iij. busch- MS. Harl. 
elles of rynges of golde in a signe off victory, whom he hade 2261. 
of the hondes of the kny'^htes of Rome. Titus. There was . , . 
that tyme suche pouerte in the cite of Rome that brasse and gracione. 
yrne was spoilede from temples to repaire armour, takenge also 
armoures sette in temples after that they hade doen grete 
victoryes. Also thei hade not sufficiaunte takellynge for theire 
schippes, neither treasure sufficiaunte for theire hoste, where- 
fore a crye was made by the consulles and senatores that 
priuate persones scholde brynge theire goodes to the place of 
treasure. For the whiclie thynge grete diuision was movede 
betwene the peple and the senatores, whom the consulle re- 
movede in this wyse, sayenge that the senatores and also the 
noble men scholde precede peim in Jiftes, like as pei precelle 
the peple in dignite. Wherefore the consul ordeynede that 



1 hoyschelSf y. 

2 gold, Cx. 

3 \>anne, /3. ; Than, Cx. 
■* comyns, fi. 

5 were soo born dowriy Cx. 

6 yre, y. 

"^ for^ om. Cx. 

^ armures, )8. ; armours, Cx. 

9 in Rome'] om. y. and Cx. 

^" were] om. y. 

*^ and halewide, $. 



12 they, Cx. 

13 theyr, Cx. 

1^ ]po, a. and y. ; than they, Cx. 

15 templis, Cx. 

I'' yn, Cx. 

1" they tresour, Cx. 

1^ werrours, Cx. 

19 hade, Cx. 

20 comyns, j8. et infra ; comonte, Cx. 

21 alayed, Cx. 

22 in] om. Cx. 



64 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Unde ordinavit quod quilibet in gradu suo, incipiendo 
a majoribus, offeret publico serario omne^ aurum 
suum,^ excepto uno annulo pro seipso, alio ^ pro 
conjuge sua, buUam auream pro filio, singulas unci as 
pro filiabus ; quod et factum est. Unde et tantum 
pecuniae allatum est ut custodes deputati non suffici- 
rent nomina ofFerentium scribere nee oblata inferre. 
OrosiuSy libro iiii^", et Titus} Sub ea tempestate tot 
infortuniis confracta est Roma, quod senatus delibe- 
ravit fugere ab Italia, et alias sedes quserere. Unde 
et a^ divinis Apollinem consulentibus responsum est 
Romanis, si numen matris Pessinitse ® contingere possent, 
salvarentur. Hac de causa missi ^ legati apud Phrygiam 
pro dea Cybele ^ quserenda, in itinerando consulunt 
Apollinem, qui suasit eis uti ope Attali regis Asiae 



^ omen, MS. 

2 swim'] om. B. 

3 altero, B. 

*♦ et Titus'] om. B. 



^ a] om. B. 

^ pessimitce, MSS. 

7 SU7lt, B. 

8 Sibele, A. ; Stbile, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. ITI. 65 

citee. And so lie ^ ordeyned ]>at everich in his degre Trevisa. 

scliulde ofFre al his golde in to fe comoun tresorie, outake^ 

oon ryng of^ hym self and ano]?er for his wif; and he 
schulde ofFre a compurnole ■* of golde for his sone, and for 
everich douZter an unce, and pe grettest schulde bygynne 
first ; and so it was i-do.^ panne fere was so moche money 
i-brou^t and i-oiFred ]?at ]>e wardeyns my^t noujt wite ^ ]>e 
names of hem ])at brou^t money and golde, no]?er brynge into 
the tresorie al pat was i-brou^t. Orosius, libro 4°. In ]?e 
tyme of [j)e] ^ meschief Rome was i-sette ^ wip so meny mys- 
happes J»at pe senatoures took hem to rede forto flee out of 
Italy, and gete hem o}?er places forto ^ dwelle ynne. panne 
dyvynes J^at axede ^^ counsaille of Appolyn answered ]?e Ro- 
mayns, and seide ]?at ]?ey schulde be i-saved ^if fey my^te 
gete ]?at god ^^ fat hatte ^^ Numen matris pessimite. perfore 
messangers ^^ were i-sent into Frigia for to fecche ^^ f e goddes 
fat heet Cibele ;^^ and f e messanger ^^ by the way axede coun- 
saille of Appolyn Delphicus,^^ and Appolyn counsaillede^^ [hem 
forto gete help of Attalus, kyng of f e lasse Asia, for to gete 



Ab urbe. every man from the hieste degre to the laweste scholde brynge MS. Harl. 
to fe place of theire treasure alle the golde and siluyrthei hade, 2261. 
excepte that he scholde haue oon rynge for hym selfe, an other ^ transmi- 
for his wife, a gyrdelle of golde for his son, and certeyn unces gracione. 
for his doubters. Whiche f inge was doen, wherefore there was 
so grete goodes innumerable, that men deputede to receyve 
the goodes kowthe not write the goodes brou^hte to theyme, f. \ 72. b. 
neither the names of men fat brou^hte the goodes. - Orosius, 
libro quarto. Rome was confracte with so mony infortunes in 
that tyme that the senate was disposede to haue lefte Rome 
and to haue goen to other cuntrees. Wherefore thei askede 
cownselle of AppoUo, whiche movede theyme to laboure for 
an ymage of a godesse callede Sibela or Berocincia, and by 
hit thei scholde be salvede. Then legates were sende to 
Frigia for this godesse to be found. Apollo movede theyme to 
desire the helpe of Attalus, kynge of the lesse Asia. Also 



^ ]>ei, /3. ; they^ Cx. 
2 out take, /8. and 7. 
^for, a., /8., and Cx. 
^ campurnole, a. ; camprenol, $. 
and Cx. ; campernole, 7. 
^ done, Cx. 

^ wryte, $., 7., and Cx. 
7 From a,, )3., 7., and Cx. 
^ asett, )8. ; asset, 7. ; a sette, Cx. 
^for do, Cx., an error. 



^^ axiden, /3. 
^1 godas, 7.,et infra. 
^2 heet, a. ; hig/tfe, Cx. 
^'^ messagiers , Cx. 
^'^ fech, 7. ; fetche, Cx. 
^° hight Sibyle, Cx. 
^^ messagyer, Cx. 

^7 Delphicus'] om. a., /8., 7., and 
Cx. 
^^ counceled, /8. 



VOL. IV. E 



66 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Minoris ad assequendum ^ dictam imaginem ; suasit 
etiam Apollo quod dicta imago, cum Romge deferretur, 
ab Optimo viro primum hospitio susciperetur.^ Quibus 
omnibus peractis, electus est Scipio Nasica tanquam 
optimus, qui cum multitudine matronarum occurrit 
imagini, quae dicta fuit numen matris Pessinitse,^ vel 
Cybele, id est, mater omnium dearum, vel Berecyntia, 
id est, mater montium, vel sacra Phrygia, vel mater 
Idea, eo quod in Ida* silva Phrygi^e specialiter 
colebatur. Ranulphus. Ex isto eventu inolevit 
apud Eomanos ut omni anno pridie nonas Apriles, 
sicut testatur Ovidius de Fastis, fieret festum Balnei 
dese ^ Berecyntise, quia imago ^ quando asportabant ^ 
a Phrygia, lavabatur^ in flumine Almonis ubi 
Almo ^ cadit in Tiberim, et fiebat tunc cum foedis 
cantilenis et gestibus histrionicis ; et quilibet talis 
[gestus] ^^ vocabatur ferculum. Igitur anno decimo post 
adventum suum movit Hannibal exercitum suum ^^ de 



' consequendam, A.B. 

' reciperetur, A.B. 

^ pessimita:, MSS. 

" Ydea, B. 

^ dei, A. 

* ejus, added in A. 



" asportabatur, A.B. 

^ levahatur, B. 

^ Alma, MSS. ; not repeated in A. 

^° gestus] from A.B. 

^' suum~\ cm. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



67 



l)is ymage ; also Appolyn counsaillede] ^ fat wlian pe ymage Trevisa. 

come to Rome he ^ schulde first be broii^t into ^ ]>e best 

manis hous of pe citee. Whan al ]?is was i-doo, oon Scipio 
Nasica was i-chose as ]>e beste man of Rome, and mette wi]> 
pe ymage wij? a grete multitude of wyfes. pe ymage heet * 
Numen matris pessimite, and Sibile ^ also, |)at is to menynge ^ 
moder of alle goddes ; ^ and sche heet Beretinsia,^ ^at is 
moder of ^ hilles ; and sche heet ^^ holy Frigia, for sche was 
i-worschipped specialliche in a wode of Frigia, J^at ^^ wode 
hatte ^2 Idea. [^].^^ Ovyde ^* de fastis sei]> fat of ])is happe 
it com up among ]>e Romayns Jjat everiche Jere ]>e fer|)e ^^ day 
of Averel ]?ey hilde a feste of fe ba))ynge of pe goddesse ^*^ 
Beretinsia ; ^'^ fFor whanne here ymage was i-brou^t out ^^ of 
Frigia, it was i-washe ^^ in pe ry ver Alma, pere pat pe ^^ water 
fallep in to Tybre. po ^i it was i-doo wip foule songes and 
gestes and ^2 iapes and nyse menstralcie,^^ and everiche suche 
a 24 geste was i-cleped Ames.^^ Hanibal, pe tenpe Jere after 26 
his comynge, meovede his oost 27 out of Campania anon to pe 



Ab urbe. Apollo movede that the godesse scholde be recey vede firste of MS. Harl. 
the moste noble man. That paste, Scipio Nausica was electe 2261. 
perto, whiche, takenge with hym a grete multitude of women, . 

mette that ymage callede Sibella other Berocincia, as moder of gracione. ' 
alle goddes, or the moder of hilles, or elles Ydea, for sche was f. les. a. 
honourede specially in a woode of Frigia. 1^. Of whiche 
chaunce the Romanes usede euery yere to kepe a feste in the 
nones of pe monethe of Aprille, whiche was callede the feste 
of bathes, as Ouidius de Fastis rehersethe, for the ymage of 
that godesse broujhte from Frigia was waschede in a floode 
nye to Tiber, whiche thynge was doen with harpenges and 
other songes and instrumentes musicalle, and suche a geste 
was callede a messe. Hanibal movede his hoste from Campania 



^ From a.., ;8., and y. 

2 it, a., )8., y., and Cx. 

^ m] om. Cx. 

^ hight, Cx. 

^ Sihyle, Cx. 

^ to understande, Cx. 

' goddesses, )3. and Cx. 



godasses. 



^ heo het Beretincia, $. ; Bere- 
tincia, y.. et infra ; hight Bretnicia, 
Cx. 

^ o/] om. Cx., in error. 

10 hight, Cx. 

11 whiche, Cx. 

12 is callid, Cx. 

13 From /3. and Cx. 



1"* Ovidius, Cx. 
^^ fourth, Cx. 
i*" godas, a. and y. 
17 Beretincia, yS. ; 
1^ out'] om. Cx. 



Bretnicia, Cx. 



1^ wasche, 8. 

20 ^e] om. Cx. 

21 Than, Cx. 

22 of, /8.. y., and Cx. 

23 mynstracy, 0. and y. ; nyce myn- 
stralcy, Cx. 

2'! a] om. )8. and Cx. 
2^ a mes, y. ; ameiis, Cx. 

26 of, Cx. 

27 hooste, Cx. 



E 2 



G8 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Campania usque ad Anienem ^ fluvium, tertio lapide, id 
est tribus miliaribus a Roma distantem. Ipseque^ 
Hannibal cum expeditis equitibus accessit ad portam 
Collinam ; consules' vero pugnam non ^ detractaverunt, 
sed aciebus hinc inde dispositis tantus imber grand ine 
mixtus se effudit, ut turbata^ militum agmina vix 
armis retentis in castra se colligerent. Seeundo vero 
cum serenitate reddita in campum redissent, rursum 
tempestas violentior exercitum coercuit refugereque 
Aburbe. cocgit.^ Eutvopius,^ Intcrea duo Scipiones apud His- 

A trail smi- 

gracione. pg^^-^^g missi Hasdrubalcm devicerunt, perditis ex Afro- 
rum exercitu triginta quinque millia. Philippus rex 
Macedonise ^ promittit auxilia Hannibali contra Romanos ; 
Sardinia insula Romanos deseruit. Quamobrem mit- 
tuntur duces ad quatuor loca, scilicet ad Macedoniam 
contra Philippum, ad Sardiniam contra Sardes,^ in 



^ Ameum, A. ; Aureum, B. ; Al- 
veum, MS. 
^ Ipse et, B. 
^ 7J0W.] ora. A. 
^ turbuy B. 



^ cocijit. See note 7, p. G2. 
'' CD. omit reference. 
"^ Maccdonum, A. 
^ Sanlos, A.B. 



MONACKI CEiS'rilENSIS, LIB. III. 



09 



ryvcr Ameiis, at ])e ]?ridde stoon, pat is pre myle out of Rome ; Thevisa. 

[and Hanybal hym self, with noble liors men and swyfte, wente 

anone to the yate of Rome] ^ |)at hatte ^ Porta Collina. pe con- 
sulis wi})drow^ nou^t ]>e iijtinge ; but whanne pe scheltroras^ 
were arrayed in ^ eiper side pere fel so grete reyn i-medled wip 
hailstones,^ pat the oostes ^ were so i-schend/ pat unnepe pey 
heelde ^ here wepene, and flit in to here tentes;^ and whanne it 
scheverede ^^ and was faire weder pey^^ wente eft ^^ into p>e feeld, 
and eft ^^ fil a wel gret tempest,^^ and ^^ eft was ^^ compelled ^^ 
hem for to flee. Eutropius. pe mene tyme tweyne pat were 
i-sente to Spayne, eiper heet ^'^ Scipio, overcome Asdrubal ; ^^ 
pere pe oost of Afli'ica loste fyve^^ and pritty powsand. 
Phelip kyng of Macedonia byhotep ^^ Hanibal help a^enst 
pe Romayns ; pe ilond Sardinia ^^ forsakep pe Romayns. per- 
fore dukes and lederes were i-sent in to foure places ; into ^^ 
Macedonia a^enst Philip, into Spayne a^enst Asdrubal, into ^^ 
Sardinia a^enst pe Sardes,^^ and in to Italy ajenst Hanybal. 

Ab urbe. vn to a place beenge but iij . myles from Rome, abowte the x*^« MS. Harl. 
yere of his commynge, whiche come to the ^ate Collyne with a 2261. 
certeyne nowmbre of horse men with hym. The consuUes ^ transmi- 
disposenge the wardes of theire batelles, and willenge to haue gracione. 
mette hym anoon, there was suche a tempeste of hayle that 
peple were gladde to fynde eny socoure. Also the peple 
willenge to make a felde in the secunde day, a tempeste more 
violente constreynede the peple to fle for refute and socoure. 
Eutropius. Too noble men of Rome whiche were callede by 
this name, Scipio, sende to Speyne, hade victory of Asdrubal, 
brother of Hanibal, sleenge of the host of men ofl" Aff'rike f. 173. a. 
XXXV. m^*. Philippus, kynge of Macedony, promisede to 
Hanibal helpe ageyne the Romanes ; Sardinia the yle refusede 
to helpe the Romanes. Wherefore the gouernoures of Rome 
were sende in iiij. hostes in to iiij. partes of the worlde; oon 
hoste to ^ifle batelle to Philippe kynge of Macedony, an other 
hoste to expugne the yle Sardinia, an other to Hanibal in 



' From ^., y., and Cx. 

^ hlyht, Cx. 

3 scheltrons, )8. ; schoUroms, y. 
shell rons, Cx. 

•* on, /3. and Cx. 

'^ hawelsto7i.es, y. 

^ hoostes, Cx. 

' yshent, Cx. 

^ mujhte holde, Cx. 

^ and fyghte in theijr tentcs, Cx. 

*^ scltyverede, a. ; cleered, fi. 
schuyrede, y. ; clered, Cx. 

11 he, a. 



12 ofte, Cx. bis. 

'3 grettre reyn and tempest, y. 

14 \at, P. 

1^ leas'] om. )8. 

1*^ that efte conipellyd, Cx. 

1' liiyht, Cx., ut semper. 

1^ Astrubal, Cx., et infra. 

1^ vyve, a. 

"" behighte, Cx. 

-1 Sardonia, Cx., et infra. 

22 to'] om. Cx. 

23 into] om. Cx. 
2^ Sardcns, Cx. 



70 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Italia contra Hannibalem, in Hispania contra Hasdru- 

balem. Unde et Levinus consul, cum rege Asise Attalo 

amicitiam faciens,-'^ Macedonian! frangit, Philippum 

Aburbe. regcm vincit, Siciliam recepit,^ sexaginta civitates 

A transmi- ...... , • ■ -i~» 

gracione. capit, vigmti scx urDGS cxpugnavit, Komam cum magna 
gloria revertitur.^ Cujus metu Hannibal, qui usque ad 
quartum urbis miliarium accesserat, ad Campaniam 
redit. Eoque ^ anno in Hispaniis ambo Scipiones, qui ^ 
din victores exstiterant, a fratre Hasdrubalis interfici- 
untur,^ exercitus tamen integer mansit. Quamobrem 
filius alterius Scipionis, Publius Cornelius Scipio, vir 
omnium Romanorum fere primus, vicesimum quartum 
jam agens annum ad Hispanias mittitur. Hie est ille 
Scipio qui, dum senatus ob metum Hannibalis Italiam 
deserere deliberaret, extracto gladio id^ fieri prohi- 

Aburbe. buit, defensorem patrige se fore promisit.^ Unde et 

543. 

graciS!" Scipio progrediens Carthaginem Hispanise capit, in qua 

383. 

erat magna copia pecuniae et bellici apparatus. Inde 
obsides Hispanorum parentibus reddidit, Magonem 



^ faficuens (sic), B. 
- rccipit^ A. ; cxpugnal, T^. 
^ Varied and slightly abbreviated 
in CD. 

^ Eo quoque, A. 



^ quam, B. 

'' Hannibalis Asdrubalc inki 
Jiciuntur, B. 
7 illud, B. 
« Varied in CD. 



MONACHI CESTEENSIS, LIB. III. 71 

perfore Lemynus ^ consul of Rome make]? pees wi]? Attalus Tkevisa. 

kyng of Asia, and werrej? in Macedonia, and overcom Phelip 

]>G kyng, and took Sicilia ^ and pre score citees also, and he 
beet ^ doun sixe and twenty citees, and come in ^ to Rome wi]> 
greet ioye and worschippe. For drede of hym Hanibai, ]?at 
was but foure myle from Rome, fli^^ into Campania. Also 
fat J ere in Spayne ei]?er Scipio, pat hadde ]?e victor ie ^ longe 
tyme, was i-slawe of Asdrubal his broj^er, but ]>e cost ^ lefte 
al hool and sound, perfore ]?e o]?er Scipio his sone,^ [j^at 
heet Publius Cornelius Scipio,] ^ fe noblest man wel nyh ^^ of 
al ])e Romayns, is sente into Spayne in ]?e foure and twenty ^^ 
^ere of his eelde.^^ Whanne ^^ J>e senatoures and }?e Romayns 
hadde i-take to rede to forsake Italy for drede, pis Scipio 
drouj ^^ out his swerd and forbede hem, and seide nou^t so 
hardy, and byheet^^ pat he wolde defende pe citee and pe 
contray. panne Scipio wente forth, and took Cartage in 
Spayne, pere ynne was grete plente of money and grete array 
for men of armes. panne he Jalde^^ up pe plegges ^^ of Spayne 

Ab urbe. Ytaly ; the iiij^^^ to Speyne to Haniballes brother, Asdrubal MS. Harl. 
by name. The consul Leuinus, getenge the favor of Attalus 2261. 
kynge of Asia, hade victory of Philippe, kynge of Macedony, ^ transmi- 
and toke Sicille with Ix. cites, and expugnede xxyj. cites, gracioue. 
returnenge to Rome with grete victory. Hanibal beenge 
within the space of iiij. myles to the cite of Rome, herenge of 
his commynge, returnede to Campania. The ij. Scipiones 
beenge longe tyme victores in Speyne, were sleyne of the 
broper of Asdrubal, neuerthelesse the hoste of the Romanes 
was holle. Wherefore Cornelius Scipio, as the moste noble 
man, son of an other Scipio, havenge xxiij" yere in age, was 
sende to Speyne. This is the Scipio whiche seenge the senate 
in purpose to haue fledde in to other londes, drawede owte his 
swerde prohibitenge peim to do so, and promysede to theym 
that he wolde defende the cuntre. This Scipio goenge to 
Speyne, toke Cartage, a cite in Speyne, in whom was moche 
treasure of golde and of siluyr, and of bellicose apparaile, 
whiche yoldede the childer of Speyne as put in plegge to 



^ Levinus, a., fi., and Cx. ; Levy- 
nus, y. 

- Scicilia, Cx. 

•^ hcot, y. 

^ in\ om. )3. and Cx. 

^fledde, Cx. 

*> hadde he victor, )8. ; hadde ybe 
victors, y. ; had be vyctor, Cx. 

' hoostCy Cx. 
Scipioes sane, /3. ; Scipions 



^ Scipioes sane, /3.; Scipions ,.*, / '^ 

Sonne. Cx. '' P^'^'jes, Cx. 



5 From a., fi., y., and Cx. 

11 fer\>e and twenty\>e, y. 

12 age, Cx. 

i"^ whome, Cx. 

i"* drewe, Cx. 

15 bihet, $. ; behighte, Cx. 

'6 yuld, y. 



72 



POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIOEN 



fratrem Hannibalis capbivum ^ Romam lisit. Sed efc 
virginem quandam speciosam inter c;teros captam 
sponso ejusdem tanquam plus ^ genitor id nubendum 
tradidit, puellae pretium, dotis nomine, codonavit. Pro 
quibus factis, annitente ^ prsecipue * ponso puellse 
prsedictse, omnis fere Hispania ad Scip)nem transiit. 
Interea Fabius Maximus Tarentum laepit, ducem 
Hannibalis Carthalonem ^ in Italia occidii viginti quin- 
que millia^ captivorum vendiditJ 
Aburbe Inde desperans Hannibal Hispanias coLra Scipionem 

544. 

Atransmi- diutius posse teneri, fratrem suum Hasrubalem cum 

gracioue. 

^^^* omnibus copiis suis de Hispania ad se 'ocavit, quem 
quidem redeuntem, insidiis compositis, sd strenue re- 
pugnantem consules Romani peremerunt. )e cujus exer- 
citu quinquaginta octo millia sunt pereipta, quinque 
capta, quadraginta quatuor millia Romaorum civium 
sunt reperta et revocata. Caput quoqu* Hasdrubalis 
ante castra Hannibalis est projectum ; qo viso Hanni- 
bal flens et ^ condolens [fugit] ^^ in Brixim.^^ Sed et 
Scipio magnus de Hispania revocatus est^ JosephuSy 
libro duodecimo}^ 



^ captivum] om. B. 

2 proprius, B. 

3 amittente, A. ; annuente, B. 
'' principe, B. 

^ Cartagilonem, MSS. 

*• vi'tllia] om. B. 

7 Varied in CD., which add : 
" Eutropius, libro tertio. Scipio 
" cum fratre suo Lucio Scipione 



" septuaginta ci aies in Hispania 
*' recepit. In iJia tamen male 
" pugnatum est.' 

^ quoque] fronA. ; quo, MS. 

^Jlens et\ om. .B. 

'^'^ fugit] added I'om A. 

^^ Brucianiy B. Bricciam, MS. 

1' Varied in C. 

'3 7Vo5'ws,/i6roO'', added in A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



73 



Ab UM, 



f. 173. 



to here frendes, and sent Mago, Hanibal his broj^er, prisoner Trevisa. 

to Rome ; and a wel fayre niayde was prisoner among opere, 

and he as a mylde fader delyvered and took hir ^ to here ^ owne 
spouse to weddynge, and forjaf hire here raunsoun iustede of 
here ^ dowere ; ffor f e whiche doynge, by assent of J>e spouse 
of his ^ mayde, wel nygh al Spayne tornede to Scipio. pe 
mene tyme Fabius Maximus wan Tarent, and slouj Tarta- 
gilo ^' in Italy, and solde fyve and twenty Jwwsand prisoners, 
panne Hanibal truste noujt^ j^at Spayne my^te lenger be 
i-holde^ ajenst Scipio, he sente for his broker Asdrubal^ 
])at he schulde come to hym out of Spayne wi]? al ])at he 
hadde. But pe consuls of Rome sette busshementes ^ for 
hym, and he dcfendede hym nobeliche, but peyj slouj ^ hym 
at ]>e laste, and eyjte and fifty jjowsand of his oost ^^ were 
dede, and fyve ]70wsand i-take ; foure and fourty powsand 
burgeys^i of Rome were i-cleped and i-founde to gidres.^^ 
Also Asdrubal his heede was i-]?rowe to fore ^^ his brojier 
Jate. Whan Hanybal sigh ^^ ]?at he made grete sorwe, and 
fli^ 15 into Brucia, and ]?e grete Scipio was sent after out of 
Spayne. losephus, libro 12*^. 

theire faders, and sonde Magon, the bro})er of Asdrubal, MS. Harl. 
taken in captiuite vn to Rome, and toke a feire maide 2261. 
of Speyne to mariage, and Jafe to her grete goodes. The . , ._ 
howsebonde of the maide, seenge that grete curtesye and gracione. 
kyndenesse, causede allemoste alle Speyne to turne to Scipio. 
Then Fabius Maximus toke a cite callede Tarentus in Ytaly, 
and did sle Cartaligon, a gouernoure other duke of Hanibal, 
and solde xxv. m^ men taken in captiuite. Hanibal, beenge 
then as in desperacion, sonde to Asdrubal his broj^er, beenge 
in Speyne, that he scholde comme to hym with alle his hoste ; 
whom the consuUes of Rome mette, fi^htenge nobly ageyne 
hym ; in whiche fijhte Asdruballe, brother to Hanibal, was 
sleyne, with Iviij. mt, v. m"*" taken, and xliiij" m''' of citesynnes 
of Rome were founde ; and the hedde off Asdrubal was caste 
afore Hanibal, which seenge hit sorowede moche, and fledde to 
Briccia, and Scipio Magnus was callede to Rome from the 
cuntre of Speyne. 



^ /iMre, 7. bis. 

^ foryave hir her raunsomme for 
her, Cx. 

^ this, Cx. 

"* Cartagilo, a., /8., and 7. ; Car- 
tagylo, Cx. 

^ triste not, Cx. 

^ holden, Cx. 

' Astrubal, Cx., et infra. 



^ buscheinentis, fi. ; hoyschemen- 
tes, 7. ; enbuschementes, Cx. 

^ they slewe, Cx. 

^*^ hoost, Cx., ut semper. 

^^ bourgeys, Cx. 

'■^ I founde and I cleped to gideres, 
a., /3., and Cx. 

^^ throwen byfore, Cx. 

^'* sawe, Cx. 

^'^Jledde, Cx. 



74 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Cap. XXXIV. 

[Varia de rebus u^gyptiis, Judaicis et Eomanis.\ 

Aburbe. Ptolomeus Epiphanes,^ -^gyptiorum quintus, films 

546. 

Atransrr.i- Eupatoris, regcavit viginti quatuor annis.^ Trogus, 
386. lihro tricesimo.^ At quia quinquennis coeperat regnare, 
legati Alexandrini rogaverunt Romanos ut tutelam 
pupilli susciperent, tuerenturque regnura -^gypti, quod 
jam Philippus rex Macedonise,* et Antiochus rex 
Syrise, quasi ex condicto inter se dividere propone - 
bant. Grata fuit h£ec legatio Romanis, qui statim 
mittunt legatos prsefatis regibus, denunciantes ut ^ ab 
^gypto abstineant.^ Josephus, ^ duodecimo.^ Ptolo- 
meus igitur adolescens factus misit ducem suum Sco- 
pam ad ^ Syriam, quam ^*^ sibi subjugavit ; sed non 
.multum subjugavit.^^ Sed non multum post Antiochus 
devicit Scopam,^ et benevolentior factus est Judseis. 
EiitropiusP Post hoc Antiochus magnus in amicitia ^^ 
Ptolomei regressus, duxit Cleopatram, filiam ejus, 
in uxorem, concedens ei, dotis nomine, Syriam, 
Judseam, Phoenicem. Unde et utrique regi tributa 
a Judseis solvebantur, negante tamen hoc et dis- 
suadente pontifice Onia, filio Simonis justi, quasi 



^ EpiphanteSf B. 
2 Varied in CD. 

■* A.B. omit reference, as it had 
been given just before. 
^ Macedonum, A.B. 
"'' quod, B. 
« Varied in CD. 
7 libroy added in B. 



^ duodecimo] om. CD. 
^ ad . . . Scopavi~\ om. B. 
^" quam qui Siriain cl Jiuia 
CD. 

^' sed . . . subjugavit] om. A 
^- Eutropius, lib. Hi., A. 
'•^ amicitiam, A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 75 



Capitulum tricesimum quartum, Tkevisa. 

Tholomeus Epiphanes, pe fifte [kyng]i of Egipt, Emperator 
his soue,^ regncde foure and twenty ^ere. Trogus, libro 30°.^ 
And for he bygan to regne whan he was fyve ^ere olde, 
messangers^ of Alexandria prayde ])e Romayns })at |)ey 
wolde take ]?e warde of ]?e childe and defende J)e kyngdome 
of Egipt ; ffor PheHp kyng of Macedonia, and Antiochus 
kyng of Siria hadde i-cast^ as it were by covenant to dele 
the kyngdom of Egipt bytwene hem tweyne. pe Romayns 
were glad of J>e ^ message, and anon sente messangers ^ 
to ]?e same kynges, chargynge fat fey schulde holde hem 
out of Egipt. losephus, libro \2^. panne Ptholomeus wax ^ 
a strong Jongelynge, and sente oon Scopa, a duke of his, 
in to Siria, and made Siria suget ^ to hym ; but nou^t 
longe after Antyochus overcome Scopa, and was better 
frende to J?e lewes. Eutropius, libro 3°. After fis fe 
grete Antiochus bycome Ptholomeus his frend, and wedded 
his doubter Cleopatra to wyve/^ and graunted here instede 
of dower Siria, Inde, and Phenicia.^^ perfore eifer kyng 
hadde tribut^^ of fe lewes, but Onias, fe rijtful Symon his 



Aburbc Capitulum tricesimum quartum. — losephus, libro xij°. Tragus, MS. Harl. 

libro tricesimo, 2261. 

Ptholomeus Epiphanes, the v*^ kynge of men of Egipte, ^ transmi- 
and son of Eupator, reignede xxiiij. yere. This Ptholomeus ^'^'^"°^^^* 
begynnenge to reigne the v*^® yere of his age, legates of 
Alexandrye preyede the Romanes thei wolde be tutores of 
fat childe, and defende the realme of Egipte ; whiche kinge 
Philippe, gouernoure of Macedony, and Anthiocus, kynge of 
Siria, hade intendede to haue diuidede hit betwene j^eim. This 
message was accepte of the Romanes, whiche sende legates to 
those kynges that thei scholde not entre in to Egipte. Eutro- 
pius, libro tertio. After that Anthiocus Magnus mariede the 
doubter of Ptholomeus, grawntenge to her in the name of her 
dowery Siria, ludea, and Phenicia. ]^. Wherefore the lewes 
peiede tributes to bothe the kynges, Onias the bischoppe of 



1 From iS, ; inserted by a later 
hand in y. 

2 Eupators sone, /3. ; Eupator, 
y. ; Eupaters sonne, Cx. 

•^ tercio, Cx. 

"* messares, /8., 7., and Cx. 

^ kadden cast, /8, 



<"• that, i8. and Cx. 
"^ messagers, Cx. 
^ v)ext, Cx. 
^ subgette, Cx. 
I" wyf, Cx. 
" Fenicia, Cx. 
^- irihut'] ova. Cx. 



76 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

legis zelo,^ sed potius propter avaritiam suam, cum ipse 
descendere nollet ad regem. Josephiis tamen quidam 
sororis su8D filius descendit ad regem Ptolomeum; qui 
non solum regis gratiam'^ et tributi anni septimi re- 
laxationem promeruit, sed^ etiam dux regionis suse et 
exactor tributorum quoad viveret,^ videlicet per viginti 
duos annos, cons ti tutus est.^ Josephus, libro duodecimo, 
capitulo quarto.^ Hie Josephus, volens aliquando^ 
experiri industriam Hyrcani, filii sui junioris jam duo- 
dennis/ quern ex filia fratris sui susceperat, tradidit ei 
trescenta^ juga bourn ad arandum et seminandum 
in solitudine, ultra [duas] ^*^ dietas a domo sua, lora 
tamen celavit quibus boves ligarentur. Cum igitur^^ ad 
locum designatum pervenissent, suadentibus aratoribus 
ut aliqui eorum ad patrem redirent pro^^ loris repor- 
tandis, non consensit puer ; sed statim ^^ occisis aliquot 
bourn jugis, carnes ad cibum arantium paravit, pelles 



1 zcBlotes, B. 

2 sed, added in A.B. 

3 Ac, B. 

^ quo advivcret, MSS. 
5 Varied in CD. 
<* decimo, C. (not D.) 
7 aliunde, B. 



^ duodecimis, B. 

^ tricenta, A. ; rcccnta, B. 

1" duns'] from A.B.C.D. 

^^ ergo, A. 

^- cuvi, A. 

'•* statls, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



77 



sone, was bisshop, and werned^ ])e tribut, and counsaillede Trevisa. 

fat non schulde be paide, as it were for love of the lawe, 

nojjeles it was more for covetise, for he wolde nou^t goo 

speke wi]> fe king. But his suster sone losephus wente to 

Ptholomeus ]>e kyng, and hadde grace of )?e kyng, and forjif- 

nesse ^ of ]>e tribut of Ipe sevenj^e ^ Jere ; and noujt onliche ^ 

J?at, but he was made ledere of his kyngdom and tresorer of 

tributes to his lyves ende, two and twenty ^ere. losephus^ 

libro 12°, capitulo 4^. pis losephus wolde assaye^ ])e witte 

of his Jonger sone Hircanus,^ ]?at was twelve Jere olde, and 

he ^ hadde gete hym on his bro]?er doubter, and took ^ hym 

'pre hondred Jokes of oxen forto erye ^ and sowe in wilder- 

nesse from home tweyne ^^ iorneys and more, and hydde ^^ ]>q 

reynes ])at j?e oxen schulde be teyde^^ by. Whan he come 

to ])G place pevG he schulde erye, Ipe plow^men radde ])at 

some of hem schulde wende home to ]>g fader and fecche ^^ ]>e 

reynes o}>er ])e tiels.^^ pe childe seyde nay, and ^^ lete slee 

som of Ipe oxen, and lete greythe^^ ]?e flesche to J^e^'' plowj- 



Ab urbe. 



f. 174. a. 



])e lewes denyenge that, and movenge the contrary as for the MS. Harl. 
luffe of theire lawe, but rather for auarice, in that he wolde 2261. 
not g:o to the kynge. losephus, the son of the suster of 



A transmi- 



Onias, wente to kynge Ptholomeus, whiche obteynede not gracione. 
oonly the fauor of the kynge and releische of his tribute by the 
space of vij. yere, but he was made also gouernoure of his 
howse, and the colector of tributes to be paiede by that kynge 
by the space of xxij. yere. losephus, libro duodecimo, capitulo 
quarto. This losephus willenge to prove the discrecion of 
Hircanus his son J>e yonger, hauenge xij. yere in age, whom 
he gate by the dojhter of his brother, toke to hym iij.^^. yocke 
of oxen to ere and sawe in wildernes by the iourney of ij. 
dales from his howse, whiche hidde awey the thynges with 
whom the oxen scholde be bownde and drawe ; whiche com- 
menge to the place assignede, the laborers movede Hircanus 
that somme of theyme myjhte goe home and brynge gere 
necessary for theym, he wolde not consente jjcr to ; whiche 
sleenge diuerse of the oxen for the meyte of the peple, made 



^ warnid) Cx. 
' fori/evenesse, Cx. 
2 seven, Cx. 
■* not only, Cx. 
^ essaye, Cx. 
^* Hilcanus, Cx. 
7 he'] om. a., )8.. 7., and Cx. 
^ hytooli, a. ; bitoke, fi. ; hytok, y. ; 
bytoke, Cx. 



^ ere, Cx. 

^° tweye, a. ; two, Cx. 

^^ hudde, a. ; hidde, Cx. 

12 trjed, Cx. 

^^fetche, Cx. 

^^ o\>er \>e tiels] om. /3. and Cx. 

15 but, Cx. 

1^ greithe, a. 

1' >e] om. )3., 7., and Cx. 



78 POLYCHRONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 

eorum ad cgeterorum bourn retinacula incidit.^ Quod 
admirans pater suus, iterum misit eum loco sui ad 
honorandum convivium Ptolomei regis, quia^ illi re- 
center filius natus fuerat. Huic Hyrcano dum pater 
pro sumptibus ^ in via, et pro filio regis honorando, 
multa offerret, renuit puer, asserens se scire sobrie 
vivere, et paucioribus indigere. "Sed mitte," inquit, 
" Arioni procuratori Alexandrise litteras, ut quantum* 
" indiguero praestet mihi." Sperans autem ^ pater 
quod decern talenta sufficerent pro regis filio hono- 
rando, rogavit Arionem^ per litteras ut decern talenta 
filio suo ministraret. Veniente ergo Hyrcano ' 
cum litteris ad Arionem, qusesivit Arion quan- 
tum habere vellet. At ille, " Mille talenta." Sed cum 
Arion tantum decem talenta ^ concederet, Hyrcanus 
conjecit eum in vincula. Uxor Ai'ionis mox regi 



^ Slightly varied in CD. 

" qui^ B. 

•* Jinctihus, B. 

^ litteras^ ut quantum] et quem, B, 



5 



autevi] om. B. 
*• Ariojiam, A. 
^ autem Hircanus, B. 
^ ci, added in B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



79 



menis mete, and kutte ^ reynes of ]?e skynnes [to] ^ teie ^ Trevisa. 

wif ojjer oxen, pe fader wondrede ferof, and sent hym in 

his owne stede to worschepe J?e feste of kyng Ptholomeus,^ for 
he hadde a ^ong sone neweliche ^ i-bore ; ]>e fader profrede 
to his sone Hircanus greet richesse^ for his cost by fe 
weie, and for^ifnes '^ to ^eve ]>e kynges sone. pe childe seide 
nay, and seide ]?at he cou]?e lyve soberliche, and J^at lasse^ 
cost wolde doo his nede. "But sende]?^ lettres," quod^*^ j^e 
childe, " to Aryon, procuratour of Alexandria, and praye hym 
" ]?at he lene me as moche as me byhovej?." pe fader hopede 
]7at ten talentes were i-now ^^ forto worschepe ]?e kyng wij> 
his sone, and prayed Arion in his lettres fat he wolde take 
ten 12 talentes to his sone. Hircanus come wij) ]>e lettres to 
Arion, and Arion axede ^^ how moche hym byhoved.^^ 
" A j)owsand talentes," quo]? ^^ he ; but Arion wolde graunte 
but ten, and Hircanus caste hym in boundes, and Arion his 
wif wente anon, and pleynede ^^ to ]?e kyng, and 'pe kyng 



Ab urbe. instrumentes for the oxen of the skynnes of feim. The fader MS. Harl. 
meruellenge the discrecion of the childe, sonde hym in his 2261. 

stedde to honoure the feste of Ptholomeus, kynge of Egipte, . . 

whiche hade a son borne to hym but late. The fader willenge gracione.^" 
to take to hym a certeyne summe of money for his costes by 
the weye, and to honoure the kynges son, Hircanus ]?at childe 
refusede that money, seyenge that he cowthe lyve sobrely, 
and not to spende so moche. Neuerthelesse, he movede his 
fader that he wolde sende to Arion, his proctor, of Alexandrye, 
letters that he scholde take to hym suche thynges as were 
profitable and necessary to hym. losephus supposenge x. 
talentes to suffise for the honour of fe kynges son, wrote to 
Ai'ion that he scholde delyuer to his sonne x. talentes. This 
childe Hircanus commenge with the letters and delyuerenge 
theym to Arion, the same man inquirede of hym what summe 
he wolde haue. The childe answerede and seide a m"^ 
talentes. Then Arion seide that he wolde delyuer to hym 
but X. talentes, wherefore this childe Hircanus caste hym in 
prison. The wife of Arion compleynede to the kynge of that 



' to kytte, Cx. 

2 From a., 7., and Cx. 

3 teye, Cx. 

^ The kynges feste Tholomeus, y. 
^ newely, Cx. 
^ riches, fi. and Cx. 
"^for yiftes, $. ; for yeftes, Cx., 
rightly. 
^ lesse, Cx. 



^ sente, a. ; sendcy $. and Cx. 

^° sayd, Cx. 

" ynough, Cx. 

12 the, Cx. 

^3 asked, Cx. 

^'* behoved, Cx. 

^^ sayd, Cx. 

^^ complayned, Cx. 



80 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

querelam deposuit. Requisitus Hyrcanus a rege cur id^ 
fecisset, respondit tales ministros puniri debere qui 
magnum a minimo^ nihil faciunt^ distare. Audiens 
autem Arion quod rex factum et responsum Hyrcani 
approbasset, tradidit Hyrcano millia talenta, quibus ille 
statim centum pueros litteratos et centum virgines a 
negotiatoribus, quemlibet eorum pro^ talento, emit. 
Adveniente tandem die regalis convivii, positus est 
Hyrcanus, eo quod juvenis^ esset, in novissimo pran- 
dentium loco, coram quo tanquam derisorie apposita 
sunt nudata^ ossa reliquorum discumbentium. Ad 
hsec Tryphon, quidam ^ conviciator, dixit palam ^ coram 
rege, " Ecce, rex, quomodo carnes tot ^^ ossium iste puer 
" devoravit. Sic nempe pater ejus, exactor tuus in Syria, 
" Syrorum pecunias spoliavit." Ridente rege et inqui- 
rente a puero cur coram se tot ossa haberet, "Apte," 
inquit, " domine rex. Nam canes ossa cum carnibus de- 



1 illud, B. _ 

" magnum animo (magnu an6)y B. 

^ Space between faciunt and 
distare in B. 

* a negotiatoribus after ialento in 
B. 

^ uno, B. 



^" unicus, B. 
7 denudata, B. 

'^ quidam'] om. B. ; quidam Try- 
phon, A. 

'^ palam'] om. A.B. 
^" tot carnes, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



81 



axede of Hircanus why he dede ^ so : " For suche servauntes," Trevisa. 

quod he, *' schal be punsched ])at conne]? noujt ^ knowe and 

*' make]? non difFerence^ bytwene pe smale and ]>e grete." 
Arion lierde J?at ]>e kyng allowede Hircanus his answere and 



[And] 



anon 



his dede, and took hym '^ a fowsand talentes. 
he boutte of chapmen ^ an hondred children i-lettred and an 
hondred maydens, everich for a talent. Whanne pe day of 
)7e feste was i-come, Hircanus, for ^ he was Jong, was i-sette 
laste of pe wise men, and ]>e bare bones ]>at o|)ere men lefte 
were in scorne [i-sette] ^ tofore Hircanus. Oon Tryphon, a 
iapere, sigh ^ pis, and seide opounliche tofore ]>e kyng : " Lo, 
" lordynges,!^ how fis childe haj? i-ete ])e flesche of so meny 
*' bones ; so his fader, fat is [thy] ^^ resceyvour ^^ and tre- 
" sorer in Siria, spoylej? [the] ^^ money of [the] ^^ men of 
*' Siria." pe kyng lowj,^* and axede of ]>e childe why he 
hadde so meny bones to fore hym." " Skilfulliche, lord 
" kyng," quod ^^ J?is ^^ childe, " for houndes etep ^^ ]?e bones 
" wi]> fe flesche, as ]?y gestes do]> today ; ^^ but men J?at bee]? 



Ab urbe. childe, to whom the kynge seide : *' Why haste ])0w done soo ? " MS. Harl. 
Hircanus seide to the kynge that those ministres were worthy 2261. 
to be punyschede that cowthe not discerne a grete thynge ._ 

from a ly telle. Arion herenge that the kynge did approbate gracione. 
the answere of the childe, toke to the childe a m^* talentes, 
whiche bou^hte anoon a c. childer litterate, and a c. virgynes, 
of men sellenge childer, payenge for eiche of theym a talente. 
The day commenge of the kynges feste, this childe Hircanus 
was sette in the loweste place of worschippe, in that he was 
but yonge in age, afore whom mony bones were sette as in 
f. 174. b. derision. And anoon a disporter seide afore the kynge : " O 
" my lorde, beholde how this lytelle childe liathe eiten the 
" flesche oft* so mony bones." Then kynge laZhede, and in- 
quh'ede of the childe why that he hade so mony boones afore 
hym. The childe seide with a bolde spiritte : " My lorde, 
" dogges devoure boones with flesche, as thy gestes do this day ; 



^ di/de, Cx. 

^ kon noyt, y. ; punysshyd that 
can not, Cx. 

■* ne make difference, Cx. 

"* delivered to hym, Cx. 

5 From Cx. 

^ chepmen, y. ; marchauntes, Cx. 

7 by cause, Cx. 

** From a. ; sett, )8. ; ysette, y. ; 
sette, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



^ japer same, Cx. 

^" loi'd kynge, Cx. 

'^ From )8., y., and Cx, 

^2 receyver, Cx. 

^^ From Cx. (not 3. nor 7.) 

^^ loughe, Cx. 

'^ sayd, Cx. 

1^ )>e, a., y., and Cx. 

^7 eten, Cx. 

^^ ghestes done this daye, Cx. 



82 POLYCHRONTCON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

" vorant, sicut tuse convivsD hodie faciunt ; sed homines 
" disciplinati parcunt ossibus, sicut me videtis parcere/' 
In crastino post hsec qusesivit Hyrcanus a quolibet regis 
amico, quid quantum ve quilibet eorum regis filio dare 
vellet. Respondit, " Qui plus dare proposuit, vix decem 
'' talenta." Ad hsec Hyrcanus se tristem simulavit, 
quasi non vaJens nisi quinque talenta conferre. Igitur, 
instante dio natalicii, Hyrcanus puer dedit regi centum 
[pueros,] ^ quorum quilibet talentum in manu ferebat, 
et centum puellas dedit reginse, cum totidem talentis ; 
unde et " ab omnibus multum est commendatus. Qua 
de causa honorifice a rege ditatus, cum litteris com- 
mendaticiis ad patrem suum est remissus. Pater 
tamen ejus, propter profusa donaria quae fecerat, est 
commotus, fratresque ejus majores ob tantam ejus 
gloriam ad invidiam ^ sunt inflati, in tantum ut bel- 
lum contra Hyrcanum moventes, duo illorum in pugna 



* From A.B. I ^ invidentiam, A. 

2 unde et \ et ideo, B. I 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 83 

" i-norsched ^ and i-taujt sparej> j^e bones, as Je seej> J)at I Trevisa. 

'' spare," Amorwe ^ Hircanus axede of everiche of J^e kynges 

frendes what and how moche everiche^ of hem wolde Jeve 
])e kynges sone ; and he ]?at wolde J eve most answerede and 
seide : " Scarsliche ^ ten talentes." panne Hircanus feynede 
hym sory, as \)ej ^ he my^te nou^t ^ teve but fyve. But 
whan J)e day of berjje ^ was i-come, Hircanus the childe ^af 
[to] ® ]>e kyng an hondred children, and everiche of hem bare 
a talent in [his] ^ honde, and Jaf [to] ^ }>e queene an hon- 
dred mayden ^ children, everiche ^^ wi]? a talent in hir ^^ honde. 
panne everiche man preysede hem ^^ -wel. perfore the kyng 
dede hym grete worschepe, and made hym riche, and sente 
hym to his fader wij? lettres of commendynge ^^ and of preys- 
inge ; no]?eles his fader was wrooj?,^^ for J>e grete ^iftes fat 
he hadde i-^eve. Also his elder ^^ bre])eren ^^ hadde grete en vie 
to ^^ hym for ];e grete worschippe ))at he hadde, so ferfor]) 
]?at fey arrerede^^ werre a^enst hym, and tweyne of hem 



Aburbe. " but peple of discrecion leve the boones and spare feim, asMS. Harl. 
" ye see me to do." This childe, familier in the kynges palice, 2261. 

inquirede in the morowe folowenge of the frendes of the , ^ . 

kynge what thei wolde ^iflfe to the kynges son ; the moste gracione. 
noble man intendede not to Jiffe more then x. talentes. Then 
this childe Hircanus fenede him soory, seyenge that he hade 
but V. talentes to the honoure of the kynges sonne. The day 
of the honoure to the kynges son to be schewede commen, this 
childe Hircanus presentede the kynge with a c. yonge litter ate 
childer, and to the qwene a c. virgynes, and eiche of theyme 
offrede a talente. Wherefore this childe was commendede 
moche of alle men, whiche receyvenge grete ^iftes of the 
kynge, and letteres commendatiue, returnede home to his fader ; 
whose fader was movede gretely for fe grete Jiftes that fe 
childe had ^iifen. Also his brether herenge of his commenda- 
cion and glory were movede in to envy, in so moche that thei 
Jafe batelle to theire brofer. Neuerthelesse this childe obtenede 
the victory, his ij. brefer sleyneinthat conflicte, whiche goenge 



^ norysshed, Cx. 

2 On the jnorne, Cx. 

2 eche, Cx. 

** Scarcely, Cx. 

•'' thoughe, Cx. 

•^ nouyt^ om. Cx. { ^^ el])er, y 

~ the natyvyte, Cx. ! ^*' brether, Cx. 

^ From Cx. ; not fi. nor 7. j ^' at, Cx. 

^ mayde, Cx. ^^ werred, Cx. 

^° and eche, Cx. I 



^^ Mr"] om. B. ; hys, 7. (by mis- 
take.) 

^- hym, a. and Cx. 
^^ commendacion, Cx. 
^^ wrothe, Cx. 



F 2 



84 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



perirent. Ilyrcanus vero discedens ultra Jordanem,^ 
regalia tributa^ per multos annos a barbaris exegit, 
iibi niirabilem turrim construxit;^ Unde* Arabes 
frequenter debellabat "'' omni tempore quo Seleucus^ 
Syrise prsesidebat. Quo mortuo, Hyrcanus timens pro- 
terviam Antioelii Epiphanis, mortem sibi propria manu 
aseivit.* ^ Circa primum annum hujus Ptolomei, Scipio 
magnus, qui in Hispanis multa egregie fecerat, consul 
effectus, in Africam mittitur, ubi [Hannonem] ^ ducem 
Afrorum cum Sypliace ^ rege Numidise ^^ subegit. Quo 
audito omnis psene Italia Hannibalem deserit. Hanni- 
bal, septimodecimo adventus sui in Italiam anno, a ^^ 
Carthaginiensibus redire jussus, Italiam flens deseruit. 



' Jordanum, B. 
2 regalum tributum, B. 
' The whole story verbally varied 
in CD. 

"* Unde . . . asciviQ cm. CD. 
^ debellaverat, B. 
^ Sothcr, added in A. 



' Eutropius, lihro tertio, added in 
CD. 

^ Hannonem] added from A. 

"J Sifacc, B. 

'" Numidina, A. 

" a} OKI. B. 



MONACHl CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 



85 



were dede in fi^tin<^c. Trevisa. Take ^ hede pat a talent Trevisa. 

is a grete wighte ^ of golde o]?er ^ of silver oJ)er ^ of [oj^er] * 

metal; but J?ere is ^ thre manere of^ talentes, ])q leste 
weye]? fifty pound, ]>e moste ^ two and seventy pound, and 
pe myddel^ sixe score pound, pan it folowep in pe storie. 
Hircanus passede flom^ Jordan, and gadrede J?ere pe kynges 
tribute of straunge naciouus meny ^ere to [gyder, and he 
bylded there a wonder tour. Oute therof he pursued ofte 
the Arabyes, men of Arabia, alle the] ^^ tyme pat Seleuchus 
regnede in Siria. Whanne Seleuchus was dede, Hircanus 
dredde pe cruelnesse^^ of Antiochus Epiphanes, and slow^ 
hym self wip his owne hond. Aboute pe firste ^ere of pis 
Ptliolomeus,i2 j,e grete Scipio, pat^^ hadde nobelliche i-bore 
hym, and i-doo [meny] ^^ grete dedes in Spayne, was i-made 
consul and i-sende into Affrica ; and ^^ pere ^^ he made [to 
him] 1^ sogett Aumorus ^^ duke of pe AfFres and Siphates ^'-^ 
kyng of Numidia. Whanne pat was i-herd, wel nygh al Italy 
forsook Hanibal. Hanybal, pe seventepe ^ere of his comynge 
in to Italy, was hote ^^ by men of Cartage ^i forto wende ^^ 
[hoom, and so he wende] ^^ out of Italy, wepynge wel sore 2* ; 



Ab iirbe. ouer lordan gedrede the kynges tribute of men and peple of MS. Harl. 
barbre by mony yeres, where he made a meruellous towi'C, 2261. 
where he faujhte ageyne men of Araby alle the tyme that ^ transmi- 
Seleucus Sother Avas presidente of Siria. Whiche dedde, gracione. 
Hircanus, dredenge the cowardenesse of Aiithiocus Epiphanes, 
did slee hym. The noble man Scipio was sende from Rome 
vn to Speyne abowte the iirste yere of this Tholomeus, and 
soone after vn to Affrike, where he made subiecte to hym 
Annon, the gouernoure of Affrike, and Siphas the kynge of 
Numidia. Men of Ytaly herenge that lefte Hanibal. This 
kynge Hanibal, desirede by men of Cartage to comme vn to f. 175. a. 
they me, departede from Ytaly with wepynge in the xvij*^^ 
yere of' his commynge in to hit, trowblenge the peace that 



^ Taak, a. 

^ weighte, Cx. 

•' or, Cx., bis. 

^ From a. 

•' be, Cx. 

^ of] om. Cx. 

7 }pe viyddel, /3., 7., rightly ; the 
moost, Cx. 

^ J>e moste, /8,, 7., rightly; ]pe 
middle, Cx. 

'^ flrpn, /8. ; Jlome, Cx. 

1" From /8., 7., and Cx. 

" drad the crucJle, Cx. 

'2 Tholomeus, Cx. 



'3 vihiche, Cx. 

14 From a., j8,, 7., and Cx. 

1^ andl om. a. 

^^]perc^ om. Cx. 

^' From Cx. 

i'*^ Amnorusy j8. ; Aniiorus, 7. ; 
subgett Arnmorus due of thaffres, Cx. 

1'-* Syphaces, Cx. 

20 boden, Cx. 

-i/o/-] om. Cx. 

^2 retorne, Cx. 

'3 From a., p., and 7. ; retorned, 
Cx. 

-■* soore weping, Cx. 



86 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Pacem, quam Afri cum Scipione fecerant, Hannibal 
veniens turbavit.^ 
Aburbe. Erat autem talis conditio pacis, ne Afri plusquam 
graoionc. triginta naves haberent, ut quinquaginta millia pondo 
^ argenti darent, ut captivos et profugos omnes red- 
derent. ^ Prsemiserat Hannibal tres exploratores,* ut ^ 
castra Scipionis explorarent, quos captos et circum 
castra ductos refocillatosque ^ Scipio remisit. Fit 
igitur inter duos peritissimos duces acerrima pugna ; sed 
Scipio vicit, Hannibale psene capto. Pax Carthaginien- 
sibus conceditur, Scipio Rom am redit ; qui exinde, 
Africanus appellatus^; sub quo, isto modo prsedicto,^ 
terminatum '^ secundum bellum Punicum.^ Hoc anno 
Plautus Romse moritur, qui propter annonse diiiicul- 
tatem ad molas manuales pistori se locaverat, ibique 
quotiens vacavit scripsit fabulas et vendidit.^ Eutro- 
Aburbe. pius, Uhro ouarto}^ Finito secundo bello Punico, 

550. 

^gracS! secutum est Macedonicum bellum contra Philippum 

390. 



1 Varied in CD. 

2 Space between pondo and ar- 
genti in B. 

3 Abbreviated in CD. ! ^ est, added in A.B. 

■* ploratores, B. ' ^^ lihro tpiarto] om. B. 

^ quiy B. 



** refocillatos que~\ om. B. 
'' est, added in A. 
^ prcedicto'] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. 111. 



87 



and whan Hanibal was i-come he destroyede ^ pe pees ]iat pe 
Affres 2 hadde i-made wi]> Scipio. The eondicioun of J)e pees 
was suche, ]>at ]>e ^ AfFres schulde have but )?ritty schippes, 
and he^ schulde ^eve fyve hondred ]?owsand pound of silver. 
Pondo is a pound. He*^ schulde also sende home al^ ]?o 
prisoners and flemed^ men ]?at ])ey hadde i-take. Hanibal 
hadde i-sent Ipre spies for to aspie Scipio his ^ tentes. pese 
spies were i-take, and i-ladde aboute ])G tentes, and i-made wel 
at ese'' wij? mete and wi]? drynke, and ])anne Scipio sente 
hem home a^en. pan was hardefi^t^ bytwene tweyne wise 
dukes,^ but Scipio hadde ]>e maystrie,^^ and Hanibal was 
nyh i-take. Pees was graunted to men of Cartage, and Scipio 
tornede ajen ^^ to Rome, and was after ])at i-cleped ^^ Affri- 
canus. In pis manere J>e secounde bataille Punicum was 
i-doo and i*^ endede in his tyme. pat ^ere Plautus ^* deyde at 
Rome : he gronde at ^^ J^e querne wi]> a bakere for huyre, for 
hunger ^^ and scarsite of corn, and whanne he myjte have ^^ 
while he wroot ^^ fables and solde ^^ hem. Whanne f e secounde 
batayle Punicum was i-doo, ]?anne come ]>e bataille ^^ Mace- 



TllEVISA. 



Ab urbe. men of Affrike hade made with the Romanes. And this was MS. Habl. 
the condicion of peas, that men of Affrike scholde have but 2261. 
xxx*^ schippes, and that thei scholde ^iffe to the Romanes 1^^ . , . 
mT 11 01 siluyr, and that thei scholde sende to ]?eim alle the gracione. 
Romanes taken in captiuite. This Hanibal sende tlire spies 
whiche scholde beholde the hoste of the Romanes, whom 
Scipio toke, refrescheuge theym with meytes and drynkes, 
sende theyme to Hanibal. Then a grete and soore batelle was 
made betwene ij. myjhty men, Hanibal and Scipio; but this 
Scipio hade the victory, Hanibal allemoste taken. Peas was 
grauntede to men of Cartage, and Scipio returnede to Rome, 
callede from that tyme AfFricanus, and so the secunde batelle 
Punicalle was finischede. Plauctus diede at Rome abowte this 



Cx. 



^ distried, )8. 

- thaffres, Cx., et infra. 

3 they, Cx. 

^ alle, Cx. 

'^Jleme, a., )8., and 7. ; hanysshed. 



^ espye Scipions, Cx. 
^ ease, Cx. 

U'.'/fMj'^y^'f Cx. 
^ these two dukes, Cx. 
^" vyctorye, Cx. 
^' agayne, Cx. 



^"^ callyd, Cx. 

1^ was i-doo and~\ om a., /3,, and 
Cx. 

^^ Plantus, Cx. 

'5 grond atte queorne, 7. ; grande 
atte, Cx. 

^^ hakar for hyrefor hoiigrc, Cx. 

17 a, 7. 

'^ wrote, Cx. 

'9 sayd, Cx. 

20 hdttell, Cx. 



88 POLYCHKONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 

regem, quem Titus i Quintius devincens, duos filios 
regum MacedonisD et Lacedsemonise ^ ante currum 
suum obsides daxit ; Romanos captivos, qui sub Hanni- 
bale per Grseciam venditi fuerant,^ capitibus ob de- 
Aburbe. tersam ^ servitutem rasis, reduxit.^ Romani inducunt 

551. 
A transmi- 

^^^391.^^' bellum regi SyriaB Antiocho magno, eo quod finitimas 
regiones vastaret, et Hannibalem nuper de Africa elap- 
sum apud se confoveret.^ Trogus, lihro tricesimo 
primo.^ Videns itaque Antiochus quod Hannibal fre- 
quenter cum legatis Romanorum illuc missis colloque- 
retur, tanquam suspectum a consilio suo sprevit. Et 
si quando eum advocaret,'^ magis hoc egit ^ ne spre- 
visse^ videretur, quam ut aliquid ex ^^ ejus sen- 
tentia ageret. Hannibal tamen semper censuit bellum 
Romanis inferendum, non autem exspectandum, negans 



• Titus'] space left in B. 

2 Lacedomoniorum, B. 

^ sunt, B. 

"• detarsam, A. 

^ Varied in CD. 



^ B. omits reference. The full 
reference is chapp. 3-6. 
^ vocavit, B. 
^ fecit, B. 
^ eum, added in B. 
'" ex] om. B. 



MONACHl CESTKENSIS, LIB. HI. 



89 



donicum, J)at was a^eust Phelip pe kyiige. Titus Quincius Trevisa. 

overcome hym, and ladde tweyne ^ kynges sones of Macedonia 

and of Lacedemonia^ plegges to fore "^ his chariot; and ladde 
home [to] * J)e Romayns ])iit Hanibal hadde i-take and i-solde 
in Grecia, and leet schave here hedes yn tokene of schavynge 
away of ]>e bondage, pe Romayns werrep ^ a^enst ]>e grete 
Autiochus kyng of Siria, for he destroyede |?e kyngdoms 
p'dt were nyh ^ aboute hym, and also for he hilde '^ wij> hym 
Hanybal, ]?at was cause ^ he wente out of Affrica. Eutropius^ 
libro 4°. Antiochus sigh^ }>at Hanibal spak ofte wi]? ])e 
messangers '^^ of Rome, and hadde hym suspecte, and forsook 
to have hym of his counsaille,^^ and Jif he cleped hym ojjcr 
whiles to counsaile, it was for ^^ he schulde noujt wene pat 
he was suspecte and forsoke,^^ [and] ^^ nou^t forto do by ^^ his 
counsaille. But Hanibal counsaillede al way forto werre^^ 
aZenst j?e Romayns, and noujt forto abide, and seide ]?at 



Ab urbc. tyme, whiche was liirede by a baker to grynde corne at qwernes MS. Hakl. 
and places apte for the honde, for pouerte of exhibicion, whiche 2261. 
did write on holy dales fables, and solde theyme. A batelle of "" — . 
Macedony folowede that secunde batelle Punicalle, ageyne gracione, 
Philippe kynge of Macedony, whom Titus Quiricius ouer- 
come, and brou^hte afore his chariette the sonne of the kynge 
of Macedony and the son of the kynge of Lacedemony, 
redemenge the Romanes solde in to the londe of Grece by 
Hanibal, schavenge theire hedes in a signe of seruitute. The 
Romanes intendede that tyme to ^ifte batelle to grete Anthiocus, 
in that he wastede diuerse regiones, and in that he noryschede 
but late Hanibal goenge from Affrike with hym. Eutropius, 
libro quarto. Anthiocus seenge that Hanibal spake ofte with 
fe messyngers of Rome, hade hym suspecte, and despisede hys 
covv^nesaile ; and thaujhe he callede Hanibal to him, hit was 
rafer that Hanibal scholde not perceyve hym as despisede then 
for to fullefille eny thynge after his cownselle. Hanibal tafe 
f. 175. b. cownselle to hym that he scholde tiffe batelle to the Romanes, 



' twey^ Cx. 

- Lacedomonia, Cx. 

2 before, Cx. 

■* From Cx. (not 7.) ; inserted in 
$. above the line. 

* Romaines werrid, Cx. 

*• nyghe, Cx. 

' held, Cx. 

'^ cau.sc] cm. a. ; cause he, om. 
/3., 7., and Cx. 



' saw, Cx. 

'" messagers, Cx, 

" counsails, a. ; in his counscyll, 
Cx. 

'■- conseyll that was hycause he, 
Cx. 

^^ forsake, a. and Cx. 

1^ From )3., 7., and Cx. 

'•^ by'] om. /3. and Cx. 

'•' werry, 7. ; warre, Cx. 



90 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Romanos^ nisi in patria propria vinci posse. Quippe, 
ait, cum foris ^ invicti domique ^ fragiles, potius contra 
victos jacentesque fore reluctandum quam contra 
stantes. Ejus tamen consilium, quamvis plurimum sa- 
lubre minus appreciabatur, tuni ratione auctoris, qui 
tunc displicuerat, turn instigatione obtrectatorum, qui 
eum in regis gratiam redire noluerant.''' Unde et 
regii exercitus terrestri et navali prselio sunt devicti. 
Coepit ergo rex Antiochus neglecti consilii poenitere, 
Hannibalemque ad consilia sua adhibere. Eutropius, 
lihro quarto.^ Verum,^ quia^ Philippus rex Mace- 
doniae ^ Romanis contra Antiochum auxilio fuerat, 
filius suus Demetrius, qui obses fuerat, redditus est sibi. 
Scipio Nasica, nepos magni Scipionis Africani, devicit 
Antiochum et Hannibalem navali prselio et terrestri, 
ob quod ^ Asiagenus ab Asia ^^ devicta cognominatus 
est.-^^ Tunc rex Antiochus filium suum juniorem, scili- 
cet Antiochum Epiphanem, pro Seleuco majore obsidem 
Romanis dedit perpetuum, pacemque pro^^ eo pacto 



' Momanisy MS. 
2 sunt, added in B. 
^ denique, B. 
■* voluerant, A.B. 
5 Orosius, B. ; CD. place the 
reference before the next passage. 



' et, B. 

" Macedonum, B. 
'•^ aliquod, B. 
1" alia, B. 

^' sicut et /rater suus Ajricanus 
ah Africa suhjui/ata, added in CD. 



^' Verumtamen, A. ' ^- pro om. A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



91 



])e Romayns myjt nou^t be overcome [but] ^ in here owne Trevisa. 

contray. " Out of here owne contray," quo]? he, " ])ey 

" mowe noujt 2 be overcome, but at home J>ey bee]? ^ brutel 
" and li^tUche overcome ; hit nede]? more to wrastle wiseliche 
" a^enst hem })at bee]? ^ overcome, and spekej? * nou^t, ]?anne 
'' ajenst hem ]?at opeuliche wi]?stondeJ)." But pej ^ his coun- 
seille were ^ ofte good and spedefuUe, hit was noujt allowed,'' 
for }?e kyng hadde hym suspecte, and also for maliynge of 
bakbiters,^ ]?at wolde noujt ]?at he were allowed^ of })e kyng. 
perfore })e kynges oost^ was overcome bo])e in [the] ^^ see 
and in londe. po ^^ Antiochus pe kyng he^^ jjoujte ]?at he 
dede ^^ noujt by Hanybal his counsaille, [and made Hanibal 
pryve of his counsail].^^ Eutropius, libro 4°. For Phelip 
kyng of Macedonia halp ^^ the Romayns ajenst Antiochus, 
[and] 1^ his sone Demetrius, }?at was prisoner and plegge, was 
sent home aje.^^ Scipio Nasica, }?e greet Scipio ])at heet '^'^ 
Affricanus his nevewe, overcom Antiochus and ^^ Hanibal in 
bataille, boJ?e in ]?e see and in j^e londe. pere ^^ he hadde a 
surname, and was i-cleped Asiagenus of Asia J>at was over- 
come, panne Antiochus ]?e kyng ^af^*^ his ^^nger sone 
Antiochus Epiphanes to ]?e Romayns plegge ^^ for evermore 
for his elder ^^ sone Seleucius,^^ and hadde pees uppon cove- 



Ab urbe. and that he scholde not make taryenge in hit, for Hanibal seide MS. Harl. 
])e Romanes to be invincible but in theire awne cuntre. The 2261. 
cownselle of Hanibal was not fullefillede, wherefore the hostes . 

of Anthiocus were deuicte by the Romanes, bothe on the see graclone. 
and also on the londe. Then Anthiocus began to take Hanibal 
to cownselle. Eutropius, libro quarto. Philippus, kynge of 
Macedony, hade his son restorede to hym, in that he schewede 
helpe to the Romanes ageyne that Anthiocus. Scipio Nasia, 
son of the do^hter of grete Scipio, hade victory ageyne Anthi- 
ocus, bothe in batelle on the see and on J>e londe. Then 
Anthiocus toke to the Romanes his yonger son, Anthiocus 
Epiphanes, for Seleucus his elder son, promisenge peas per- 



^ From a., 7., and Cx. 


'^^ forthought that he dydde, Cx. 


2 may not, Cx. 


i^From a., /B., y., and Cx. 


3 ben, Cx., et infra. 


■5 halpe, Cx. 


■* speke, Cx. 


-•^ hoome ayene, Cx. 


^ though, Cx. 


J' hight, Cx. 


•"• ivas, Cx. 


1^ Antiochus and] oni. Cx. 


' alowed, Cx., et infra. 


'^ \>erfor, y. 


'^ baghyters, Cx. 


-*^ xjave, Cx. 


^ hoost, Cx. 


-^ pledge, Cx. 


'" From Cx. 


'" el\>er, y. 


» Than, Cx. 


-'^ Selencus, Cx. 


^2 he] om. Cx. ; althouyte, y. 





92 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHf HIGDEN 



obtiniiit, ut Europam et Asiam minorem deserens, infra 
Taurum inontem se contineret, et Ilannibalem, belli 
concifcatorem, Romanis traderet. Unde Hannibal sibi^ 
timens, ad Prusiam regem Bithynise se contulit.^ Tragus, 
libro xxxii^.^ Interim^ cum Prusias ab Eumene, fra- 
tre Attali regis Asise, devinceretur, Hannibal^ partem 
Prusise novo belli commento ^ juvans, varia serpentum 
genera in fictiles^^ lagenas conclusit, quos medio in 
prselio in naves hostium jecit, quibus hostes territi 
cesserunt. Quo audito, Eomanorum legati ambos reges 
pacificaverunt, et Hannibalem petierunt ; sed Hannibal, 
sumpto veneno quod ex anulo suo lambuerat, obiit 
apud Nicomediam. De quo constat quod nunquam 
sine bellis Cubans ccenaverit,^ quod nunquam inter 
innumeras^ captivas mirse pulcbritudinis puellas casti- 
tatem perdiderit, quod nunquam insidiis inimicorum 



1 se, B. 

2 Varied in CD. 

^ B. leaves space for refcrehce. 
To complete it add chap. 4. 

^ Item, B. 



^ qui nuper ad Crelam fugerat, 
added in CD. 
^ convento, B. 
^ Jictines, B. 
^ coenaverat, B. 
'•^ numeras, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



93 



naunt ])at he schulde leve Europa and fe lasse Asia, and holde Trevisa. 
hym wi]) ynne pe liille mont^ Taurus, and also he schulde 
bytake Hanibal to pe Romayns, for he eggede^ and coun- 
saillede ^ to werre ajenst Rome, perfore Hanibal dradde and 
tornede to Prusia kyng of Bithinia. Trogus, libra 32°. 
pe mene tyme, whan Eumenes ^ Attains fe kinge his broJ>er 
of Siria schulde overcome Prusia, [than] ^ Hanibal halp ^ 
Prusia by a newe '^slei|)e '' of bataile ; for he hadde dyvers 
manere addres and serpentes i-closed in er]?en stenes, and 
]>rewe hem in to [the] ^ schippes of here enemyes in ]>e 
myddel of [the] ® bataille. panne J)e enemyes were aferde and 
agrysed,^ and wij? drowe hem anon, pe Romayns herde here 
of, and sente messangers,!^ and made pe kyng and hem ^^ aton,!^ 
and axede ]?at J>ey moste have ^^ Hanibal into here owne 
hond ; but Hanibal likked venym of his owne ryng, and 
deide at Nichomedia. Hit is certeyne of hym pat he satte 
nevere to [pe] i'* sopere wi]) oute batailles. He was among 
meny [wonder] ^^ faire maidens, and lefte nevere his chastite ; 
he was nevere betrayed by cas tinge oj?er away tinge of his 



Ab urbe. petualle to the Romanes, so that he wolde kepe hym within MS. Harl. 

the hylle Taurus, levenge Europe and the lesse Asia, and that ^261. 

he scholde take to theym Hanibal, the mover and causer of . ^ . 
1 in Tx •! 1 1/111 -r» . A transmi- 

those batelles. Hanibal perceyvenge that nedde to Prusias gracione. 

kynge of Bithinia. Trogus^ libro tricesimo tertio. Prusias 

kynge of Bithinia deuicte by Eumenes, brother of Attains, 

kynge of Asia, Hanibal movede hym to JifFe a newe batelle, 

whiche gedrenge diuerse kyndes of serpentes, and puttenge 

theym in veselles of cleye, and caste theyme into the schippes 

of theire enmyes, where pro thei aferde fledde. The mes- 

sangers of the Romanes herenge that, sette those too princes 

in Concorde and vnite, and desirede to haue Hanibal delyuerede 

vn to peym. This Hanibal likkenge venom of a rynge that 

he hade, diede at Nichomedia ; of whom hit is rehersede that 

he wente not to bedde with owte batelle, and that he loste 

neuer chastite amonge maides taken in captiuite of meruellous 

pulcritude ; and that he was neuer betrayede, neither with his 



* mount, Cx. 

' eygyd*^, Cx. 

^ councciled, )3. ; counseylde, Cx. 

■* Emnenes, Cx. 

^ From Cx. 

^ helped, Cx. 

" slei'^\>e, fi. ; sleght, Cx. 

* From &.,y., and Cx. 



^ and agrysed'] om. Cx. 

'" messayers, Cx. 

^^ and heni] om. )8. and y. 

^2 atoon, 7. ; at one, Cx. 

^^ for to have, Cx. 

^^ From a. , /8., and Cx. 

^5 From )8. and Cx. 



94 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

aut suorum proditus fuerit.^ Ranulphus} Kefert 
Orosius, libro quarto, quod eo anno quo Hannibal obiit, 
insula^ Vulcani, quae nunquam antea^ fuerat, apud 
Sicilian! repente de mari emergens, usque hodie per- 
severat. Policratica.^ De isto Hannibale legitur, quod 
cum rex Antiochus ei ostenderefc exercitum aureis 
et argenteis insignibus ^ ornatum, efc quaereret an 
ha3C sufficerent Komanis, respondit ille, " Satis esse 
" credo, quamvis Komani sint avarissimi ;" lepide ^ 
quidem breviter et acerbe magis intelligens de prseda 
quam de numero.^ Plinius, lihro octavo, capitulo 
octavo. Hannibal aliquotiens victor efFectus coegit plu- 
rimos e^ captivis Romanorum pugnare ad bestias in 
arena, et pactus est uni quod eura dimitteret si ele- 
pliantem prosterneret. Prostrata autem bestia Hanni- 
bal emisit equites qui victorem hominem interficerent. 
Policraticaj lihro primo. Asseruit nempe eum fore 
vita indignum qui cogi potuit dimicare ad bestias, 



' Slightly varied in CD. , •' libro G», added in A. 

- This passage is omitted in j ^ insignibus^ om. B. 
CD. ; A.B. omit the reference. , " lapide, B. 

^ m° sula (sic) in B. '^ Varied in CD. 

' ante hoc, B. ^ de^ A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 95 

owne ^ men, noper 2 of his owne^ enemyes. [1^.]^ OrosiuSf Trevisa. 
libro 4°, seip ]?at J^e ilond ]?at hiitte ^ insula Vulcani, ])e 
wliiche ilond was nevere to forehoude i-seie,^ sprang up of 
\)e see at Sicilia^ ))at Jere fat Hanibal deyde, and yit is 
])ere alway anon ^ to ]>is day. Policratica, libro 6^. Of ]ns 
Hanibal it is i-rad ^ ])at whanne Antiochus fe kyng schewede 
hym his oost realliche ^^ arrayed wi}> gold and wi)? silver, and 
wij> oJ>er riche array,i^ and axede hym yf al Jmt suffisede to 
]?e Romayns ; " I trowe," quod ^^ Hanibal, " it is i-now, pey ^^ 
" ]?e Romayns be J)e moste covetouse men on^^ lyve :" but he 
understood [esiliche, schortliche, and forwardliche, for he 
understood] ^^ of \q praye and noujt of ])e strengj>e of })e 
oost.^^ Plinius, libro 8*^, capitulo 8°. Hanibal ofte, whanne 
he hadde ]?e maistrie, compellede ^'^ prisoners of Rome to fijte 
upon J)e gravel wi]? stronge bestes, and behi^t oon ^® J>at he 
wolde delyvere hym Jif he J^rewe doun an olifaunte ; and 
whan ]?e beest was acast ^^ Hanibal sente horsmen to sle pe 
man anon ri^t }>ere. Policratica, libro primo. Hanibal seide 
pat he was nou^t wor]?y his lyf ];at myjte be compelled to 

Ab urbe. awne men neiper with his aduersaryes. ^. Orosius re- MS. Harl. 
hersethe, libro quarto, that an yle apperede that yere in whom 2261. 

f. 17G. a. Hanibal diede in the londe of Sieille, callede Insula Vulcani, . 

brekenge up from the see, and taryethe per vn tille this tyme. gracione. 
Polichronicon, libro sexto. Hit is redde that Anthiocus schewede 
vn to Hanibal an hoste armede in golde and siluyr, inquirenge 
of Hanibal whe]?er that rychesse was sufficiaunte to the 
Romanes. Hanibal answerede and seide : " Y suppose that 
" richesse were sufficiaunte, thaujhe thei be moste covetous." 
Polichronicon, capitulo octavo. Hanibal hauenge victory of 
the Romanes, constreynede \q Romanes taken in captiuite to 
fijhte with wilde bestes, promisenge to oon his lyfe if that he 
hade victory of an elephaunte. The Roman hauenge victory 
of that beste, Hanibal sonde diuerse knyjhtes to slee hym. 
Polichronicon, libro primo. Hanibal seide that man was not 
worthy lyfe that my^hte be constreynede to iijhte with 



^ bytrayed by ymagynacion of his 
owne, Cx. 

- nouther, Cx. 

^ owne'] om. a. and Cx. 

^ From Cx. 

■^ called, Cx. 

'"• by/ore seen, Cx. 

7 Scicilia, Cx. 

^ unto, Cx. 

** redde, Cx. 



^" rialich, fi. ; hoost royally arayed, 
Cx. 

^^ aray, Cx. 

^^ sayde, Cx. 

'^ ynowgh though, Cx. 

'' of, fi- 

'- From a., fi., y., and Cx. 

^•5 hoost, Cx. 

^' compellid, Cx. 

^^ promysed one, Cx. 

^^ cast, Cx. 



96 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

quamvis verius sestimetur Hannibalem ex invidia 
noluisse Romanum inauditi triumphi gloria illustrari, 
et bestias noluisse infamari quarum virtute terrorem 
gentibus incusserat.^ Eutropius, lihro quarto. Eodem 
anno Scipio Africanus, ab ingrata sibi urbe Roma diu 
exulatus, apud Amiternum obiit.^ Valerius, lihro v^^j^ 
Cum Scipio accusaretur apud senatum de pecunia, 
respondit : " Cum totam Africam vestrae potestati sub- 
" jecerim, nihil de ea tuli prseter solum cognomentum. 
" Item nee me Africanse divitiae, nee fratrem meum ^ 
" Scipionem Asianse, avarum reddiderunt, cum esset 
" uterque nostrum magis invidia locuples quam pecunia." 
Salustius. Cum Scipio ^ ornatum scutum cujusdam 
vidisset, " Non miror," inquit, " si tanta cura illud orna- 
" vit, in quo plus prsesidii habet quam in gladio." ^ 
Valerius, -^mula, uxor Scipionis, tantse fuit bonitatis, ut 
cum sciret unam ex ancillis suis viro suo gratam fore, 



^ Much varied verbally in CD. 

2 ohlit Amiternum, B. ; much 
varied in CD. 

3 Cap. 3, added in A.B. 



^ meum'] om. B. 

^ iste, added in A.B. 

c Slightly varied in CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSTSj LIB. III. 



97 



fijte wi]) bestes ; but me trowe]> so]?eliclie ^ pat Hanibal Trevisa. 

slow^ ]ie man for grete en vie, for he wolde not |)at a Romayn 

schulde have so grete a name and worschippe of a gretter 

dede panne me hadde i-herde of to forehonde,^ and also for 

he wolde noujt defame^ ]?e bestes by pe strengpe by"* pe 

whiclie he hadde ofte afered ^ his enemyes. Eu tropins, 

libro 4^. pat Jere Scipio Affricanus deide at Amitern, and^ 

hadde be longe exciled ^ out of Rome, ])at was an unkynde 

citee to hym. Valerius, libro 8°.^ Whan Scipio was accused 

of money among pe senatoures, he answered and seide : " Whan 

" I wan al Affrica, and made it suget^ and under Jour 

" power, I took no ping perof, but onliche ^^ the name Affri- 

" canus ; also pe riches of Atfrica made me noujt coveitous, 

" noper ^^ pe riches of Affrica ^^ made my broper Scipio 

" coveytous, for eyper of us was richer of envie pan of 

" money." Salustius. pis Scipio sigh ^^ ones a childe gay- 

liche arrayed,!^ and seide, "I wondre nou^t pat he arrayep 

" well his childe, for it helpep hym more pan dop his swerd." 

Valerius. Emila, Scipio his wif,^^ was so godeliche pat pey ^^ 

sche wiste^^ l)at here housbonde lovede oon of here bonde 



A. transmi- 
gi'acione. 



Aburbc. wilde bestes ; neuertheles hit is to be presupposede that hit MS. Hael 
Avas doen raper of envy that a Roman scholde do suche a 2261. 
triumphe, and bestes to be infamede thro whom he inducede 
grete fere to peple. Eiitropius, libro quarto. Scipio Affri- 
canus putte in longe exile diode at Amiternum. Valerius, libro 
quarto. This Scipio accusede by the cenate of money, answerede 
in this wise: " When y hade made Affrike subiecte to the domi- 
" nacion of the Romanes, y toke noo tliynge but the name. 
" Also neither the richesse of AtFrike made me covetous^ neither 
" the richesse of Asia Scipio my broper, sithe either of vs was 
" more riche of envye then of nioneye." Salustius. This Scipio 
perceyvenge and seenge the bucler of a man ryally onornede, 
seide, " Y meruayle not perof, for he hathe more truste in hit 
" pen in his swerde." Valerius. Emilia, the wife of Scipio, 
was of so grete goodenes and patience, knowenge oon of her 



^ sothhj, Cx. 
^ hyfore, Cx. 
^ diffame, Cx. 
' of, Cx. 
^ aferde, Cx. 
I that, p. and Cx, 
' exylcd, Cx. 
3 8°] om. Cx. 
^ subgette, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



"^ only, Cx. 

^^ covetous veyther, Cx. 

^2 Asia, a., jS., and Cx. 

^^ sawe, Cx. 

^^ (jayiy arayed, Cx. 

^^ Scipions wyf, Cx. 

i*"' goodly that though, Cx. 

^' weoste, y. 

G 




98 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



tamen hoc dissimulavit, ne dominatorem orbis Africanse 

foeminea impatientia reum ostenderet ; tantumque a vin- 

dicta mens ejus abstinuit, ut etiam post mortem viri ma- 

numitteret ancillam illam et maritaret. Valerius} Scipio 

moriens apud urbem ^ Palustrem ordinavit sibi tale 

epitaphium superscribi : "0 ingrata patria, ne ^ ossa 

" mea recipiasJ' Orosius, lihro quarto in fine. Scipio 

Nasica ante inceptionem tertii belli Punici prohibuit 

theatrum erigi in urbe, quod quidem duo censores para- 

verant, dicens hoc populo bellatori fore inimicissimum 

ad nutriendum desidiam et lasciviam. Unde et tarn 

valide peroravit in populo, quod fecit totum apparatum 

vendi, et etiam subsellia, id est, sedilia, amoveri. In- 

troduxitque ut deinceps non sedendo, sed stando, 

populus spectacula cerneret, ad virilitatis suae conser- 

vationem. Qui mos apud Romanes quingentis quad- 

Theatrum. raginta octo annis servabatur.* Ranuliohus.^ Est 

autem theatrum, secundum auctores, area qusedam 



^ This passage is in CD. as 
follows: " Augustmus de Civitate, 
" lihro primo. Scipio Nasica judicio 
" senatus optimus approbatus, vole- 
" bat Carthaginem, Romaui imperii 
" semulam, dirui ; sed Catoui ut 
" dirueretur decernenti contra 
" dicebat, dicens infirmis animis 
" hostem fore securitatem, et quasi 
" pupillis idoneum tutorem, sic 
*' civibus videbat necessarium esse 
" rectorem, quod re ipsa probatum 
" est. Nam deleta postmodum 
" Carthagine sub juniore Scipione 
" hffic secuta sunt mala, rupta con- 
" cordia, cruentK seditioues, mala- 



" rum connexio causarum, strages 
" civilium bellorum, rapina?, pra- 
" scriptiones, ita ut Romani, per- 
" dita morum integritate, crudeliora 
" paterentur a civibus quam ab 
*' hostibus. Hajc prsevidens ille 
" nolebat civitatem fortem auferri, 
" ut timore libido premeretur 
" luxuriaque cohibita nee avaritia 
" grassaretur." 

- urheiii\ om. B. 

^ ne before recipias, B. 

' This passage is contracted to a 
few words in C.I). 

^ Ranulphuf, . . . ijuarto'] om. 
CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 99 

■women, for sclie wolde noujt difFame here lord, conquerour Trevisa. 

of AfFrica, by wymmen rees ^ and anger. And sclie ab- 

styncd ^ hire so from vengeaunce ^ and wreche J)at sche made 
here bonde women ^ free and mariede hem ^ rijt wel whan 
here lord was dede. Policratica, Scipio deyde, and or- 
deyned suche a writynge on his tombe at ])e citee Palus- 
tres : " pou unkynde contray, fong ]?ou nou^t ^ my boones." 
Augustiiius de Civitate \_Dei\^ libro primo, Scipio Nasica 
tofore ^ ]>e fridde bataille Punicum fforbeed ]?e rerynge of pe ^ 
theatre in ])e citee of Rome, j^at tweie iuges hadde arrayed 
forto arere ; and Scipio seide }>at it is grete enemyte ^^ to 
werriours forto norsche sleu|>e and leccherie ; ^^ and Jjerfore 
he pletede^^ so strongly in }>e peple ]>at he made^^ al ]?e 
array ferof was i-solde, and benches, stoles, formes, and all 
manere stoles ^^ were i-do ]?ennes ; ^^ and so he broujte yn J^at 
men schulde stonde and noujt sitte forto see pleies and 
merfe,!^ forto save here owne manhede. pat manere was 
i-used among ])e Romayns fyve hondi'ed Jere and eijte and 
fifty.^^ 5^. Auctors telle]? ^^ J^at theatrum was a place 

Ab urbe. seruauntes female to be kynde to her howsebonde, dissimilate MS. Harl. 
that thynge, leste that the impatience of women scholde schewe 2261. 
the victor of Affrike 2;ilty or culpable of suche a cryme; in . ^ . 

A. ijr&iTisiiii" 

so moche that sche abstenynge from that cryme mariede that gracione. 
maide after the dethe off her howsebonde, and ^afe to her f. 176. b. 
liberte. Policronicon, Scipio dienge at a cite callede Palus- 
tris, ordeynede suche an epitaphyto hym: "O cuntre unkynde, 
" thow schal not receyve my boones." Augustinus de Civitate 
Dei^ libro primo. Scipio Nasica did prohibite a place to be 
edifiede callede Theatrum in the cite of Rome afore the 
begynnenge of the thridde batelle Punicalle, seyenge that hit 
was noyenge to peple bellicose to norische slawthe, causenge 
the Romanes to selle alle the noble apparayle ordeynede for hit, 
commaundenge that the peple scholde beholde suche disportes 
stoudenge, and not sitteuge, to the conseruacion of manhode, 
whiche was ^^ consuetude was kepede by v.^* xlviij. yere. ]^. 



^ rese, $. and 7. 4 reese, Cx. 
2 ohsteyned, Cx. 
^ veniaunce, /8. 
■* tvoman, )8. 

"• here, a. ; hir, fi. and Cx. 
^' receyve thou not, Cx. 
7 From Cx. 
^ hyfore, Cx. 

^forbade the settyncje up or en- 
hauncymj of the, Cx. 
^" enemye, Cx. 



^^ norysshe slouthe and lechery, 
Cx. 

12 pleded, )8. and Cx. 

^^ he made'] om. Cx. ; \>at added 
after made in ;8. 

^^ sotels, )8. ; sotles, 7. 

^•' subtylytees were done thens, Cx. 

^''' myrthes, Cx. 

^'' fourty, a. and Cx. ; xlvi'u., P. 

^^ seyn, Cx. 

'•J Sic. 

G 2 



100 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



semicircularis, in cujus medio erat domuncula quae dam 
quge scena vocabatur, in quo -^ poet^e et carminatores 
super quoddam pulpitum recitabant carmina sua. Ec 
exterius erant mimi^ qui gestu corporis effigiabant 
res illas de quibus ibidem fiebat ^ mentio. Augustinus* 
libro primo, capitulo xxxi. Ista institutio ludorum 
scenicorum primo fiebat dsGmonis instincfcu, ut homines 
ad similia excifcarent ^ cum audirent in spectaculis 
deos talia fecisse. Augustinus, libro quarto, capitulo 
xx^ quinto. Sed processu temporis quid am rusticus 
nomine Titus Latinus in somnis recepit ufc dicerefc 
senatui ut^ ludos scenicos instituerent. Quod quia 
facere ^ bis distulit filium amisit. Et quia tertio am- 



^ qua, A.B. 

2 mini, B. 

'Jit, B. 

^ Neither of the references to 
St. Augustine on this page is cor- 
rect. There are many passages in 



the De Civit. Dei of similar import, 
and it is hard to say to which 
Higden refers. 

^ excitarentur, B. 

^ quod, B. 

" qui afratre (sic), A. 




MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB, III. 



101 



i-schape ^ as half a cercle, and in ]>g mydclel J^erof was a Trevisa. 

litel lious Jmt was i-cleped scena. In pat hous poetes and 

gestoures uppon ^ a pulpet^ rehersede poysees,'* gestes, and 
songes, and withoute were raynstralles ^ J^at counterfeted ^ J>e 
doynge and [the] '' dedes pat pey speke in her gestes and 
songes, wi]) bendynge and wyndinge and settynge and stynt- 
ynge of here lemes^ and here body. Augustinus, libro 
prirno, capitulo 3i^. pis pleyes j^at were i-cleped Liidy ^ 
scenici were first i-ordeyned by exci tinge of J^e devel,^^ 
for men schnlde be excited ^^ to such dedes whainie ]»ey 
my^te here ^^ in |)e theatrum ^^ ])at goddes hadde i-dco suche 
manere dedes. Augustinus, libro 4°., capitulo 25°. But in 
passynge of tyme a cherle |)at heet^^^ Titus Latinus was 
i -warned by his swevenynge ^^ ]?at he schulde telle pe sena- 
toures pat pey schulde restore and renewe pe pley^ ^^ pat 
were i-cleped ^^ ludi scenici were first i-ordeyned ^^ ]?e 
pleyes of pe theatre ; and for he was i-warned tweies, and 
dede^^ noujt perto, he loste his owne sone ; and for he was 
i-warned pe pridde tyme, and dede ^^ nou^t perto, he fil ^^ in 



Ab urbe. After auctores theatrum is proprely a flore semicirculer, in MS. Harl. 



the myddes of whom was an howse Avhiche was callede scena, 
in whom poetes and makers of dites rehersede ])eim in a pul- 
pitte ; and mynstrelles were withowte whiche did expresse as 
in behaver of body thynges of whom mencion was made per. 
Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro primo, capitulo tricesimo 
primo. This disporte and institucion ofi" disportes scenicalle 
began pro pe instincte and suggestion of the deuelle, that man 
scholde be movede to like thynges as thei herde in those dis- 
portes goddes to haue doen. Augustinus, libro quarto, capitulo 
vicesimo quinto. In processe of tyme a chorle, Titus Latinus 
by name, dremede in his slepe that he scholde say to the senate 
pat thei scholde ordeyne pleyes seenicalle, whiche chorle difter- 
renge hit in ij. tymes loste his son. And also the same man 
hade grete infirmite in that he expressede not that thynge to 



2261. 

A transmi- 
gracione. 



^ shapen, Cx. 

2 up in, Cx. 

3 pulput, y. 

4 poysries, )8. ; poisies, Cx. 

5 mynystrals, Cx. 

6 confortede^y. ; countrefayted, Cx. 

7 From Cx. 

8 lyvimes, Cx. 

^ called Ixtdiy Cx. 
»0 devyl, Cx. 
11 exyted, Cx. 



12 hure, y. 

13 theatre, Cx. 

1* chorle called, Cx. 
1^ dreame, Cx. 
1^ plei/yes, a. ; playes, Cx. 
17 cailyd, Cx. 

1^ were first i'Ordeyned'\ om. /3., 
7., and Cx. 

1^ dyd, Cx., et infra. 
^'\felle, Cx. 



102 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Ab urbe. 

562. 

A transmi- 

gracione. 

402. 



monitus supersedit gravissimum morbum incurrit, donee 
de consilio amicorum senatui monita-'- indicaret. Quo 
facto sanitatem repente recepit. Quo^ viso miraculo 
senatus quadruplicatam pecuniam in ludos expendit 
quasi ad redimendum quadrifarie omissionis negligen- 
tiam in rustico illo. Petrus, ducentesimo quarto.^ 

^ Seleucus, qui et Soter, major filius Antiochi magni, 
prsesidet Syrise et Asiae duodecim annis. Nam pater 
ejus ^ occisus fuerat in Perside in fano ^ Navee, et 
membratim ejectus a sacerdotibus, qui dolose promi- 
serant ei thesauros absconditos.'^ 



Cap. XXXV. 

[De Rebus Judaicis et Macedonicis, et qualiter cepit 
Jerusalem Antiochus Epiphanes.'] 

Ptolomeus Philometor regnavit ^gy ptiis triginta 
quinque annis. Petrus, ducentesimo quinto. Quo^ in 
tempore ^ Simon, filius Onise, praepositus templi et 



^ monita] om. B. 

2 Hoc, B. 

•'» See note 5, p. 98. 

■* CD. add here : " Seeundus 

liber Machabeoruin continet 

gesta hujus temporis. Titus 

Libius (sic) tragediarum scriptor 

clarus habetur. Dionisius.^' 

•' suus, B. 

« PAawo, MS. 

'' CD. add : " Fiebat iuterea 

seditio magna pra3sertim Simone 

pontifice senioribus filiis Joseph! 

favente ; sed quamvis nonnulli 

Hircano juniori faverent, Ilir- 

canus tamen Jerosolimara venire 



" metuens cedificavit sibi turrim 
" mirabilem transjordanem, iibi 
" frequenter Arabes debellabat. 
" Hoc quoque fecit per septem 
" annos, omni scilicet tempore quo 
" Seleucus Sother Siriae pracsidebat. 
" Mortuis autem Seleuco et Ptho- 
" lomeo Epiphane, qui filium suum 
" Philometorem post se reliquerat, 
" Hircanus timens potentiam An- 
" tiochi Epiphanis mortem sibi 
" manu propria astrixit." 

^ Quo in tempore . . . vocavit] 
transposed into the preceding 
chapter and much varied in CD. 

^ templo, B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 



103 



a wcl ^ grevous siknesse forto 2 he warnede pe senatoures by Trevisa. 

counsaile^ of his frendes, and whanne he hadde i-warned 

fe senatoures by counsaille of his frendes,* |)anne he was^ 

al^ hool anon sodenliche7 Whan J)at^ wonder was i-seie 

be senatoures spended ^ suche foure ^^ money as Jjey were 

j^y_]ii woned in suche ^^ pleyes of pe theatre, as it were forto ^^ 

make good for J^e cherles ^* trespas pat was foure si]?es recheles 

forto warne ]?e senatoures as he was i-warned. Petrus, 204. 

pe greet Seleucus Sother, \q grete Antiochus his sone, regned 

in Siria and in Asia twelve Jere ; for his fader was i-slawe ^^ 

in Pers in ])e temple of god Naneas, and i-prowe ^^ out gobct- 

mele tray toursliche by preostes ^^ ])at begiled ^^ hym into ^^ 

\Q temple, and byheet 20 hym tresour J>at was i-hidde under 

erj?e. 

Capitulum tricesimum quintum. 

Ptholomeus 2^ Philometor regned in Egipt fy ve and pritty 
tere. Petrus^ 205. pat tyme 22 Symon Onias his sone was 



Ab urbe. the senate in the thridde tyme ; after that the man expressenge MS. Harl. 
hit to the senate was restorede to heale. The senate seenge 2261. 
that miracle expende in iiij. tymes so muche moneye ^s to ^ transmi- 



redeme J)e negligence of that chorle. Petrus, capitulo centesimo gracione. 
quarto. Seleucus, other Sother, son of grete Anthiocus, began f. 177. a. 
to reigne in Siria and in Asia, whiche reignede J?er xij. yere. 
For Anthiocus, his fader, was sleync of prestes in Persida, in 
the temple of Nanea, whiche promisede to hym the secrete 
treasure of theire temple. 



Capitulum tricesimum quintum. 

Ptholomeus Philometor reignede in Egipte xxxv. yere. 
Petrus, capitulo ducentesimo quinto. In whiche tyme Symon 



^ wcl'\ om. Cx. 

2 till, Cx. 

■^ hj couHsailc . . . counsaille of 
his frendes^ om. /3. and Cx. 

'* bj/ counsaille of his frendes'} 
ora. a. and 7. 

^ ive?'\>e, 13. ; a wer\), y. 

•^ ai] om. Cx. 

"* Itoole wonder sodenhj, )8. and 
Cx. ; hool wonder sodeynhjchy 7. 

8 the, Cx. 

^ spende, a. and Cx. 

'" foure suche, Cx. 



11 From a. 
^- suche'] om. Cx. 
^•^/or] om. Cx. 
^■^ churh's, Cx. 
•^ slayne, Cx. 
'^ throtuen, Cx. 
^7 traytorly by preestes, Cx. 
^^ yylede, a. ; bygyled, Cx. 
^^ yji, a. 

•:o promyscd, Cx. 
-^ Tholomeus, Cx., et infra. 
-■^ Pelrus, 205. }pat tyme] om. /8. 
and Cx. (not 7.) 



104 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



pontifex, redemit sacerdotium ab Apollonio duce Phoe- 

Aburbe. ^icis. Quod audieiis Seleucus^ misit Heliodorum- ad 
061. ^ 

A transmi- 

gracioue. infinnandiim negotium. Quo ingresso in templum ut 



401. 



illud spoliaret, surrexerunt duo juvenes de latibulis 
et occiderunt eum. Josephus videtur velle quod 
fuerunt angeli in similitudine liominum, verumtamen 
in iio libro Machabeorum legitur quod apparens ^ 
terribilis sessor ^ equi conculcavit eum, non taraen 
occidit, Joseplius, libro duodecimo. Circa hoc dies, 
Jesus filius Syrak librum ecclesiasticum edidit, quern 
Panarethon "• vocavit, ^ Anno tertio Philometoris, 
Aristobulus natione Jud^eus, pbilosoplms peripateticus, 
scripsit Ptolomeo comnientarios explanationum in Moy- 
senJ Eutroinus, libro quarto.^ Eoque '^ anno, mor- 
tuo Philippo rege Macedonise/^ Perseus, filius ejus, 
rebellavit contra Ptomanos ; quem -^^ ^milius Paulus, 
consul Romanus, occisis Grsecorum triginta millia,^- 
gravi praelio devicit, honorem tamen non quasi ^^ 



^ Sileucus, B. I ^ The full reference is capitulo 

" Eliodorum, MSS. | sexto. 

^ apperiens, B. 

* sessor, from B. ; cessor, MS. 

* Paiiareton, A. 
^ vocaviQ See note 8, p, 102. 
' The "whole of the preceding sen- 
tences are much transposed in CD. 



^ Eo quoque, B. 
'^ Macedonum, B. 
" tamen, A.B. 
'■- miUia] om. B. 
^^ non, added in B, 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 105 

preost 1 of ])e temple and bisshop, and boujte ])e preosthood^ Trevisa. 

of Appolinus duke of Plienicia.'^ Seleuchus herde ferof and 

sente Eliodorus forto undo ]>at dede, and whanne he was 
i-entred forto'* spoyle ]>e temple tweye Jongelynges arise ^ 
out of a prive^ place and slow^ hym Ipere. It seme]? pat 
losephus wil mene^ pat pey were aungels in liknes^ of men. 
Nopeles secundo Machabeorum it is i- write pat a dredful hors- 
man schovede ^ hym forp, and al totrade hym, but he slowj 
hym nou^t. losephus, lihro 2°.^^ Aboute pat tyme Ihesus 
Sirac his sone ^^ wroot pe book J)at hatte ^^ Ecclesiasticus, and 
eleped it Panarethon.^^ pe pridde ^qyq of Philometor oon 
Arestobolus/"* a levve and philosofre ^^ paripateticus, pat is of 
Aristotel his lore,^^ wroot to Ptholomeus a deelaracioun and 
an^^ exposicioun of Moyses his bookes. Eutropius, lihro 4''. 
pat Jere deide ^^ Phelip kyng of Macedonia, and his sone 
Perseus was rebel a^enst the Romayns ; but Emilius Paulus, 
consul of Rome, overcome hym in wel stronge bataille, and 
slowj 1^ pritty ]70wsand of Grees,2o but he dede^i hym wor- 



Ab urbe. the son of Onias, bischoppe and gouernoure off the temple, MS. Harl. 
redemede pe ordre of prestes of Appollonius gouernoure of 2261. 
Phenicea. Seleucus hereno;e that sende Eliodorus to destroye . , . 
that conuencion, wliiche commenge m to the temple to spoile gracione. 
hit, ij. yonge men did arise from theire berialles and did slee 
hym. Neuerthelesse losephus semethe to reherse that thei 
were ij. angelles in the similitude of men. Also hit is redde in 
the secunde boke of the Machabees that a ferefulle sitter of 
an hors apperede and caste hym dou'nc, and did not slee hym. 
losephus, lihro secundo. Ihesus, the son of Syrac, made that 
boke Ecclesiasticus abowte pis tyme, whom he namede Pane- 
rethon. In the thridde yere of this Philometor, Aristobolus, a 
lewe, wrote to Ptholomcas the commentary es of the explana- 
ciones in to Moyses. Eutropius, lihro quarto. Philippe kynge 
of Macedony dedde, Perseus his son began to rebelle ageyne 
)>e Romanes ; whom Emilius consul ouercome, sleenge of the 
Grekes xxx*' in a soore batelle. Whiche Emilius sette in a 



1 preest, Cx. 

- presthode, Cx. 

"^ due of Fcnicia, Cx. 

'^ for'] om, Cx. 

^ aroos, Cx. 

^ prevy, Cx. 

7 vieaneth, Cx. 

^ lyhenesse, Cx. 

^ schewide, )8. ; shewed him, Cx. 

^0 12*^] 7. and Cx. 

•' Siraks sonne, Cx. 



^" book callyd, Cx. 

^^ called it panerethon, Cx. 

^^ Aristobus, Cx. 

^^ philosofre] om. Cx. 

^^ Aristodes loore, Cx. 

^7 an] om. Cx. 

^^ dyed, Cx. 

19 slewe, Cx. 

20 Grekes, Cx. 
-1 dyde, Cx. 



106 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHl HIGDEN 



victo impendit. Nam et volentem ad pedes ejus ca- 
dere non permisit, sed juxta eum in sella ^ collocavit, 
dimidmm tributi soliti relaxavit, Macedones liberos 
esse jussit, ut appareret populum Komanum magis 
pro aequitate quam pro pecunia dimicare.^ Trogus, 
lihro xxxiii. In liac pugna Mennius^ Cato, oratoris 
filius, dum egregie dimicat equo delapsus, pedestre 
prselium committit. Ac dum quendam procerum petit 
giadius ei ^ decidit/ ad quem recuperandum umbone 
se protegens^ inter mucrones hostium gladium recol- 
legit, multis tamen vulneribus aceeptis ad suos rever- 
titur. Ej usque audacia cseteris imitantibus victoriam 
parturivit.'^ Et extunc Perseo capto Macedonia Roma- 
nis cessit. Quae terra a Cranao primo usque ad istum 
Perseum triginta quinque [reges] ^ habuit per^ annos 
octingentos viginti quatuor.^ Isidorus, lihro vi*^.^^ 
Iste ^milus Paulus primus ^^ advexit Romse libros^^ 



^ sella] from B. ; cella, MS. 
2 Slightly varied in CD. 
a Sic in MSS. 
"* ejus, B. 
* cccidit, A. 

^ inspectante utroque exercitu, 
added in B. 



"^ parturit, B. 

^ t'eges] from B. 

^ per] om. B. 

*" The full reference is cap. quiuto. 

^^ primo, B. 

•- libere, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 107 

schippe as fey^^ he were nou^t overcome. For whanne Trevisa. 

he wolde falle doun to his feet he wolde noujt suffre hym, 

but he sette hym beside hym uppon his seete, and relesede ^ 
half pe tribute pat was woned^ to be payde, and heet* 
J)at J)e Macedoynes^ schulde be free, for it schulde seme 
J»at J)e Romayns werrede^ for ri^twisenesse, and noujt for 
money. Trogus, lihro 33°. In pis fi^tinge oon Menynus,^ 
Caton pe advoket his sone,^ while he fau^t wonder ^ 
strongliche/^ fil doun of his hors and faujt on his feet, 
and wolde have i-hitte ^^ a grete man, and his swerd fil 
doun of his honde, he diffended 12 hym wip his schilde,^^ 
and gadrede his swerde among pe swerdes of his enemys 
in sight of hope [the] ^^ oostes,i^ and hadde many woundes, 
and torned to his owne side.^^ Oper men toke ensample 
of his hardynesse, and faujt orpedliche,!^ and pe hardynesse 
of hym was cause of pe victorie. Perseus was i-take, and 
panne afterward Macedonia fiU^ to pe Romayns. From pe 
firste Craneus anon to pis Perseus pat lend hadde fyve and 
pritty kynges, in ei^te hondred Jere and foure and twenty. 
Ysidorus^ libro 6^. ^^ Emilius Paulus brou^t first bookes to 



Aburbe. chariette by hym Perseus willenge to have fallen downe to MS. Harl. 
his feete, and ^afe to hym a releische of halfe his tribute, com- 2261. 
maundenffe the men of Macedony to be of liberte, that hit . ^ . 
scholde appere the Romanes to fijhte raper for rijhte then for gracione. 
money. Tragus, libro vicesimo secundo. Memmius Cato 
unsadellede 20 in that batelle fau^hte manly on foote, whiche 
desyrenge to hurte a noble man aduersary to hym lette falle f. 177. b. 
his swerde, whiche willenge to take hit ageyne defendede hym 
manly, and returnede to his hoste, the audacite of whom was a 
grete helpe to the Romanes of the victory. And then Perseus 
y-taken, and then the realme of Macedony was subiecte to the 
Romanes ; whiche londe hade from Cranaus unto this Perseus 
xxxv*^ kynges by viij.''. yere and xxxiiij^^ Isidorus, libro 6°. 



^ though, Cx. 

2 relesched, fi. ; relecede, y. 
releesed, Cx. 
2 wonte, Cx. 
■* promi/sed, Cx. 
^ Macedones, Cx. 
^ werriden, /3. ; warrydde, Cx. 
" Menninus, Cx. 
^ advocates sane, Cx. 
^ wonder~\ om. Cx. 
^° mightely, Cx. 
^^ smiten, Cx. 



1- defended, Cx. 

^^ sheld, Cx. 

1^ From Cx. 

^^ hoostes, Cx. 

^^ sidde, Cx. 

^7 orpud liche, a. ; orpedlj/, Cx. 

IS /.V//, Cx. 

''J \)is inserted in )8. ; \)cs inserted 
in 7. 

■^ or unhorsed is written in red 
in the margin. 



108 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



de Grsecia, postmodum Julius Cassar injunxifc hoc nego- 
tium bibliothecse construendse Marco Yarroni. Et apud 
Latinos CJiristianos ^ Pamphilus martyr, quern scribit 
Eusebius quasi triginta millia voluminum ^ in sua bib- 
liotlieca habuisse. Deinde Origines omnes prsecedentes 
vicit, de cujus voluniinibus Jeronimus testatur sex mil- 
lia se^ legisse. Quorum omnium studia vicit Augusti- 
nus, cujus opuscula vix legi ab aliquo uno '^ possunt.^ 
Aburbe. Antiochus Epiplianes regnavit Syrise et Asise undecim 

574. 
Atransmi- • x i • -r» 

gracione. annis. Istc est qui Komse obses fuerat pro patre, sed 



414. 



audiens [fratris inertiam] ^ ac de regno Syrije prsesu- 
mens, clam de Roma egressus est, quamvis nonnulli tra- 
dant eum de conniventia senatorum evasisse. In primis 
benignum se exhibuit, unde et Epiplianes a populo cog- 
nominatus est, quod sonat illustris vel super ^ apparens. 
Qui^ mortuo fratre ^ Seleuco regnavit pro eo. Hie 
dedit sororem suam Ptolomeo uxorem in dolo, ut sic 



' Transposed in B. 
- quasi . . . volumitium^ 830 volu- 
niina, B. 
2 te, B. 

■* ab aliquo wno] om. B. 
^ Slightly varied in CD. 



^fratris inertiam'] added from 
A.B. 

7 /rater, B. 
^ Quia, B. 
'•^ suo, added in A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 109 

Rome out of Grecia.^ Afterward lulius Cesar chargede ^ TRE^^sA. 

Marcus Farro ^ wij? ])at doynge forto make hym a librarie. 

And among Cristen men Pamphilius ]?e martir gadrede a 
librarie of bookes. Of hym Eusebius write]? ]mt he hadde 
as it were an ^ j^ritty ]?owsand volyms ^ of bookes in his 
librarie. panne Origenes passede alle pat were tofore ^ hym ; 
lerom seij? J'at he radde sixe J?ousand volyms of Origenes his 
bookes. [But Austyn passede ]>e travayle of hem alle, for 
unnej^e may oo "* man rede alle his bookes.] '^ Antiochus 
Epiphanes regned enlevene Jere in Siria and in Asia, pis is 
he j?at "svas plegge^ at Rome for his owne fader, but he herde 
speke of his bro])er nisete,^ and hopede forto be kyng of 
Siria,!^ and went priveliche ^^ from Rome ; j^ey^ ^^ somme men 
telle]? })at he scapede ^^ by assent of ]?e senatoures. First he 
was goodliche,^^ ])erfore ^^ ]?e peple ^af hym anoj^er name, and 
cleped hym Epiphanes, ]?at is semeliche and wor j?y and noble ^^ 
above o]>ere. He regnede for his brother Seleucus, whanne 
his bro]7er was dede. pis ^af his suster in gyle to Ptholo- 
meus ^'^ to wife, for he wolde in ];at manere occupie Egipt,^^ 



Aburbe. This Emilius Paulus broujte from Grece bokes to Rome firste. MS. Harl, 
After that lulius Ctesar take that werke to be compilede to 2261. 
Marcus Varro. After that Pamphilius Martir, whom Eusebius . , . 
writethe to haue hade xxx*^ m''' volumes in his bibelle. After ^racione. 
that Origenes precellede alJe oj^er men afore hym, off the 
volumes of whom Seynte lerom rehersethe hym selfe to haue 
redde vj. m'*'. But the grete and noble clerke Seynte Austyn 
precellede alle other, the wcrkes of whom may be redde vnnethe 
of oone man. Anthiocus Epiphanes reignede in Siria and 
Asia xj. yere. This Anthiocus, beenge as plegge for his fader 
to the Romanes, herenge of the slawthe and cowardenesse of his 
broJ>er, departede secretely from Rome, thaujhe mony men say 
that he hade licence of the senate. This Anthiocus schewede 
hym in the begynnenge as meke and ientylle, wherefore he 
was callede Epiphanes, as noble other superapparente, whiche 
reignede after the dethe off Seleucus his brother. This 



^ Grece, Cx, 

2 Cezar chargith, Cx. 

^ Varro, /8. and Cx. 

-» a, Cx. 

5 volumes, Cx., et infra. 

^ by/ore, Cx. 

" From a., /8., y., and Cx. 

^ pledge, Cx. 

^ nycete, Cx. 

^0 iSciria, Cx. 



^^ pry veil/, Cx. 

^'•^ though, Cx. 

'3 escaped, Cx. 

14 godely, Cx. 

1^ \>erfore^ om. Cx. 

i*"' wor]py and noble and semeliche, 
a. and Cx. 

1' Tliolomeus, Cx., et infra. 

'^^ wolde by that rejoyse Eyypte, 
Cx. 



110 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

aliquando ^gyptum occuparet. Ingressus est namque 
aliquando jiEgyptum tanquam sororem et nepotes vi- 
surus; sed inter epulas fecit Ptolomeum occidi. Sed 
Mgyiptii repulerunt eum ^ ne super eos ^ regnaret. 
Post duos annos rediit et obsedit Alexandriam.^ 
TroguSy^ tricesimo quarto. Et ecce legati Romanorum 
ad liberationem -^gyptiorum missi obvium habuerunt 
Antiochum in littore maris deambulantem.^ Cui et 
dixerunt, " Senatus et populus Romanus prsecipiunt ^ 
" tibi ut recedas ab amicis eorum ^gyptiis." Cumque 
peteret ^ inducias ad respondendum, Marcus Publius ^ 
virga fecit circulum in sabulo circa ^ eum, dicens, 
" Senatus et populus Romanus prsecipiunt tibi ut de 
'^ circulo isto non ingrediaris donee responsum dederis." 



^ eum] om. B. 

- ipsos, B. 

^ Varied slightly in CD. 

'' libro, added iu B. 

5 ambulanteniy B. 



^ prcEciunt, B. 

' peteret] from B. ; prccteret, MS. 

^ Bublius, B. 

^ contra, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



Ill 



whan he sigh^ his tyrae. pan he wente into Egipt in^ a tyme Trevisa. 

as [though]^ it were forto see his snster and his nevewes, 

but he made pat Ptholomeus was i-slawe^ while he satt at 
pe ^ mete ; but fe Egipcians putte hym away for he schulde 
noujt be kyng over hem. But he come a^en ^ after two Jere, 
and beseged '^ Alexandria. Trogus, libro 34'^-. And ^ lo ]?e 
messangers ^ of Rome were i-sent forto ^^ dely vere Ipe ^ Egip- 
cians, and mette wij) Antiochus wandrynge on Ipe see stronde, 
and dede here ^^ message in )?is manere : '* pe senatours and ]?e 
" peple of Rome bote]? ^^ and commaunde]? ]?e J>at |?ou go away 
" from here ^^ frendes the Egipcians." panne Antiochus axede 
[respyte] ^^ firste [and] ^^ a day to Jeve his answere. panne 
Marcus Fublicus ^^ wif> a ^erd made a cercle in |>e sond ^'^ 
aboute Antiochus, and seide : " pe senatoures and ]?e peple 
" of Rome hotej) ^^ and comaunde)? ^^ ]>e ]?at J?ou nevere passe 
" ]?is cercle or 20 pou have i-geve^^ ]?yn answere." "Jif pe 



Ab urbe. Epiphanes mariede his sustir to Ptholomeus kynge of Egipte, MS. Harl. 
that he mytte occupy Egipte thro disseyte ; whiche entrenge in 2261. 
to Egipte in a tyme, as to see his bro]?er and sustyr, causede ' , 
Ptholomeus the kynge of Egipte to be sleyne at meyte, that gracione." 
he my^hte occupye Egipte in that wise. But men of Egipte 
putte hym aweye, after that he hade reignede ij. yere in 
that londe, wherefore he lade sege to pe cite of Alexandrye. 
Tragus, libro 34*°. The legates of the Romanes, sende for the f- 178. a. 
liberacion of men of Egipte, ^afe metenge to Anthiocus 
walkenge by the side of the see. To whom they seide, " The 
" senate and peple of Rome commaunde the that jjow departe 
" from men of Egipte theire luffers and frendes." Whiche de- 
sirenge respite for to ^ifFe an answere, Marcus Publicus made 
a cercle with a rode abowte hym in the sonde, seyenge, " The 
" cenate and peple of Rome commaunde the that ]>ou passe 
" not this cercle vn tille thow Jiffe an answere." To whom 



^ sawe, Cx. 
- upon, Cx. 
3 From Cx. 
* slaine, Cx. 
•'' J?e] om. Cx. 
^ ay cue, Cx. 
' besycged, Cx. 
^ And] om. Cx. 
' messagyers, Cx. 
^^ for'] om. Cx. 
^' dyd her, Cx. 



^" chargeth, Cx. 
^2 theyr, Cx. 
^** respyte] from Cx. 
^^ From a., ^8., and Cx. 
has been erased here in 7. 
>6 Puhlius, Cx. 
'" sande, Cx. 
^^ chargith, Cx. 
^'^ commaunde, Cx. 
20 er, Cx. 
-^ yeuen, Cx. 



A word 



112 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HTGDEN 

Ad quos ille. " Si populo Romano sic visum ^ est, ecce 
*' recedo." Rediens ergo Judseam multa iniqiia exercuit. 
Qua de causa pontifex Onias, filius Simonis, descendit 
in Mgyptnm ubi nactus regis amicitiam exstruxit tem- 
pi um apud Elipoleos'^ simile templo Jud?eorum, asserens 
se in hoc implere ^ vaticinium Isayos * dicentis, " Erit 
" altare Domini in /Egypto et titulus ejus in ter- 
" minus ejus." Hoc autem templum [permansit sic ccl. 
annis usque ad tempora Vespasiani, qui templum] ^ 
illud et urbem destruxit. Recedente igitur Onia 
pontifice ut prsedictum est, duo fratres ejus, Jesus et 
Johannes,^ apud Antiochum contendebant de ^ ponti- 
ficatu.^ Et ut placerent Antioclio declicaverunt ad 
ritus gentium, adeo ^ ut etiam nomina gentilium sibi ^^ 
imponerent. Unde et Jesus diefcus est Jason, et Jo- 
hannes dictus est Menelaus ; ad quorum exemplum multi 
ex Israel introduxerunt ritus gentium, facientes in 



^ usum, B. 

2 Cleopoleos, B. 

2 implere] om, B. 

'' prophetu implcvisse, B. 

* Added from B. 



^ Johannes et Jesus, B. 
7 de] from A. ; a, MS. 
^ Slightly varied in CD. 
^ adeo] om. B. 
^° gentilium sibi nomina, C. 



a 



' MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 113 

" peple of Rome," quocU he [Antiochus],^ will have it soo, loo Trevisa. 
*' icli ^ goo." ]Ji. panne he tornede in to ])e lewerye,'* and 
dede meny evel dedes.^ perfore l>e bisshop Onias, Symon 
his sone, wente into Egipt, and gat frendschipe of ])e kyng, 
and bulde ^ |)ere a temple at Eleopoleos liche ^" to j^e temple 
of lewes, and seide J?at in |)at dede he fulfilled ^ Ysay his pro- 
phecie, J?at seide ]>e au^ter^ of oure Lord schal be in Egipt. 
and mynde of hym schal be in pe endes ]?erof. pis temple 
durede so two hondred ^ere and fifty, anon to ^^ Vaspasian 
his ^1 tyme, ])at destroyede ])e ^^ temple and ]>e citee also, 
panne ])e ^^ bisshop Onias deide as it is seide, and his tweie 
brejjeren Ihesus and lohn ^^ stryve to fore ^^ Antiochus for 
}>e bisshopriche ; and fbrto plese Antiochus ]?ey tornede to ]:»e 
usage and doynge of mysbyleved men so ferfor]; pat ]:>ey took 
names of mysbileved men ; and [soo] ^^ Ihesus was i-cleped ^'' 
lason, and lohn was i-cleped Menolaus.^^ By ensample of 
hem meny of ])e lewes broujte yn doynge and dedes and 



Aburbe, \^q seide, " Thaujhe the Romanes commaunde that, beholde y MS. Harl. 
'• goe furthe of the cercle;" whiche goenge in to the lewerye 2261. 
exercisede grete crudelite. Wherefore Onias, the bischop of., . 
the lewes, wente vn to Egipte, whiche obtenynge ])e fauor of gracione. 
the kynge, edifiede a temple at Elyopoleos, lyke to j^e temple 
of the lewes, seyenge hym in that to fullefille the prophecy of 
Ysay, seyenge, " The alter of Godde schal be in Egipte, and • 

" the tytle of hit within the costes of hit." That temple re- 
meynede ])er by cc. and 1*^ yere, vn to the tymes of Vespasian, 
Avhiche destroyede that temple and cite. Onias pe bischop 
departenge from Jerusalem un to Egipte, Ihesus and lohannes, 
his bre]?er, made grete .debate and stryfe for the bischopryke 
afore Anthiocus, whiche willenge to please hym declynede to 
the ryte of gentiles, in so moche that thei toke to ]'eyni the 
names of Gentiles. Wherefore Ihesus was callede lason, and 
lohannes Menelaus ; after the exemple of whom mony men of 
Israel inducede the rytesof the gentiles makenge in lerusalem 



^ sar/d, Cx. 

2 From a. 

^ yche, a. ; /, Cx. 

* Jewry, Cx. 

^ many evyl tomes, Cx. 

^ buylde, Cx. 

" like, Cx. 

^ afolfu/de, y. 

^ aulter, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



^" U7ltO, Cx. 

^^ Vaspasianus, Cx. 

^- \>at, a., fi., and Cx. 

^^ J>e] om. a. and Cx. 

'•* Johan, Cx. 

'^ stryven hyfore, Cxi 

1^ From )8. and Cx. 

'' callad, Cx. 

^^ named Menelaus, Cx 



114 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Jerusolimis epliebias, id est lupanaria juvenum et 
gignasia^ atque prepucia; et vocabant se Antiochenos. 
Et cum Antiochus pr^feeisset Jasonem, eum tarn en ^ 
amovit et substituit Menelaum, qui suasit Andronico 
ut Jasonem fratrem suum occideret, eo quod secutus 
esset regem in Antiochiam ad immutandum ^ propo- 
situm suum ; quod et factum est ; unde et ^ rex iratus 
occidit Andronicum. Petrus, centesimo ^ sexto. Ab eo 
die ^ quo Antiochus vendidit Jasoni sacerdotium ignis 
sacrificii, qui per septuaginta annos sub aquis vixerat, 
extinctus est.'^ Qucditer Antiochus cepit Jerusalem. 
-^^gjj^®' Antiochus cepit Jerusalem proditione civium, et tulit 

L transmi- 

^''420.^^' inde decern millia^ civium, cogens indigenas ad idola- 
triam, nolentes occidit f carnes suillas immolat ; vasa, 
mensam, urnam cum lucernis, et velis aufert, statuam 
Jovis Olympici in templo [ponit]^^; sacrificia Moysaica 
prohibet ; Macedones Judseis infestos in arce Syon ^^ col- 



' SicinMSS. 
" postea, B. 
' mutandum, B. 
^ et] om. B. 

^ ducentesimo, B. The passage 
occurs in the Hist. Divers, cap. xi. 
• tempore, A.B. 



" Varied in CD., which omit the 
title following ; A.B. also omit the 
title. 

^ millia] om. B. 

^ nolentes occidW] volens volentes 
occidere, B. 

^" ponit, added from B. 

" Syon] Sion, A. ; om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 115 

usages of mysbyleved men, and made in Jerusalem liore Teevisa. 

houses ^ and place for ^ongelynges to use here nysete ynne 

and lefte hem uncircumsised,^ and cleped hem self^ Antio- 
clienes. Antiochus made Jason bisshop, and putte hym oute 
afterwarde, and made Menelaus bisshop, ])at counsaillede * 
Andronicus to slee his hroper lason, for he folowede ]?e kyng 
into Antiochia to make hym chaunge his purpos,^ and so it 
was i-doo ; perfore j^e kyng was wrooj?, and slowj Androni- 
cus. Petrus, 26^ capitido.^ pat tyme ]?at Antiochus soldo 
lason J7e bisshopriche and preost-hode,'' ]?e fuyre of pe sacre- 
fise aqueynte,^ J>at hadde i-dured to fore ^ honde under water 
]?re score ^ere and ten. Antiochus took Jerusalem by tresoun 
of ])e citejeyus, [and took pennes ten powsand citeseyns],^^ 
and compelled ])e Jewes to mawmetrie, and slouj hem fat 
wolde nou^t offi"e ^^ swynes liesche ; and take]? ^^ away j^e holy 
vessel, ]?e mete borde, and ]?e stene ^^ wi]> ]>e lanternes, and 
pe temple cloJ?es, and settef Jubiter ^^ Olympicus his ymage 
evene in I^q temple, and forbede]? ^^ pe sacrefise ^^ of Moyses 
lawe ; and in pe toure of Syon he putte]? ^^ men of Macedonia 



A-b urbe. howses of women ylle disposede, callenge theym Anthiocheni. MS. Harl 
This seide Anthiocus makenge lason bischoppe, removede 2261. 
hym and subrogate Menelaus ia to ]?at office, whiche movede a. transmi- 
Andronicus to sle Jason his brother, in that he folowede gracione. 
Anthiocus to Antiochia to chaunge his purpose ; and so 
Andronicus did sle Jason, wherefore Andronicus was sleyne 
by Anthiocus. Petrus^ 201, The fire of sacrifice, whiche ^* ^^^- ^* 
brente vnder the waters by Ixx*^ yere, was extincte after that The fire of 
lason hade bo^te that office of Anthiocus. This Anthiochus ^(^^^^ific^ 
toke Jerusalem thro the treason of the citesynnes, takenge from ^ ^-^^^g 
hym X. m^. citesynnes, constreynenge the inhabitatores of hit 
to ydolatry, sleenge men that wolde not, offi'enge flesche of 
swyne, takenge a weye veselles, pottes, with lawnternes and 
veyles, and putte an ymage of Jupiter in the temple, prohi- 
bitenge the sacrifices after the lawe of Moyses. The vij. 



^ /lous, a. ; houre hous, y. • harlattes 
howses, Cx. 

- uncircumcided, o., iS., "}„ and Cx. 

3 self\ om. y. 

^ counsel/ led, Cx. 

^ purpoos, Cx. 

6 206°, a., )8., 7., and Cx. 

^ prystehode, Cx. 

^ sacryfyce acquenchid, Cx. 

^ by/'ore, Cx. 



*" From a,, jS., 7., and Cx. 
^1 he qffre\>^ a., 6., -v. ; he offred, 
Cx. 

'2 toke, Cx. 

^' stone, Cx. 

'^ sette Jupiter, Cx. 

^^ forbeode]), 7. 

^''forbade the sacryfyce, Cx. 

^'' put, Cx. 

H 2 



116 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

locat. Sub isto Antiocho septem fratres Machabei cum 
matre sua occiduntur. Quo in tempore Mattathias^ 
sacerdos urbe in Modyn,^ fultus auxilio quinque filiorum 
suorum, leges patrias ^ vindicat. Inter quos Judas, qui 
antonomasice '* dictus est Machabeus, dux fuit.^ Petrus, 
ducentesimo vii^.^ Mattathias docuit Judseos pugnare 
in Sabbatis ne lex cum populo periret ; sed post 
annum sui magistratus obiit, prseficiens filium suum 
Simonem tanquam patrem ad consilia, sed Judam 
Aburbe. ducem ad bella.^ Ennius poeta septuagesimus morbo 

A transmi- 

^^422^^' articulari obiit, sepultus in tumba ScipionisJ Judas 
Macliabeus leges patrias per triennium custodit,^ 
ApoUonium ducem Samaria? percussit; in cujus gladio 
deinceps pugnavit ; et eunte Antiocho in Persidam 
propter tributa non soluta, Judas devicit duces An- 



' Mathathias, B. 

- Modin, A. 

^ paternas, B. 

'' anthononiatice, B. 

^ Slightly varied in CD. 



^ The reference is Hist. Machab. 
lib. i. cap. I. 

' CD. add : " Romani mittunt 
" Perseum regem Macedonicum. 
*' Dionisius" 

^ custodis, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



117 



fat hate]) ^ ])e lewes. In j)is Antiochus his tyme \)e seven e Trevisa. 

brej^eren ^ were i-slawe in ^ here owne [moder].* pat tyme 

Mathatias preost,^ in J)e citee Modyn, by help of his fyve 
sones, awreke|) ^ ]>e lawes of here forefadres. ludas J)at was 
i-cleped Machabeus for ])e prys and the maistrie, he was 
chevetayn ^ among hem and ledere. Petrus, 207. Mathatias 
tauUe ])e lewes to fijte in^ ]>e Saturday, for J^e lawe and pe 
peple schulde not be lost ; but he rulede ]7e peple oo ^ ^ere, 
and deide afterward, and made his sone Symon as it were 
fader and counsaillour,^^ and ludas Machabeus kepe]? pe lawes 
and 11 ledere of fe oost.^^ Ennius pe poete deide in f>e evel ^^ 
articularis, and is i-buried in Scipio his tomb.^^ ludas 
Machabeus kepe]) ^^ ])e lawes of forfadres ful fre Jere, and 
he slout Appollonus duke of ^*^ Samaria, and faujt afterward 
wi]) his swerd. Antiochus wente into Pers, for ]>q tribute 
was unpayde, and ludas Machabeus overcome Antiochus his 
lederes. Lisia, ])at norschede \q Jonge Antiochus, wente 
into Pers, ifor ])e tribute was unpayde, and ludas Machabeus 



Ab urbe. brether Machabees were sleyne with theire moder in the tyme MS. Harl, 
of ])is Anthiocus. In whiche tyme Matathias, a preste in the 2261. 
cite of Modyn, supportede by the helpe of his v. childer, . t^ns" '■ 
chalangede the lawes and ^i^te ^'^ of his fader, amonge whom gracione. 
ludas Avas callede Machabeus by a figure antonomasia. 
Petrus, 207. Mathathias tau^hte the lewes to fiZhte on ])e 
Sabbatte day leste the lawe scholde peresche with the peple ; 
whiche dienge after that he hade gouernede theym oon yere, 
ordeynede Symon his son as fader to cownselle, but ludas 
as gouernoure in batelle. Ennius the poete diede thro an 
infirmite articaler, and was beryede in the towmbe of Scipio. 
ludas Machabeus kepede the lawes of his fader by the space 
of iij. yere, and hurte soore Appollonius, the duke other 
gouernoure of Samaria, with the swerde of whom ludas did 
fi^hte afterwarde. Anthiochus goen in to Persida for his 
tributes not paiede, ludas hade victory of the gouernoures of 



1 hated, Cx. 

2 brether, Cx. 

3 and, a., /8., 7., and Cx. 

'♦ From a., )8., 7., and Cx. 

^ preesf, Cx. 

* awreked, Cx. 

7 chevcntayn, a., 7.; capieyne, Cx. 

' on, Cx. 

' onct Cx. 



10 counseylour, Cx. 

11 kepe);> \>e lawes and'\ om. a., /3., 
and Cx. 

1- ^005/, Cx. 

'•^ ei^yl, Cx. 

1^ Scipions tomhe, Cx. 

" kept, Cx. 

1^ AppoUnus due of Cx, 

17 Sic. 



118 



POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 



tioclii, Lysiam qui nutrivit [Antiochum] ^ juniorem 
ac Ptolomeum, Gorgiara, et Nicanorem ; templum 
quoque mundavit et renovavit, in quo jam frutices 
pulkilaverant sicque facta est templi dedicatio sub 
Juda mense Decembri, quae dicta est Encenia,^ quae 
deinceps stetit.^ Petrus, ducentesimo xi^,^ Anti- 
ochus turpiter fugatus a Perside,^ audiens principes 
suos fore devictos in Judsea comminatus est Ju- 
dseos. ^ Et statim apprehendit eum ancarus/ id 
est dolor viscerum, cadens de curru ^ coUisus ^ 

est, et ebullientibus vermibus de corpore ejus foetor 
gravabat exercitum ; unde '^ in se re versus ^^ fateba- 
tur se hoc pati propter templi violationem. Quam- 
obrem vovebat se Judseum futurum, Judseos libera- 
turum, et pares Atlieniensibus facturum, dixitque 
mortalem debere subditum esse Deo, et paria Deo non 



* Antiochurn] from A.B. 
'■^ JEusennia, B. 

3 Varied in CD. 

4 ducentesimo xi°.'] om. B. The 
reference is Hist. Machab. lib. i. 
cap. iii. 

* Tersida, MSS. 
<* Judceis, A.B. 



7 ajitkarus, A. Both this word 
and the text seem to be errors. 
Petrus has amarus dolor viscerum. 

^ cursu, B. 

^ elesus, B. 

10 et, B. 

" i cerv^s^, B., error of scribe ? 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



119 



overcome Antiochus his lederes,i Lisia ])at norschede^ J?c Tkevisa. 
^ong Antiochus, aud Ptholomeus^ Gorgias, and Nichanor*; 
and clensede |)e temple and renewede it, |?ere gras, breres, and 
busshes were i-growe ^ ; and so ]?e [jjridde] ^ halowynge of 
];e temple was i-doo in ludas his tyme in fe mon))e '' of De- 
cembre : ])at halowynge is i-clepede Encenia,^ and durede after- 
ward. Petrus, 211. Antiochus was schameliche i-chased^ 
out of Pers, and lierde pat his princes were overcome in J>e 
luerie/^ and manassed ^^ pe lewes, and anon he was i-take wi}> 
ancarus,i2 p^t is ache and sorwe of his boweles,^^ and fil '^^ 
doun of his chaar,i^ and was i-hurt ful sore, and wormes 
come 1^ out of his body, and ])e stenche of hym greved all 
]>e oost.i^ panne he byj^oujt hym, and knov^leched ]7at hym 
was bifalle pat sorAve for he hadde defouledfe i^ pe temple of 
Jerusalem ; perfore he made his avow pat he wolde be a lewe, 
and delyvere ^^ pe lewes, and make hem pere^^ to pe men of 
Athene. He seide also pat man schulde be suget ^i to God, 
and noujt make hym self peere and evene to God, and so he 



Aburbe. Anthiochus, and made clene the temple, and renewede hit. MS. Harl. 
And so the thridde dedicacion of the temple was made under 2261. 
ludas Machabeus, callede encenia, whiche contynuede after- . , . 

1-n All •?*• 1 n 1 ^ transmi- 

warde. Fetrus^ 211^ capitiUo. Antiocus causede to nee by gracione. 
men of Persida, herenge his princes to be deuicte in the 
lewery, manassede the lewes ; and a disease of his partes 
interialle toke hym anoon, pat he felle from his chariette and 
was hurte soore. From whom a grete stynche and as in toller- ^* 179. a. 
able come, wormes comenge from his body, that the savour 
grevede alle the hoste. Whiche returnede to hym selfe know- 
legede that he suffrede that peyne for the violacion of the 
temple. Wherefore he promisede that he wolde be a lewe, 
and to delyuer theyme, and make theym like to men of Athenes, 
seyenge that a mortalle man awe to be subjecte to God ; whiche 



^ Lisia . . . lederes] om. a 
and Cx. rightly. 
- norysshed, Cx. 
^ Tholomeus, Cx. 
■* Nycanor, Cx. 
^ yi'owen, Cx. 
<■' iYom a.,y., and Cx. 
'' moncth, Cx. 
'^ named Encennia, Cx. 
^ shamely chaced, Cx. 
*" Jewry, Cx. 



^^ manaced, Cx. 

^2 aiitarus,^.; antarrus, y.a.udCx, 

^3 bowels, Cx. 

^"^ felle, Cx. 

1^ chare, Cx. 

^^ sprang, a., )3., 7. ; sprange, Cx, 

^7 hooste, Cx. 

''' de. fowled, Cx. 

^5 delyverd, Cx. 

-*> peer, Cx., et iufra. 

-1 subgette, Cx. 



120 POLYCHRONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 

sentire; sicque obiit in montibus.^ Antiochus Eupator, 
filius Antiochi Epiphanis praedicti, regnavit post patrem ; 
qui congregavit contra Judseos centum millia ^ pedi- 
tura, viginti millia ^ equitum, triginta duo elephantos, 
quibus ostenderunt sanguinem uv?e et mori ad acuen- 
dum eos in prselium. Petrus, cxiii^} 

Cap. XXXVI 

[Qucedam de rebus Judaicis et de hello Pwnico tertio.] 
Aburbe. Demetrius Soter, filius Scleuci, esrressus ab urbe 

588. 
A transmi- 

gracione. Roma occupavit urbes maritimas, et coepit regnare 
Asise et Syrise ^ xii. annis. Descenderat namque in 
puerili setate '^ ad urbem ^ Romam in accusationem 
patrui ^ sui Antiochi Epiphanis, qui eum regno pri- 
vaverat. Ideoque audiens patruum ^ suum ^ jam de- 
functum rediit, et plures eum receperunt, ita quidem 



' Slightly varied in CD. The 
full reference is Hist. Machab. lib. i. 
cap. V. 

2 millial oin. B. 

3 et regnavit, added in B. 



■* puerilitate, A.B. 
^ sorbem, B. 
^ patris, B. 

7 patrem, B. 

8 smini] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 121 

deide in pe mountaigne.^ Antiochus Eupater, j^e forseide^ Trevisa. 

Antiochus Epiphanes his sone, regnede after his fader, and 

gadrede a^enst po lewes an hondred Jjowsand [fotemen and 
twenty j^owsand] "^ horsmen, and two and J>ritty olyphanntes, 
and schewede hem ])e juse ^ of grapes and of buries ^ forto 
scharpe hem to J>e batailie. Petrus, 230.^ 



Capitulum tricesimum sextum, 

De^ietrius Sother, Seleuchus*^ his sone, went out of J^e citee 
of ^ Rome, and occupied ]>q citees by |?e see side, and bygan to 
regne, and regnede in Asia and in Siria twelve Jere ; forto ^ he 
come to Rome in childehode forto ^^ acusehis erne ^^ Antiochus 
Epiphanes ]?at hadde i-putte hym oute of his kyngdom. per- 
fore whan he herde ])at his erne ^^ was dede, he wente a^en, 
and meny feng i^ hym for hir lorde and kyng, so fat ]?e oost ^* 



Ab urbe. diede in the mowntes. Anthiocus Eupator, son to Epiphanes, MS. Harl. 
reignede after his fader, whiche gedrede ageyne J)e lewes an 2261. 

hoste of c. mt foote men, of xx*^ m^' horse men, and of xxxij*^ 

elephauntes, to Avhom thei schewede the juse of grapes to grS?S" 
make theym scharpe in batelle. 



Capitulwn tricesimum sextum, Petrus^ capitulo 2\S^. 

Demetrius Sother, son of Selene us, gone from the cite of 
Rome, occupiede cites of the coste of ])e see, and began to 
reigne in Asia and Siria xij. yere. This Demetrius wente to 
the cite of Rome in his childehode to accuse Anthiocus 
Epiphanes, his uncle, whiche expulsede hym from his realme. 
Wherefore the childe herenge of the dethe of his uncle re- 
turnede to that cuntre, where the noble men of the cuntre 



8 q/"] om. o. 

9 to'] om. Cx. 
10/"^] om. Cx. 

^^ accuse his uncle, Cx. 

^2 this uncle, Cx. 

^' recei/ved, Cx. 

^* oost, a. ; hoost, Cx. 



^ mountaynes, a 


; monteyns, y. 


montaynes, Cx. 
^ for say d, Cx. 
3 From a., j8., y. 


, and Cx. 


^juys, 7. 

^ beryes, y. and Cx. 

^ 2T3o, a., p., y., and Cx. 


7 Selencns, Cx., 


passim. 



122 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



ut exercitus Syrise occideret Lysiam, et Antiochum 
juniorem regnare molientem. Apud istum^ Demetrium 
Alchimus Aaronita, sacerdos effectus, accusavifc Judam 
Machabeum in multis, unde efc missus cum Bacchide 
ad subvertendum Judieam, obsistente Juda parum pro- 
ficiens, re versus est ad regem.^ 
Ab urbe. Nicaiior direct US a reoje contra Judam occisus est : 

590. " 
A transrai- 

^Tso"^" ^HJ"^ caput et manum dextram suspenderunt contra 
Jerusalem, eo quod locutus fuerat superbe ; sed et Judas 
receptus est in amicitiam Romanorum, et forma foederis 

Ab urbe. scripta in tabulis seneis.^ Judas Machabeus occisus est 

591. ^ 

A transmi- -t-.t't aii* «t 

gracione. a Baccliide et Alcnimo, et surrexit Jonathas irater ems 

431. *^ 

pro eo, qui fuit dux super Judseos xix. annis.^ Petrus, 
cc''^^ sextodecimo} Dum Alcliimus inciperet demoliri 
domum Dei et opera ^ proi^lietarum, percussus est 
paralysi et mortuus est. Rediit Bacchides ad regem et 
siluit teiTa duobus annis. Alexander,^ filius Antiochi 
Epiphanis, occupavit Ptolemaidam, id est^ Aclion, et 



1 istud, B. 

2 Varied and abbreviated in CD. 

3 Slightly varied in CD. 

^ The full reference is Hist. 
Machab. lib. i. cap. ix. 
^ corpora^ B. 



^ Alexander'] The rest of this 
chapter is much transposed and 
varied in CD. ; the last two passages 
from Tu7ic quoque . . . uxor being 
omitted. 

7 id esQ et, A. 



I 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



123 



of Siria wolde slee Lisia ^ aud ]?e Jonge Antiochus ]7at was Trevisa. 

aboute forto ^ regne. Alchimitis ^ i-made preost of Aaron his ^ 

ordre, accusede ludas^ Machabeus to ])is Demetrius of meny 
manere ])inges and dedes. perfore he was i-sent wij? Bachides 
to destroye the lewerie,^ but ludas wi])stood hem so ]>at J?ey 
spedde nou^t ; perfore Alchimius tornede a^en to ]>e kyng. 
Nichanor was i-sent of ]?e kyng a^enst ludas, and was 
i-slawe/ and his heed and his rijt hond were i-honged ^ 
toward Jerusalem, for he hadde proudeliche^ i-spoke, and 
ludas was underfonge to frendschipe of ^^ ]>e Romayns, and 
pe covenant was i-write ^^ in tables of bras. ludas Machabeus 
was i-slawe^2 of Bachides and Alchimius, and his broj^er 
lonathas aroos ^^ in his stede, and was ledere of ]>e lewes nyn- 
tene ^ere. While Alchimius bygan to destroye Goddis hous 
and j)e werkes of prophetes, he was i-smyte wi]) a palsy ^* 
an 15 deide. Bachides tornede eft to ]?e kyng, and ])anne two 
Jere Jje lond was in quyet ^^ and in pees. Alisaundre, Antio- 
chus Epiphanes his sone, occupiede Tholomayda and Achon, 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. recey vede hym, in so moche that the peple of Siria did sle MS. TTakl. 
Lisias, and Anthiocus iunior, willenge to reigne. Alchinius 2261. 
the preste accusede ludas Machabeus in mony thynges afore 
Demetrius, whiche sende with Bachides to destroy the lewery, 
profite but litelle, for the resistence of ludas, and returnede to 
the kynge. Nichanor directe from the kynge to Jifie batelle 
to ludas Machabeus was sleyne, whos hedde and honde thei 
hongede ageyne lerusalem, in that he spake so prowdely 
ageyne the lewes, and was recey vede in to the frendeschippe f. 179. 
off the Romanes, and the forme of the luffe and convention 
made was wry ten in tables of brasse, ludas Machabeus was 
sleyne of Bachides aud of Alchinius, and lonathas, bro])er to 
ludas, was gouernour amonge the lewes xix. yere. Alchinius 
destroyenge the howse of God, was smyten with the palsy and 
diede ; Bachides returnede to the kynge ; and so the lewes 
hade reste ij. yere. Alexander, the son of Anthiochus 
Epiphanes, occupiede Tholomaida other Achon ; whiche con- 



* Licia, Cx. 
^for'\ om. Cx. 

' Alchimius, a., /3., 7., and Cx. 
^ made preest of Arons, Cx. 

* ludas] om. Cx. 
^ Jewry, Cx. 

7 slayne, Cx. 
^ hanged, Cx. 



' prowdly, Cx. 

^^ connexed infrendship with, Cx. 

1^ wryten, Cx. 

^2 slayne, Cx., et infra. 

'2 roos, Cx. 

^^ palesie, Cx. 

1^ and, a. and Cx. 

^^ quiete, Cx. 



124 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



confoederans secum Jonathan occidit Demefcrium regem, 

et regnavit Syrise et Asi^o novem annis, duxitque 

Aburbe. Cleopatrem filiam Ptolomei in uxorem. Demetrius 

603. ^ 

'^racioS^' ^^^^^^ Demetni, qui occiso patre fugerat apud^ pa- 

443. 

rentes maternos apud Cretam, jam de Creta rediens 
resumptis viribus occupavit maritima. Cui dedit 
Ptolomeus Cleopatram filiam suam in uxorem, quam 
nuper tradiderat Alexandre. Sicque Ptolomeus in 
dolo pr?eoccupans urbes Alexandri, ingressus Antio- 
chiam ^ imposuit sibi duo diademata, ^gypti scilicet 
et Asise. A quo Alexander devictus bello fugit in 
Arabiam cum ^ filio suo Antioclio ad parentes ma- 
ternos. Sed rex Arabum ^ timens virtutem Ptolomei 
misit caput Alexandri Ptolomeo. Obeunte autem post 
hoc quarto die Ptolomeo, regnavit Demetrius. Fetrus, 
ducentesimo nonogesimo} Jonathas accusatus apud 
Demetrium quod arcem expiignaret in Jerusalem, misit 
Demetrio munera et obtinuit gratiam, ita ut reno- 
vatum acciperet principatum et sacerdotium. Igitur 
Demetrius assecuratus quod terra sileret in conspectu 
ejus,^ dimisit exercitura ad loea sua, retinens sibi ex- 
ercitum peregrinum. Quamobrem indignante ^ contra 
eum populo, misit Jonathas regi tria millia virorum 



^ fugit ad, B. 
2 Antiocham, B. 



cum 



Arabum'] om. A.B. 



< 249, A. ; 710710, B. The full 



reference is Hist. Machab. lib. i. 
cap. ix. 

* sua, B. 

^ iTidigTiUate, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



125 



confetered^ to hym lonathas, and slouj Demetrius pe kyng, Trevisa. 

and regnede nync^ ^ere in Siria and in Asia, and wedded 

Cleopatra, Tholomeus his doubter. Demetrius, [Demetrius]^ 
his sone, ]?at fli^ ^ in to Creta to his moder kyn whan his 
fader was i-slawe, he come ajen, and gaderede hym strengj?e, 
and occupiede ]?e londes by ]?e see side ; and Tliolomeus ^af 
hym his doubter Cleopatra to wife, j^e whiche he hadde ra])er 
i-^eve ^ to Alisaundre ; and so Tholomeus j^at traytour esily ^ 
occupiede ]>e londes by the see side, and '^ Alisaundres citees, 
and entrede into Antiochia,^ and took on hym tweyne dea- 
demes ^ of Egipt and of Asia. Alisaundre was overcome of 
hym, and fli^ ^^ into Arabia [to his moder kyn] ^^ and fli^. 
[But ]7e kyng of Arabia dradde] ^ Tholomeus his strengj^e, 
and sente hym Alisaundre his heed. Ptholomeus ^^ deyde j)e 
|)ridde day after })at, and Demetrius regnede. Petrus, 219. 
lonathas was accused to Demetrius pat he hadde i-wonne pe 
tour in lerusalem, but he sente grete Jiftes to Demetrius, and 
gat grace of hym, so pat he hadde renewed pe principalte ^^ 
and pe preosthode.^^ panne Detrius ^^ was assured pat pe 
londe schulde be in pees in his owne bond. He leet his oost ^^ 
goo home everiche man to his owne place, and hilde^'' wip 
hym a strong ost.^® perfore pe peple hadde indignacioun of 
pe kyng, and lonathas sente pe kyng pre powsand of choyse ^^ 



Aburbe. federenge to hym lonathas did sle Demetrius, and reignede in MS. Haul. 
Siria and Asia ix. yere ; whiche mariede the doubter of Ptho- 2261. 
lomeus, Cleopatra by name. Petrus,2\9'^. lonathas accusede ., . 
to Demetrius that he expugned the towre of Syon, sende ^iftes gracione. 
to Demetrius, and obteynede grace, in so moche pat he re- 
ceyvede a renewede principate. This Demetrius assurede that 
the cuntrees were quiete and obediente to hym, lefte the 
multitude of the peple, takenge to hym but a poore hoste. 
The peple hauenge iudignacion, lonathas sende iij. m^ men to 



^ confer ed, a. ; and confedred, Cx. 

2 nyyen, a. 

3 From a., )8., 7., and Cx. 
^Jledde, Cx., et infra. 

^ hyfore yeven, Cx. 

^ traytorliche, )8. 

'']>€... and'\ om. B. 

^ traytouresly occupiede Alisaun- 
dre his citees, entrede into Antiochia, 
a., 7. ; traytrely occupyed Alysanders 
cytees, entred into Antiochia, Cx. 

^ toke on hym twey dyademes, Cx. 

^° andjliy] om. a. 



^^ From a., y3. ; wi]) his sone A. to 
h. m. kyn., 7. ; Cx. has, with his sonne 
Antioclius to his moders cosyns. 

^2 Tholomeus, Cx. 

"^^ principate, a. ^., 7., and Cx. 

^■^ presthode, Cx. 

^^ Demetrius, )8. and Cx. 

^^ lette his hoost, Cx. 

^7 heelde, Cx. 

^^ a straunge hooste, fi. and Cx. ; 
strange, 7. 

^9 chosen, )8. and Cx. ; chose, 7. 



126 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

electorum qui compescuerunt seditiosos. Tandem 
Tryphon/ quidam de amicis quondam ^ Alexandri, 
vadens Arabiam reduxit inde Antiochum, adolescentem 
filium Alexandri, et imponens illi diadema pugnavit 
contra Deraetrium, devicit, et fugavit. Et constituit 
Antioclius amicitias ^ cum Jonatha, mittens ei vasa, 
purpuram et fibulam, et fratrem ejus Simonem con- 
stituit ducem. Post hsec Jonathas renovavit amicitias 
cum Eomanis et Spartiatis.^ Eutropius, lihro iii^° 
Tertium bellum Punicum surrexit. Nam cum Cartha- 
ginienses arma et naves tradidissent poenituit eos facti, 
et deficiente sere et ferro, fecerunt sibi arma aurea et 
argentea ; duos Asdrubales constituerunt duces ; quos 
Scipio junior, nepos magni Scipionis, devicit, urbem 
cepit et destruxit, quam sexdecim ^ diebus continuis 
incendit, ita ut lapides in pulverem minuerenturJ 
Sicque Carthago septingentesimo ferme suae conditionis 



^ Tryplion] om. B. 
2 quondani] om. B. 
•* amicitiam, A. 
■* Sparcianis, B. 



5 his, added in B. 

^ incendit intimis (sic), B. 

7 redigerentur^ B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 127 

men ]?at chasede ^ ]?e traytours. At j)e laste oon Tryphon, fat Trevisa. 

was somtyme oon of Alisaunclres frendes, wente^ in to 

Arabia, and broujt ])enncs pe ^onge ^ Autiochus, Alisaundre 
his sone, and crownede hym kyng, and faujte a^enste De- 
metrius, and overcome hym, and chasede hym ; and Antiochus 
made frendschipe wi}) lonathas, and sente hym vessel, pur- 
pure, and laaces ^ of silk, and made his bro];er Symon duke ^ 
and ledere. After ]>skt lonathas renewede frendschipe wi]> 
fe Romayns and wij> ]>e Sparciates. Eutropius, libro 4°. 
pe Jjridde bataille Punicum aroos. For whanne ]jq men of 
Cartage hadde i-doo away hire^ schippes and here^ armoure, 
hem a])ou^te ^ J^e dede ; and for hem lakkede ^ bofe bras and 
yren, J)ey made hem armure ^^ of gold and of silver, and made 
hem tweye dukes and lederes ei]>er heet Asdrubal.^^ pe ^onge 
Scipio, ]?e grete Scipio his nevewe,^^ overcome hem bo]?e, and 
took ]?e^citee, and destroyed hit wij» fuyre,^^ so ))at it brende ^* 
sixtene dayes to giders,^^ so fat stones were i-brend to askes ^^ 
and to powder.i^ And so Cartage was destroyed aboute a ^^ 



Ab urbe. the kynge, that correcte the peple soore. At the last Triphon, MS. Haul. 
oone of the frendes of kynge Alexander, wente to Araby, and 2261. 

brought with hym a infante, the son of kynge Alexander, and . 

crownede hym kynge ; whiche ^afe batelle to Demetrius, and graJioS!" 
hade the victory of hym. This Anthiocus made a promyse 
of luffe with lonathas, sendenge to hym precious tiftes, and 
made Symon, his broker, gouernoure of his hoste. lonathas 
renewede frendeschippe after that with the Romanes and 
Spartanes. Eutropius^ libro quarto. The thridde batelle The 
Punicalle began. Men of Cartage, lenynge theire armoure to thrydde 
o]?er peple were soory, makenge to theyme armoure of golde batelle 
and of siluyr, chosenge to theire governoures ij. Asdrubales, ^"^^^^l^^ 
whom Scipio, the yonger son of the do^hter of grete Scipio, 
ouercome in a soore batelle, and toke the cite of Cartage, and 
destroyede hit, whom he brente continually by xvj. daies, in f. 180. a. 
so moche fat the stones were brente in to powdre ; and so the The de- 
cite of Cartage was destroyede abowte the vij.*'. yere from the stnictionof 

Cartago. 



* chastede, y. ; chacede^ Cx. 
- wente^ om. Cx. wrongly, 
^ tJiens the yong^ Cx. 
^ purpre and laces, Cx. 
^ due, Cx. 
^ theyr, Cx. 
' her, Cx. 

^ hem for thought, fi. and Cx. 
laked, Cx. 



'^ armour, Cx. 

" Astruhal, Cx. 

^2 Seipions nevewe, Cx. 

^^fyre, Cx. 

^^ brande, y. 

^^ iogeders, Cx. 

^^ asshes, Cx. 

^^ pouther, a. ; pou\>ere, 

^8 the, Cx. 



128 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



anno deleta est.^ Ranulphus. Quod verum est si 
fiat computatio a diebus David regis, sicut vult ^ ma- 
gister in historiis.^ Vide tamen ^ de hoc supra, libro 
primo, eapitulo De Africa.^ Orosiiis, lihro quarto.^ 
Tunc quoque uxor Asdrubalis regis se et duos filios 
suos, virili dolore sed foemineo furore, in medium 
incendium^ se injecit, eundem tunc mortis exitum 
faciens domina Carthaginis novissima quern quondam 
prima Dido sibi fecerat.^ Augustinus, lihro primOj 
eapitulo vicGsimo nono^ Consummato igitur tertio 
bello Punico, censuit Marcus Cato Carthaginem fore 
diruendam. E contra Scipio Nasica noluit eam dirui, 
timens per hoc infirmis animis Romanorum hostem 
fore securitatem, et tanquam pupillis ^^ tutorem, sic 
necessariam fore civibus timorem. Quod^^ et^^ re ipsa 
probatum est ; nam deleta Carthagine secuta sunt multa 
mala, quia^^ cruentse seditiones, strages civium, rapinse, 
proscriptiones. Ita ut Komani, perdita morum integri- 
tate, crudeliora paterentur a civibus quam ab hostibus, 



1 Varied in CD. 

2 vult] oin. B. 

•' computat, added in B. 
^ tameri\ om. A.B. 
5 C.D. omit the cross reference 
to lib. i. 

• Cap. xxiii. 

7 medio incendii, B. 



^ B. slightly transposes the words 
of this passage. 
^ Cap. XXX. 

*° populi, A. ; populo, B. 
^^ Qiiodl om. A. 
^- in, added in A. 
'•^ et, B. ; rupta cojicordia, C.D. 



MONACHI CESTllENSIS, LTB. III. 



129 



sevene hondred Jere after ])at it was first i-bulde.^ ^,. pat Trevisa. 
is soo]) forto acounte ^ from kyng David his ^ tyme, so wil * the 
maister in ])e ^ stories ; but loke more hereof in ])e firste book, 
capitulo de AfFrica. OrosiuSy libro 4*^. panne kyng Asdrubal 
his wif for manliche ^ sorwe and wommanliche ^ woodnesse 
]n-ewe hir self and here tweie sones in to j^e myddel of the 
fuyre/ and so ])e laste lady of Cartage hadde ri^t suche a 
manere ende as Dydo J>e firste lady hadde. Augustinus, 
primo libro, capitulo 29*^. Whanne J>e J^ridde bataille Puny- 
cum was i-ended, Marcus Cato counsaillede ® pat it ^ schulde be 
destroyed ; but Scipio Nasica counsaillede ^^ J»e contrarie, and 
wil noujt ^^ assente ])at it schulde be destroyed. [For he 
dradde ^ef Cartage were destruyd,] ^^ j^at sikernesse schulde 
be enemy to ])e brutel wittes of Komayns ; fFor as a wardeyn 
and kepere is nedeful to a childe, so is drede nedeful to cite- 
seyns,^"^ and pat was i-preved by pe same dede. For whan 
Cartage was destroyed, J?an fil meny myshappes, cruel strif 
and tresoun, pefte^'* and robberie, sleynge of cite^eyns and 
exilynge, and moche oper sorwe ; so pat pe Komayns loste 
pe honeste of vertues and of pewes, and sufirede more cruel- 



Aburbe. makenge of hit. ^.. Whiche thynge is trewe if the compu- MS. Harl. 
tacion be taken from the dales of Dauid, as ])e maister of the 2261. 
storyes rehersethe: see moore of this mater libro primo, capitulo ^ transmi- 
de AfFrica. Then pe wife of Asdrubal kynge brente her selfe gracione. 
with her ij. sonnes in the cite of Cartago, like as Dido did, 
the firste lady of pat cite. Augustimis, libro primo, capitulo 
29. The thridde batelle Punicalle finischede, Marcus Cato 
cownsailede that cite to be destroyede utterly ; Scipio seide nay, 
seyenge that the cite destroyede uttei-ly mony inconuenientes ; 
and so per did ; for grete treasones, destruccion of citesynnes, 
robbenge and prescriptiones folowede, in so moche pat the 
Romanes, levenge the honeste consuetude of theire maneres, 



^ bylde, Cx. 

^ forto acourde] ova., y. 
3 David t>w, )8. 
* Danidris tyme, so woll, Cx. 
' \>e] om. a. and Cx. 
^ manly . . . womanly, Cx. 
^^y^e, Cx. 

^ \>e contrarye and icil nouyt as- 
sente. These words are wrongly in- 

VOL. IV. 



serted in MS. after the first couU' 
saillede, as well as after the second. 

^ Cartage, a.. ^., y., and Cx. 

^'^ counseylled, Cx. 

^^ wolde not, Cx. 

12 From y. 

'^ cytezeins, Cx. 

1* )>ee\>e, $. ; \>eofthe, y. 



130 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Hoc providens ^ Scipio nolebat ^ Carthaginem dirui, ut 
timore insolentia premeretur.^ 

Cap. XXXVII. 
Be regibus ^gyptiJ^ 
Aburbe. Ptolemeus Euergetes regnavit ^gyptiis viginti 

A transmi- 

«rac^ne. novem annis. Scipio junior, bis consul factus, difficil- 



446. 



limo beUo Numantinos ^ subegit in Hispania, quos 
evasisse^ potius quam vicisse Romani dixerunt. Tunc 
Scipio a quodam Tireso milite causam quaesivit cur 
civitas ilia aut prius invicta aut postmodum eversa 
fuisset : " Concordia," inquit, '^ victoriam, discordia 
" civium excidium prsebuit." ^ Fetrus, ducentesimo xx. 
primo.^ Trypbon affectans regnare cogitavit Antio- 
chum occidere, sed timuit Jonathan tanquam Antiochi 



^ prcBvidens, A.B.C.D. 

2 noluit, B. 

3 CD. have considerable ex- 
pansions in the final sentence of 
cap. xxxvi., and add after />;-e- 
meretur : *' Luxuriaque cohibita 
** nee avaritiam grassare. Ipseque 
*' Scipio Senatum Romanum ca- 
** veam theatri construere molien- 



" tern compescuit, oravitque ne 
" Graecam luxuriam virilibus patriae 
" moribus obrepere paterentur." 

^ A. omits heading. 

^ Numentanos, MSS. 

^ evasse (sic), A. 

7 Slightly varied in CD. 

^ octavo, B. The full reference 
is Hist. Machab. lib. i. cap. xii. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



131 



nesse and sorwe of hir ^ owne neijeboures and citeseyns ^ Trevisa. 
pan of straunge enemyes. pis knewe wel Scipio, and wolde 
noujt assente fat Cartage schulde be destroyed, ffor he wolde 
])at [the] ^ outtrage schulde be chastised ^ by drede. 



Capitulum tricesimum septinuim. 

PTHOLOMEUS ^ Eucrgetcs regned in Egipt nyne and twenty 
^ere, and pe Jong Scipio was tweies i-made consul, and over- 
come pe Numentaues ^ and made hem sugett '' in a wel stronge 
bataille in Spayne, \e Romayns seide ])at J^ey askaped^ and 
hadde not pe maistrie. panne Scipio axede noujt ^ of a 
knyjt |)at heet Tyresus,^^ why j?at citee was somtyme so 
strong j^at it myjte noujt be overcome, and by what cause it 
was afterward overcome and destroyed. " Acorde," quo]? he, 
" made hem have pe victorie, and discord and strif of pe 
" citeseyns made the citee destroyed." ^^ Petrus, 22°. Try- 
phon desirede forto regne, and caste forto slee Antiochus, but 
he dredde ^^ lonathas [as hym pat wolde defende Antiochus, 



Ab urbe. semede more cruelle to theire awne citesynnes pen to peire MS. Harl. 
enmyes. ^^^^* 



Capitulum tricesimum septimum. 

Ptholomeus Euergetes reignede in Egipte xxix. yere. The 
iunior Scipio, made too tymes consul, hade victory of the 
Numentanes in Speyne in a soore confiicte and batelle, whom 
the Romanes supposede to haue escapede raper then to haue 
hade the victory of theyme. Then Scipio inquirede of a 
knyjhte, Tiresus, citesynne of that cite taken, why that cite 
myjhte not be geten afore, and why hit was geten by hyni. 
The knyjhte answerede and seide : " Concorde of the cite- 
'' synnes causede victory, and discorde destruccion." Petrus, 
capitulo 22 P. Triphon intendeuge to reigne thoujhte to sle 
the yonge kynge Anthiocus, but he dredde lonathas as the 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



tlieyr^ Cx. 
' cytezeyns, Cx. 
From Cx. (not 7.) 
chasted, 7; chasede^ Cx. 
Tholomeus, Cx. 
Nuviantanes, Cx. 
subget, Cx. 



^ escaped, Cx. 

^ nouyt'] om. ^8., 7., and Cx. 
^*^ that was called Tiresus, Cx. 
^1 Acorde . . . destroyed'] om. Cx. 
in error. 
'2 drad, Cx. 

I 2 



132 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

defensorem. Idcirco dolose circumventum Jonathan 
occidit cum duobus filiis, et postmodum occidit Antio- 
clium adolescentem, regnavitque pro eo in Asia.-*^ 
Simon surrexit in locum Jonathae fratris sui, et fecit 
amicitias cum Demetrio rege in odium Trypbonis. 
Sed et Demetrius ad Medos tendens ut contractis 
auxiliis expugnaret Tryplionem,^ comprehensus est et 
postmodum occisus ab Arsace rege Persidum.^ Post 
quern Antiocbus filius suus regnavit in Syria novem 
annis ; qui primo statuit amicitias cum Simone, deinde 
persecutus est Trypbonem fugientem per maritima in ^ 
Antiocbiam ; sed tandem fregit illas amicitias initas 
cum Simone, et constituit Cendebeum ducem mariti- 
mum ut expugnaret Judseam, qui tamen devictus 
Aburbe. est."^ Simon renovat amicitiam cum Spartiatis, id 

A transmi- 

^454^^* ^^^ Lacedsemoniis ; Romanis quoque misit clipeum 
aureum minarum mille.^ Et facta §unt foedera, ita 



1 Slightly varied in CD. 
- sed Demetrius, B. 
' ety B. 



•» Varied in CD. 
^" nma'l .i,, A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



133 



perfore he gylede ^ lonathas] ^ and slou^ hym traytoures- Trevisa. 

liche,"^ aud his tweyne^ sones also; and pan afterward he 

slowj ^ ]>e Jong Antiochus, and regnede for hym in Asia. 
Symon aroos in stede of his bro|)er lonathas, and made frend- 
schipe ■\vij7 Demetrius fe kyng for wre])|7e of Triphon ^ ; hot ^ 
Demetrius passede to \>e Medes forto [gete] ^ helpe to werre 
ajenst Tryphon, but he was i-take and afterward i-slawe ^ 
of oon Artarxerses,^^ kyng of Pers. After hym his sone Anti- 
ochus regnede [nyne Jere] ^ in Siria. He made first frend- 
schipe wij) Symon, and Jeanne he pursuede Tryphon, Jjat flij ^^ 
by }>e see side into Antiochia. But at ]>e *^ laste he brak 
covenaunt of frendschipe ]?at was made bytwene hym and 
Symon, and made oon Cendebeus duke ^^ and ledere in J^e 
see side.^^ For he schulde werre in pe lewerye,^^ but he was 
i-bore abak,!^ and overcome. Symon renewej? ^'^ frendschipe 
wij) )?e Sparciates, J>at bee}> j^e Lacedemoynes,^^ and sente pe 
Romayns a schilde^^ of gold of a Jjowsand numinasmata,^^ is 



Aburbe. defensore of Anthiocus, wherefore he did sle firste lonathas MS. Harl. 
with his ij. sonnes, and after that' Anthiochus his kynge; 2261. 
whiche reignede for hym in Asia. Symon, brojjer to lonathas, . 

was electe in to the office of lonathas, whiche made Concorde gracione. ' 
with Demetrius in to the hate of Trifon. But Demetrius 
goen unto men of Medea for helpe that he myjte expugne f. igo. b. 
Triphon, was taken of Arsax kynge of Persida, and sleyne 
afterwarde. After whom Anthiocus, his sonne, did reigne in 
Siria ix. yere, whiche made firste acorde with Symon, and pro- 
sewede Triphon fleenge by the costes of the see in to Anthio- 
chia ; but this Anthiocus brake the conuention made with 
Symon afterwarde, and ordeynede Sendebeus to expugne the 
lewery, whiche was ouercomme by the lewes. Symon, go- 
uernoure of the lewes, renewethe the conuencion made with 
the Spartanes, men of Lacedemonia, and with the Romanes, 
sendenge to the Romanes a schelde of golde of a mf talentes. 



^ begyled, Cx. 

2 From o., )8,, 7., and Cx. 

3 iraytorhj^ Cx. 
^ twey, Cx. 

* slewe, Cx. 

* wretk of Tryphon, Cx. 
7 But, Cx. 

^ From )8., 7., and Cx. 

^ slaync, Cx. 

'" Arsaces, o., /8,, 7., and Cx. 

''Jli/gh, Cx. 



^' >e] om. Cx. 
^3 due, Cx. 
^^ side'\ om. Cx. 
^^ Jewry, Cx. 
^^ was put abak, Cx. 
'7 renewyd, Cx. 
'^ ben the Lacedomones, Cx. 
J» shclde, Cx. 

"'^ mnas (blank) mna, a. ; mnas. 
Trevisa mna, /8,, 7., and Cx. rightly. 




134 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Aburbe. ut Lucius consul Romanus ^ scriberet regionibus 

618. ° 

A transmi- 

gracione. orientalibus ne nocerent Judeeis.^ Attalus rex Asise 

458. 

populum Romanum reliquit haeredem regni sui.^ 
Petrus, centesimo vicesimo quinto.^ Eo anno Ptolo- 
meus quidam dux Hiericho,^ gener Simonis, [occidit 
Simonem cum duobus filiis suis ad convivium vocatis ; 
sed Johannes Hyrcanus, filius Simonis,]^ qui^ ab 
Hyrcanis devictis vocatus est Hyrcanus, ista au- 
diens occupavit Jerusalem, et insecutus est^ Ptolo- 
meum et obsedit ; ^ verum, quia ^^ Septimus annus 
tunc instabat, et ipse Ptolomeus posuerat matrem 
Johannis cum duobus filiis ^^ super muros urbis, et 
cruentaverat in conspectu Johannis, Johannes ab ob- 
sidione [recessit].^^ Antiochus^^ Ponticus, rex Syrise, 
obsedit Jerusalem ; idcirco Johannes Hyrcanus aperuit -^* 



^ Consul is repeated after llo- 
manus in MS. 

2 Slightly varied in CD. 

' heredem regni sui fecit ^ A. 

* The full reference is Hist. 
Machab. lib i., cap. xv. 

^ Jerico, B. ; Iherico, MS. 

8 Added from A.B. 



^ qui] om. B, 

^ est] om. B. 

^ in civitate Agon, added in B. 

^" tamen, B. 

^^ suis, added in B. 

^- reccssit] added from B. 

^^ et, A. 

'■* apparuity A.B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 



135 



a manere weijte ^ oJ)er a maner money, and weie]? sixty cicles. Trevisa. 

Ciclus is a ful unce among |)e Hebrewes, and among Grees ^ 

and Latyns ciclus is a quarter of an unce ; so in holy bookes 
of Hebrew ciclus is i-take for [an unce, and in hej^en menis^ 
bookes siclus ^ is i-take for] ^ a quarter of an unce. panne 
it folowej) in ]?e storie. Suche frendschipe was i-made bytwene 
J)e lewes and the Romayns |)at Lucius, consul of Rome, wroot 
to ]>e^ kyngdoms of [the] '^ Estlondes charginge fat j^ey schulde 
nou^t greve ]>e lewes. Attains kyng of Asya made ]>e peple 
of Rome heyer^ of his kyngdom.^ pat ^ere oon Ptholomeus 
duke^^ of Iherico, pat hadde i-wedded Symon his dou^^ter, 
was i-bede to ]?e feste, and slow Symon and his tweie sones. 
But Iohn,ii Symon his sone |)at overcome pe Hircanes, was 
i-cleped Hircanus, and herde hereof, and occupied Jerusalem, 
and pursewed Tholomeus and byseged ^^ hym ; and for fo 
was j^e sevenjje Jere, and ^^ Ptholomeus hadde i-sette lohn ^^ 
his moder wi|> tweie sones uppon ]>e walles of ]?e citee, and 
made hem blede to fore ^^ lohn his owne eyjen,i^ lohn lefte 
])e citee and pe sege, and wente his way. Antiochus Ponti- 
cus, kyng of Siria, byseged ^^ Jerusalem, ])erfore lohn ^i Hir- 



Aburbe. And the concorde was made soe that Lucius, the consul of MS. Harl. 
Rome, wi'ote to the regiones of the Este that thei scholde not 2261. 
do any greuaunce to the lewes. Petrus, 225. Ptholomeus, a ^ traiTm'- 
gouernoure of Iherico, and son in lawe to Symon, callenge gracione. 
hym to a feste, did sle hym with his ij. sonnes. But an ojjer 
son of the seide Symon, callede Hircanus in that he hade 
victory of the Hircannes, herenge this, occupiede Jerusalem, 
and folowede Ptholomeus. Neuerthelesse the seide son of 
Symon returnede from the sege, for cause that Ptholomeus 
hade sette his moder on the walles of the cite made redde 
with bloode, with ij. childer. Anthiochus Ponticus, kynge of 
Siria, besegede lerusalem, wherefore lohn Hircan open ij. of 



* weiyte] om. Cx. 
' Grekes, Cx. 
3 menus, Cx. 
^ ciclus, Cx. 

^ From a,, /3., 7., and Cx. 
^ \>e] om. Cx. 
7 From $. and Cx. 
^ eyres, ;8. ; hevr, y. and Cx. 
' Blank here as if for a reference, 
o. ; Petrus 225, $., y., and Cx. 



^^ Tholomeus due, Cx., et infra. 
" lohan, Cx. 

^^ pur suede . . . besieged, Cx. 
*3 and'] om. Cx. 
^'^ Johannes, Cx. 
^5 byfore, Cx. 

1^ oune yen, y. ; Johannes eyen, 
lohan, Cx. 

^' besieged, Cx. 



136 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



duos de octo ^ loculis ^ qui circumstant ^ sepulcrum 
David, et sublatis inde tribus millibus talentorum, 
dedit trescenta talenta ^ Antiocho ut recederet. Et ^ 
de reliquis talentis constituit xenodochia pauperum, 
ut sic compesceret murmur populi pro apertione^ 
sepulcri7 Johannes pontifex ^ Hyrcanos devincit, et ^ 
Romanis confoederatur. Orosius, lihro quinto}^ His 
diebus tanta per Africam locustarum multitude 
invaluit, ut segetes, herbas, cortices, folia corroderent, 
quae tamen^^ in Africano pelago^^ sunt demersse. 
Deinde ex acervis earum^^ ad lit us projectis tarn 
pestifer odor exhalavit,^^ ut aves et pecudes inter- 

ficerentur. Apud Numidiam octoginta millia homi- 

num, apud Carthaginem ducenta millia, apud Uticam 

urbem triginta millia Romanorum militum ad cus- 

Aburbe. todiam patriae relictorum extincta sunt. Carthago in 

62.3. 

gracione. Africa lussu senatus reparata est vicesimo secundo 

463. 



* octo'\ om. A. 

2 rfg . . . loculisi loculos, B. 

■'* circumstabant, B. 

^ talenta] om. B. 

•' Ef] from A.B. ; eo, MS. 

^ apparitione, A. 

7 All slightly varied iu CD., 
which add here : " Dionysius. 
" Ptolomeus Euergetes expellitur 
" ab Egypto. Arsaces Parthicus 



" occidit Antiochum. Demetrius 
" iterum imperat Syriaj et Asia? 
" quatuor amiis." 

^ pontifex~\ cm. B. 

^ et] from A. ; c, MS. ; cm. B. 

'0 Cap. xi. 

^^ tandem, A.B. 

^2 pelagoj from A. ; peUagio, MS. 

*^ eoriun, B. • 

^^ exaluit, B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 137 

canus openede tweyne of J^e eijte tresour places ]>at stondij) Trevisa. 

aboute David ^ sepulcre, and took J^ennes j^re ]?owsand talentes, 

and Jaf Antiochus Jjre liondred talentes for to doo good 
away ^ ; and of ]>e ^ oj^er deal lieTmade places of socour * for 
pore ° men, forto sese ^ [so] ^ ]>e peple ])at grucclied ^ for 
])e oponynge of pe sepulcre. lohn ^ })e bisshop overcome j^e 
Ilircanes, and was confedered to pe Romayns. Orosius, libro 5°. 
pat tyme was so grete [multitude of greet] ^ flijes ^^ in 
Affrica ]?at ]?ey gnowe ^^ and destroyede corn, gras, and ryndes 
of trees, J?at ^^ were a-dreynt at ]>e laste in ]>e see of Afirica ; 
and afterward were i-Jjrowe grete hepes ^^ ferof on londe ^^ to 
])e clyves,^^ ]?at stank so foule and so grevousliche fat pe 
smyl ^^ |)erof slou^ ^^ bojje bestes and foules. At Munidia ^^ 
were i-slawe foure score j^owsand men, at Cartage two hondred 
|)Owsand men ; at ^^ at ]>e ^^ citee Utica were deed ^i ]>ritty 
j)Owsand knyjtes of Rome jjat were i-left to keep ]>e contray. 
Cartage in Affrica was i-bulde^^ a^en by heste of ^e senatoures 



Ab urbe. the grete purses and veselles that were abowte j^e sepulcre MS. Harl. 
of Dauid ; whiche takenge from theym iij. m^* talentes, _^afe 2261. 
to Anthiocus iij.<^. J)at he scholde breke the sege, makenge with ~. 

o|?er talentes Jiftes to the peple, that he my^hte constreyn the gradone." 
murmur of ))e peple in that wise. The seide lohn bischoppe 
of Jerusalem hade victory of the Hircannes, and was con- 
federate to the Romanes. Orosius, libro qiiinto. A grete 
multitude of flees were in this tyme in Affi'ike, in so moclie 
that thei destroyede corne, herbes, leves of trees, and frutes, 
whiche were drownede at laste in the see of Aff*rike. Whiche 
cariede to the brynke of the see did cause so pestilente a 
corrupcion that briddes and wylde bestes as innumerable diede 
ferby. Also Ixxx. thowsande of the Romanes diede at Nu- f. 181. a. 
midia, at Cartago ij.'^. m^, at the cite callede Utica xxx*^ ml* 
of the Romanes lefte to kepe the cuntre. Cartago was edifiede 
ageyne by the commaundemente of the senate in the xxij^' yere 



' TJaui\>is, fi. ; Davithis, Cx. 

-forto (joo away, a. and Cx. 

•■« that, )3. and Cx. 

•* soker, /8. 

^ socours for poure, Cx. 

^ ceese, )8. and Cx. ; cese, y. 

7 From a., )8., y., and Cx. 

^ grochgede, y. ; grutchyde, Cx. 

^ lohan, Cx. 

^^Jiyes, Cx. 

'^ gnouyy )8. ; agnouy, y. ; ete, Cx. 



^- and, a., )8., and 7. 

^3 huples, y. ; heepis, Cx. 

^^ alond, fi. 

^^ cleues, y. ; clyffes, Cx. 

'° smel, Cx. 

^7 slewe, Cx. 

^^ Munydia, y. 

^^ and, a. and Cx. 

20 j>e] om. Cx. 

21 dede, Cx. 
^'2 bylde, Cx. 



138 



POLYCHRONICON llANULPHI HIGDEN 



anno eversionis/ et cives Romani ibidem sunt 
adducti. Antiochus^ prsesidet Syrise et Asise duode- 
cim annis, et Johannes Hyrcanus devastat Samariam, 
quam post modum Herodes instaurans Sebasten voca- 
vit. Dux quidam Gallorum cum centum millibus octo- 
ginta armatorum ascendit contra Romanos, et ponte^ 
quem junctis navibus supra Rhodanum construxerat 
deturbato victus est.^ Orosius,^ lihro quinto,^ et 
AugustinuSj lihro iii^? -^tna mons in Sicilia supra ^ 
solitum exarsit, ita ut urbem Catinensium^ incenderet, 
tabulasque navium propinquarum dissolveret, homines 
quoque '^^ vicinos reciprocato ^^ anhelitu calidi aeris 
adustis introrsum vitalibus suffocaverit.^''' Qua de 
causa senatus Romanus relaxavit Catinensibus vecti- 
galia decern annorum. 



Cap. XXXVIII. 

[De Ciceronis vitd et qucedam de rebus Judaicis et 

Romanis.] 

Ptolomeus, qui et Soter, filius Cleopatrse, regnavit 

-^gyptiis xvii. annis .^^ Marcus Tullius Cicero, philoso- 



^ eversionisi from A.B. ; ever- 
sione, added in MS. 

" tribus, added in A.B. 

•^ pontem, B. 

■* All slightly varied in CD., 
which have, instead of the rest of the 
chapter, "Marcus Terentius Varro, 
*' philosophus, poeta, et historicus 
" [Romse, A.B.] nascitur." Also 
in A.B. 

^ JeronimuSy B. 



^ Cap. xiii, 

^ in fine, A. The reference is Dc 
Civ. Dei, b. iii. c. 31. 

^ ultra, A.B. 

^ Cathenensium, B. 

^^' homines quoquel om. B. 

1^ recepto, B. 

^- siiffocavit, B. 

13 C.D. add : " Antiochus Cyzi- 
" cenus regnavit Syria; et Asise 
" novem decern annis." 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 139 

of Rome, twelve Zero after }jat it was destroyed, and ])idcr ^ Trevisa. 

were i-broujt burgeis of Rome. Antiochus regnede j^re Jere, 

and in Asia twelf Jere. lohn ^ Hircanus destroyeJ> ^ Sa- 
maria, but Herodes bulde hit afterward and cleped hit Sebasten. 
A duke of ]?e Galles wente ajenst J?e Romayns wi]) an hon- 
dred fowsand [and foure score ]?owsand] ^ of men of armes, 
and was overcome on the brigge of schippes j^at he^ hadde 
i-made over ]?e water of Rone. Marcus Terencius Farro,^ 
fat was bo|)e philosofre and poete and writere of stories is 
i-bore at Rome. Orosms, libro 5°, et Atfgiistimis, lihro 3°. 
pe hil mount Ethna brend^ passynge pat it was i-woned^ 
to doo, so Jmt it sette pe citee of pe Cathenens on fire,^ and 
undede pe hordes ^^ of schippes pat come pere nygh, and brende 
pe bowels of men pat were pere nygh, and chokede hem with 
hote ayer.ii perfore pe Romayns relesede ^^ pe Cathenens 
here ^^ tribute for ten ^ere. 

Capitulujn tricesimum octavum, 

Ptholomeus 1* [Sother, the sonne of Cleopatra,] ^^ regnede 
in Egipt seventene Jere. Marcus TuUius Cithero is i-bore 

Ab urbe. after the destruccion of hit, and mony citesynnes of Rome MS. Harl. 
were hade to inhabite that cite. Anthiocus Trilius reignede ^^^1- 
in Siria and Asia xij. yere ; and lohn Hircan destroyede ^ transmi- 
Samaria, whom Herode instorede after and callede hit Sebasten. gracione. 
Marcus Terrencius Varro, the philosophre and poete, were this 
tyme borne at Rome. Orosius, libro 5^°, et Augustinus, libro 3°. 
The mownte callede Ethna in Sicille brente more then hit was 
wonte, in so moche pat hit brente the cite Catinense, and also 
the burdes of schippes nye to hit, and destroyede mony men 
thro the pestilente savoure of hit. Wherefore the senate of 
Rome releschede peple of the cite Catinense of theire tribute 
by ten yere folowenge. 

Capitulum tricesimum octavum. 

Ptholomeus other Sother, son of Cleopatra, reignede at 
Egipte xvij. yere. Marchus Tullius Cithero, pe philosophre of 



' theder, Cx. 

- lohan, Cx. 

2 destroyed, Cx. 

^ From o., 0., y., and Cx. 

5 Ipei, 3. ; thei/, Cx. 

^ Varro, Cx. 

' brand, $. ; brent, Cx. 

* wond, y, ; wonte, Cx. 



9 afier, fi. 
^0 burdes, a. 

^^ acr, a. ; wi]p hate ayr, j8. ; iui\> 
hote aer, y. ; eyer, Cx. 

*2 relesched, fi. ; relesshed, Cx. 

13 her, i8. 

1^ Tholomeus, Cx. 

1^ From fi. and Cx. 



140 



POLYCHKONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



phus, nascitur ex Volscorum ^ genere. Valerius.^ 
Cujus adolescentia in pascendis pecoribus occupata 
fuit, validior getas Romaniim rexit imperium. Mirum 
de ipso est ^ quod contemptor fuerit * litterarum, et 
tamen abundantissimus fuit fons earum.^ Hie nempe 
in omnibus sapientijB Unguis linguosus, et prsecipue ^ 
Chrysostomus, omne intricatum et impeditum expedivit 
ad oculum, omnem rhetoricam expolivit.'^ Idem etiam 
aliquando interrogatus unde^ sibi tanta eloquentia, 
respondit, *' Facundia est magnum Dei donum, quod 
" qui intellexerit commode proloqui poterit." Idem 
etiam tradidit omnem Iliadem ita subtiliter scriptam 
ut quasi testa nucis includeretur. Policratica, libro 
quinto, capitulo sexto? Cicero cum in palatio do- 
raum emere vellet, et pecuniam non haberet, a Sulla, 
qui tunc reus erat, mutuum accepit, quod antequam 
res emeretur proditum est. Tunc Cicero inopinata^^ 



1 Vulcorum.B. WlscOyCD. 

- The passage here quoted is 
from Valerius iii. 4. 1., but the 
words are there used of Tullus Hos- 
tiliuSjking of Home, not of Marcus 
Tullius Cicero. 

^ est] om, 13. 

^fuit, A.B. 



^ fons earumjuit, B. 

^ prcccipuus, A. ; pi'cecipuis abun- 
dantissimus^ B. 

'' exposuit, B. 

^ uhi, A. 

^ C. omits reference. It should 
be capitulo quinto dccimo. 

^*' appoiata, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 141 

of 1 [|ie] 2 Vulcene kynde. Valerius. He kepte bestes in Trevisa. 

his ^ou j»e, and rulede j^e empere ^ of Rome in his elde ; it is 

wonder fat he despisede lettres, and was hym self a plentevous ^ 

welle of lettres. pat^ was a noble spekere in all manere 

tonges of witt^ and of wisdom, and cheef^ spekere wi]> tonge. 

He assoillede alle doutes cleerliche^ at wille, and clensed 

and hijte^ al retliorike. Me axede hym somtyme how he 

come to pe faire ^^ spekynge |)at he hadde. " Noble facouude," 

quod 11 he, " is a gret ^ifte of God almyjty. Who ])at knewe 

" how, he schulde have faire manere of spekynge." He wroot 

alle J?e gestes of Troye sotelliche,!^ as it my tte be closed in a note 

schale.i"^ Policratica, libro 5", capitulo 6°. Cithero wolde 

somtyme bigge ^* an hous in the paleys,i^ and hadde no money, 

and borwede of oon Silla,i^ but he was bewryed ^^ or i^ |}e bar- 

gayn was i-made. pan Cithero was i-meoved, and denyed 



Ab urbe. the kynde of Vulsconnes, was borne ]?is tyme. Valerius. The MS. Hakl 
adolescency of whom was occupiede in kepenge bestes. After 2261. 
that he gouernede thempyr of Rome. Hit was meruayle of ^ transmi- 
hym that he was the despiser of connynge men, sithe that he gracione. 
was a pregnante and plentuous welle of connynge, instructe in 
alle langages of sapience. Orosius. This Cithero polischede 
and onornede alle rethorikke ; whiche inquirede of a man how 
that he come to the noble eloquency and connynge that he 
hade, answerede in this wise, seyenge that the connynge of 
eloquency is the grete ^ifte of God, and that a man of grete 
intellecte myjte speke welle. This Cithero did write so sub- 
tily alle the batelle of Troy that hit semede as inclusede with- 
ynne the schelle of a nutte. Policronicon, libro quinto, capitulo 
sexto. Cithero beenge in the palice wyllenge to bye an howse, 
and wontenge money, borowede a certeyne summe of a man f- 181. b. 
callede Silla, a trespassoure of the cite, whiche thynge was 
expressede or pat Cithero hade bou^hte the howse. Whiche 



^ m, Cx. 

" From a., 7., and Cx. 

^ em pi/re, Cx. 

'* plentuos, y. 

^ This, $. and Cx. 

^ wytte, Cx. 

' chyef, Cx. 

^ ckrelyy Cx. 

' enorned, Cx, 



^^fayre, a. ; fair, y. ; fayr, Cx. 

^^ facunde, sayd, Cx. 

^2 subtylly, Cx. 

'3 shale, Cx. 

^'* bye, )8. and Cx. ; bugge, y. 

^^ palys, )8. ; palays, Cx. 

^*' Siltareus, y. ; Scilla, Cx. 

'7 ywryed, a. ; wryed, fi. and Cx. 

»8 er, Cx. 



142 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



exprobratione permotus se "^ quicquam accepisse ne- 
gavit; dicens se domum non esse ^ empturum. " Quod 
" si domum emero,^ verum* fatebor quod objicitis/' 
Sed cum postmodum domum illam emisset, et hoc ei a 
senatu objectum fuisset, ait, " Imprudentes estis si 
'' ignoratis emptores dissimulare aut negare se emptu- 
" ros quod emere volunt, et hoc propter competitores ^ 
" emptionis." Sicque quod justificari non poterat, 
magis dignum risu fecit ^ quam crimine. Habe- 
batque^ semper familiare ut quotiens turpe objectum 
negare non posset responsione joculari^ illud elideret.^ 



^ qui, A. 

2 esse'] om. B. 

3 emere, A.B. 

'^ verum'] om. B. 

^ compactores, B. 

^fecif] from A.B. ; fuit, MS. 

<" habebat, B. 

^jaculari, B. 

^ Jeronimus ad Nepotianum. 

Tullio dictum fuerat a quodam, 

Tibi praeripuit Demosthenes ne 

esses orator primus, et tu illi 

prseripuisti ne esset orator solus. 

Iste Tullius multos libros edidit, 

sicut ipse refert in libro de di- 

vinatione, de senectute, de ami- 



citia, de rethorica, de officiis, de 
republica. Orosius, libro quinto. 
Anno ab urbe condita scilicet 50 
(sic) [65, A.] bellum fuit inter 
Sertorium et Pompeium, in quo 
ceciderunt dcc. [dc, A.] milites 
ex una parte et dc. ex altera 
parte, noxque primum prselium 
deremit [dirimit, A.] ; die se- 
quenti cum miles unus ex parte 
Pompeii percepisset inter cada- 
vera sepelienda se occidisse fra- 
trem proprium, quasi in detesta- 
tionem belli socialis se ipsum 
interfecit, et super cadaver fratris 
se projecit," added here in A.B. 



MONACHI CESTllENSIS, LIB. III. 



143 



al ])at he hadde i-fonge,^ and seide ])at he wolde bygge ^ non Trevisa. 

hous. " And Jif I bigge an hous," quod ^ he, *' I schal know- 

" leche fe so]>e of fat Je puttej> * to me." And afterward 
whanne he hadde i-bou^t pe hous it was i-putte a^enst hym. 
" Je beej) ^ unwys," quod he, " Jif Je knowe]> noujt |7at 
" biggers forsake}? Jif J)ey willej? ou^t bigge, and make])^ 
" it as )>ouJ ]>ej wolde nou^t ^" perof to have \>e bettre 
" chepe ; " and so what he my^te nonjt denye he wolde 
torue ^ hit to bourde and [to] ^ law^hynge, and noujt to 
blame and to trespas." He hadde alway ]>at manere of^^ 



doynge, ))at as ofte as eny^i foule dede was put a^enst 
hym, ])at he myjte noujt denye, he wolde putte it of wij) a 
mery answere. leronimus ad Nepocianum. Me seide som- 
tyme of oon to Tullius in J>is manere : " Demostenes ^^ bynam 
" J?e J)at ]?ou nere nat ^^ first pledere, and |)0U hast bynome ^* 
" hym jjat he is nou'^t pledere allone." pis Tullius made meny 
bookes, as he telle]) ^^ hym self,i^ libro 2° de divinatione. Liber 
Hortensibus, foure Achademicis,!'' fyve Tusculanus,!^ sixe 
Annunciandi, De divinatione, de Senectute, de Amicicia, de 
Rethorica, de Officiis, de Republica. Titus. Sexe^^ hondred 



Ab urbe. reprouede of the senate denyede that he was in that purpose, MS. Harl. 
and after that he did bye that howse. The senate reprovenge 2261. 
hym ])erfore, he answerede in this wise : " Ye be not wise, for ye ^ ^ransmi- 
" knewe the byers and sellers to dissimilate that matter that gracione. 
" tliei wolde bye and selle ; " and so he turnede hit to a dis- 
porte and to a game. For the seide Tullius other Cithero hade 
this condicion, that if there were a fowle thynge obiecte to hym, 
he wolde avoide hit soone and make a disporte of hit. This 
Tullius made mony bookes, as iiij. bokes de hortensibus, v. 
bookes of Questiones Tusculane, and -vj. bookes of lordeschippe, 
of senectute, of frendeschippe, of rethorikke, of office, and of the 
commune vtilite. Titus. In the vj.<'. yere after the edifienge of 



^ received, Cx. 
2 bye, Cx., et infra. 

* sai/d, Cx., et infra. 

* putte, Cx. 
« be, Cx. 

^ knowe not that byers forsake yf 
they wole ought bye and make, Cx. 
7 no thinge, Cx. 
^ teurne, y. 

5 From &., y., and Cx. 
10 o/] om. Cx. 



11 ony, Cx. 

12 Demostenes"] om. a. 
written twice over in the MS. 

13 nouyt, o. ; not, Cx. 
1"* bynom, Cx. 

15 suyth, Cx. 

I*' hym self] om. Cx. 

'J" Archademicis, Cx. 

'-^ Tusculanis, y. and Cx. 

19 Sixe, )8. and y. ; Six, Cx. 



It is 



144 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Aburbe. Petvus, centesimo^ tertio} Johannes Hyrcanus obiit 

651. 
A transmi- 

^^491°"^" post vicesimum tertium annum ducatus sui, relinquens 
post se uxorem suam disertissimam cum quinque filiis 
suis ad regendum Judseam. Quorum primogenitus 
Aristobulus, impatiens dominii materni, matrem cum 
tribus filiis ^ junioribus incarceratam fame peremit, 
ubi ^* solomodo ^ post hoc uno anno rex et pontifex 
supervixit, Antigonumque fratrem suum, quern diligebat, 
secundum in regno fecit. Eum tamen^ in armis de 
Judaea redeuntem, ad instigationem sororis suse, cujus 
concubitum aspernaverat, interfici jussit. Sicque re- 



' capitulo, added in B.C.D. I ^ tiji^f.^ a.B. 

2 The refereuce is Hist. Machab. j ^ solum, A. 
lib. ii., cap. 3. 

•^ suis^ added in B. 



^ Eteum m,B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 145 



^erc and fyvc and fourty after I)c buldynge ^ of Rome, was a 
bataylc bytweiic Scitorius and Ponipeus. In pat bataille 
were deed sixe hondred kny^tes in ])e '^ oon Hide, and sixe 
hondred in ])e ^ oper side. J)c lirstc bataille durede ^ fourteue 
ny^t.* A niorwe a kny^t of Pompcus his side ^ eome amonf^; 
])G dede bodyes pjit scliulde be buried, and parceyved^ 
|)at he hadde i-shiwe '^ his owne broj^er, and despised J^e ba- 
taille, and slow^ hymself for sorwe of J^at dede, [and fylle**^ 
downe dede]'* uppon his broiler body. Pctrus, capitulo 13°.^^^ 
lohn 11 Hircanus deyde after ])re and ].n'itty ^ere of his duche- 
rie, and lefte after hym his wif, |)at was a noble spekere, and 
fyve sones to rule ]je lewerye.^^ pe eldest heet ^'-^ Aristobolus, 
and 2 my^t non^t sufTre his moder to regno over hym. perfore 
he prisoned his moder and his ])re ^onger ^* breperen, and 
slow^ hem wip honger. perfore he ly vede afterward but oo ^^ 
^ere kyng and bisshop, and made his l)ro])cr Antigonus, pat 
he lovede, secounde in pc kyngdom.^*'' But he lete slee hym 
whan he come in armes out of pe lewerie,!^ and pat made his 



Trfvisa. 



Ab iirbe. tlie cite of Rome a batelle was movede betwene Stertorius and MS. Harl. 
Pompeius, in whom vj.^. kny thtes were sleyne on that oon parte, 2261. 
and vj.^. on that other parte, and so ny^hte causede theyme to Atransmi- 
departe from the firste batelle. In the morowe folowenge a gracione. 
kny^hte of Pompeius percej^venge hym to haue sleyne his 
awne brother, did sle hym selfe, and telle downe on the body 
of his broper for sorowe. Petrus, capitulo tcrtio. lohn Hircan 
dyede after that he hade gouernede the lewery xxxiij.yere, 
levenge after hym his wife, a woman of grete discrecion, with 
V. childer. Aristobolus, his eldestc son, hauenge grete appetite The realmc 
and affeccion to reigne, pereschede his moder for hungre in of luda 
prison with thre yonger breper, wherefore he lyvede but oone "^^^ ^^ 
yere after that kynge and bischoppe more then his broper ^y^j^g^y. 
Antigonus, whom he luffede in so moclie that he made hym as nesse. 
secunde person in his realme ; w^hom he causede after that to 
be sleyne commenge from the lewery, in that he despisede the 



' byldyng, Cx. 9 From /8. and Cx 

- that, /3. and Cx. | i" 3", a. and Cx. 

•' endured, Cx. | '• Johav, Cx. 

^ fourtenyxt, a ; fort njjyf, 7- ; j '" Jewn/, Cx 
unfo nyght, Cx. 
^ his side] om. Cx. 
^ perceyved, Cx. 
^ slayne, Cx. 
^ fit, )8. 



'•* ivas called, Cx. 
1 ' yong, Cx. 
^» one, Cx. 

^*' \>at . . . hyngdom] om. Cx. 
irrongly. 



VOL. IV. K 



146 



POLYCHRONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 



stitutam est regnum Juda, quod a Sedechia usque ad 
istum Aristobulum per annos ccce*os. Ixxv. interruptum 
fuerat. Petms, v^} Igitur niortuo isto Aristobulo, 
uxor ejus, quia prolem ab eo non susceperat, fratres 
ejus solvit a vinculis ; majorem natu, Alexandrum 
cognomine Janneum, regem constituit. Hie omnino 
sceleratus fratrem suum secundum natu interfecit, 
tertium vivere private coegit. Sub spatio quinque 
annorum ^ quinquaginta millia seniorum,^ quia vitia 
ejus reprebenderant,"^ interfecit. At ^ cum ei per- 
cunctanti quomodo Judseos placare posset, responsum 
esset, si moreretur, suspendit octoginta viros uxoratos 
cum uxoribus et liberis. Tandem, secundum Josephum, 
vicesimo septimo anno regni sui moriens, duos reliquit 
iilios, Hyrcanum et Aristobulum^ quos sciens Judseis 
fore odiosos, Alexandram uxorem suam disertissimam 



* capituloy added in A. The re- 
ference is Hist. Machab, lib. ii., 
cap. 6. 

'^ quasi annorum quinque, B. 



^ sehiorem, B. 

■* comprchenderunty A. ; rcprt» 
hendebat, Bi 
5 Ac, Bi 



MONACHI CESTREXSIS, LIB. IIL 147 

owne^ suster, ffor he wolde noiUt liggc- by here. And so Tretisx. 

J>e kjngdom of luda was restored a^en, pat hadde be wijHhawe — 

from Sedechias his tyme anon ^ to fis * Aristoboliis, foure hon- 

dred >ere fre score and fiftene. Pctrvs^ capifulo o*'. Whan ]ns 

Aristobolus was dede, his wif J'at hadde no childe by hym took ^ 

his eldere ^ bro)>er Alisaundre lannueus " out of bondes,^ 

and made hym kyng. pis was a wel evel '^ man. and slow^ 

his owne secounde brof>er, and kepte ]»e jnidde broj'er to lyve 

priveHche.^*^ In ^^ space of fyve 5^re he slow^ titty |>owsand 

of olde men, for they wijiseide his vices and his ^- evel ^^ doynge. 

He axede in ^* a t^Tne how he schulde plese the lewee, imd 

was i-answered |^at he schulde plese hem and ]>ej^^ w^ere 

dede. panne he henge foure score wedded men, and here 

wyfes and here ^^ children. ^" losephus sei]> j^at he deide ar. 

|)e laste, \e sevene and twenty Jere of his kyngdom. and lefte 

tweie sones on ^^ ly^e. Hircanus and Aristobohis. and wiste ^^ 

J>at |)ey were odious to the lewcs, and made Iiis wif Alexandria 



pleasure of the flesche with his sustyr. And so the realme MS. Harl. 
of luda was restorede. whiche Avas interrupte from Sedechias 2261. 

vn to this Aristobolus by cccclxxv.-^^ Petrus^capitido qninto. 

This Ai'istobolus dedde. his wife toke his ij. brether owte of gradone." 
prison, and made Alexander, the elder brother, kynge of luda, f. 1S2. a. 
in that Aristobolus hade noo childe. This wikkede and vn- 
happy man Alexander did sle the secunde broker to hym and 
causede the thridde to lyve priuately by the space of v. yere. 
Also the seide Alexander did sle I" m* of seniours for cause 
thei reprovede hym of his wickede lyvenge ; whiche inquirenge 
how he my^lite plea.se the lewes, hit was answercde, if that 
he diedc : he hongede also iiij"wedcde men with theire wyfes 
and childre. pe seide Alexander diede after the |)e xxvij. 
yere of his reigne, after losephus, levenge after him ij. sonnes, 
Hircanus and Ai'istobolus, whiche kuowenge theym to exercise 
grete crudelite, made Alexandria his wife gouernoure, whiche 



* owne] om. j8. and Cx. '^ In] 0. has the and the full stop 
' lye, Cx. after xerc. 

•^ unio, Cx. '- fiia] oni. Cx. 

^ the, Cx. ^^ cvi/l, Cx. 

' take, Cx. , 1' OH, Cx. 

' el\>er, y. I ^^ and he, 0. ; yj' tie, Cx. 

"> lamvieiLs, /8. and Cx. ; lam- ' '"^ ficrc] om. Cx. 

neus, y. \ ^' *^'"'<''"^» Cx. 

* bandes, Cx. ] ^^^ a, j8. and C.v. 
'/m/ eiU, 3. and Cx. i ^'•' taste, y. 



^^ pryvely, Cx. -^ Sic. 



K 2 



148 POLYCHROIs'lCON lUNULPHl HIGDEN 

Judfeis proefecit. Quse tamen prius, vivente viro, 
benevolentiam popnli sa?pe comparaverat, tyrannidem 
mariti ssepius ^ deniiilcendo. De ducihus Romanisr- 
Marius dux Romanus,^ et sexies consul, post de- 
victum Jugurtliam in Numidia, occidit trescentos * 
Cimbrorum •'' contra Romanos ascendentium , octo2[inta 
millia cepit, Iterum cum Catulo cecidit ^ centum 
quadraginta millia. De regibus J^gypiiorv/m? Ptolo- 
meus, qui et Alexander, regnavit^ ^gyptiis decern 
annis ; nam Ptolomeus Soter per matrem suam 
Cleopatram expulsus fuerat usque ad Cyprum. Lucre- 
tius poeta nascitur, qui postmodum amatorio poculo in 
furorem versus, cum aliquot libros per inter valla 
insanisG scripsisset, quos postea Cicero emendavit, 
propria manu^ seipsum interemit anno vitse^*^ qua- 
dragesimo quarto.^'^ Eutropius, Ubro quintoP Regnum 
Aburbe. Svrise dcfecit, et cessit ditioui Romanorum. Sociale 

658. '" ' 

gracione. bcUum iucepit in Italia, nam Picenses, Marsi, Pelican i 

498. ^ ' & 



* soepe, A. 

- A.B.C.D. omit title. 
** Romanorum, B. 
■' cc.y A. ; 200, B. 



^ propria se majiU, B. 
'*' succ, added in B. 
^^ quadragesimo quarto~\ om. A; 
CD. add here : " Antiochus ad Par- 



^ Cambrorum, A.; Curnbrurum, j " thos fugiens I'ompcio Komano 

]MS. I '* se tradidit postquam Philippus 

'■' ex eis, added in B. | " captus est a Gabinio." 

7 A.B.C.D. omit title. ^- Full rcfcreuce is cap. 3. 

^ in, added in T>. ^ 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 149 

lady of pG lewes. Sclie ^ hadde ofte to forehonde i-wonne ^ Tkevisa. 
love of ])e peple, for sclie ^ abated ofto ]>e malys '^ and ])e ty- 
rauntise ^ of here hoiisebonde while he was on ^ ly ve. IVIarius, 
duke ^ of Home, and sixe si])es consul, after ])at he hadde 
overcome lugurta [m] ^ Numidia,'* he slowj ^ two hondred 
])0wsand of Cumbres ^^ ]>at come a^enst ])e Romayns, and he 
took foure score fowsand prisoners, and eft wi]) oon Catalus ^^ 
were dede of hem^^ seven score ])owsand. Ptholomeus^^ 
Alexander regned in Egipt ten ^ere ; for Ptholomeus ^^ Sother 
Avas put out by his moder Cleopatra, and i-chased ^^ in to 
Cipres.^^ Lucrecius ]:>e poete is i-bore,^*^ ])at drank afterward 
love drynkes and worj^e ^'^ wood.**^ Nopeles he wroot som 
bokes bytwene ]>e reses of his woodnesse,^^ and slow^ hym 
self wi|) his owne bond l>e Jere of his lif foure and fourty, and 
Cithero^^^ amendede his bookes. Eutropms, li/)ro 5^. pe 
kyngdom of Siria faillede,^! and fel 22 to ])e lordschipe ^3 of j)e 
Romayns. pe bataille pat was i-cleped Sociale bellum bygan 
in Italy, for the Pycens, Marces,^^ Feligues werrede strong- 



uibe. pleasede the peple moclie. Marcus, a gouernoure of the MS. Hakl 
Romanes and consul vj. tymes, after the victory hade of 2261. 
lugurta in Numidia, did sle ij.*^'. m^" of men callede Cumbres . 

commenge ageyne the Romanes, and toke Ixxx. m^". Also per gracione.' 
fello of theyme with a man callede Catulus a cxl*' mt. Ptho- 
lomeus other Alexander rcignede in Egipte x. yere, for Ptho- 
lomeus Sother was expulsede by his moder Cleopatra vnto 
Ciprus. Lucrecias the poete was borne this tyme, whicho 
was distracte afterwarde pro a drynke of lufFe, whiche wrote 
diuerse bookes whom Cithero did correcte, and after that did 
sle hym selfe in the xliiij. yere of his age. EiUropius, libro 
quinto. The realme of Siria failede, and was obediente to the 
Romanes. A batelle was mouede in the londe of Ytaly ageyne 



1 /ico, i3, I '•' Tliolomeiis, Cx., et infra. 

- hifore wonne, Cx. ! '^ vlutsid, Cx. 

■' /nali/cc, Cx. j '"' Cipri/s, /3. ; Ci/prj/s, Cx. 



■* iif runny e, Cx. 

5 a, j8. and Cx. 

^ due, Cx. 

" From 7. 

•'' Munidia^ 7. and Cx. 

9 dew, Cx. 

>" Cinibres, P. and Cx. 

J' Catuhis, Cx. 

^- of hem'] om, Cx. 



^^' yborn, Cx. 

^^" we7'\>, a., )8., 7., and Cx. 

's 20ode, Cx. 

^^ wodeiiese, Cx. 

~" Cytliero, Cx. 

•-> fayhfd, Cx. 

-^ fill tu the lordship, Cx. 
-^ Murses, (3. and Cx. 



150 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHl HIGDEN 

grave bellum contra Romanos per^ cjuatuor annos 
protrahimt,^ in quo duo ^ consules et Porcius * Cato 
corruerunt.^ Tandem a Mario Pompeio et Sulla 
devicti sunt.^ 

Cap. XXXIX. 

\_De Marioy Sulld, et Mithridate Ponti rege.l 
Abuvbo. Ptolomeus Soter, qui nuper per matreni suam 
ejectus fuerat, matre jam per Alexandrum ^ Ptolomeum 
occisa, recuperavit regnum iEgyptiorum, in quo regnavit 
octo annis ; cives namque expulerant ^ Ptolomeum 
Alexandrum propter occisionem ^ maternam.^^ Salus- 
tius Crispus, seriptor historicus, Sabinis'^ nascitur, 
de quo^^ extant invectiva. Eutropius}^ His diebus 
dira ^^ prodigia visa sunt ; nam sub ortu solis globus 
ignis terribilis apparuit. Et ^^ apud Aretinos in quo- 
dam convivio cruor de panibus quasi de vulneribus 
fluxit. Et per septem continues dies grando immensis 
immixtis ^^ testarum fra^^mentis terram verberavit.^" 



A transmi- 

ffnicione. 

501. 



^ per . . . protrahunf] om. 15. j " Gallus primus Romse Latinara 

- contrahunt, A. '' rhetoricam edocuit, de quo Cicero 

3 quos duos, T3. " {^Cisero, D.] iu libris suis menti- 

'* Pontius, B. i " onem fecit." 

5 cornnoft, B. ^' Sahn\ B. 

^ The ^vllolc chapter is the same ^- quol om. B. 

substantially in CD., Avith two slight i ^^ The reference precedes the 

additions. At the end of the chap- j next paragraph in B. ; it is omitted 
ter they add : " Pomponius satira- in A. 

" rum seriptor Bononiae claret." , ' ' diva, B. 

' Alexandnnn^ om. A.B. ^' Et . . . verberavit'] om. CD. 

•"^ ex'pulerat, B. ' ''' immixta, B. 

'-' inter feciion em. A.]*. I '" vernvit (sic), A. 

J** CD add: "Plato son Plotius ' 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 151 

liclie foui'G Jere ajenst ])e Romayns. In pat werre ^ deyde Trevisa. 

tweye consuls and Porcius Cato, but pey ^ were overcome at 

the laste of Silla^ and of Marius Pompeus.* 



Capituluin tricesimum nonum. 

Ptiiolomeus ^ Sother pat was put out by his owne moder, 
rekeverede^ pe kyngdom of Egipt whan his moder was 
i-slawc^ by Ptholemeus^ Alexander, and regned in Egipt 
ei^to Jere, ffor citeseyns^ hadde i-putte out Ptiiolomeus^ 
Alexander for the slaujter of his moder. Salustius Crispus, 
writer of stories, is i-bore in Sabyn, of hym is Jit moche j^ing 
i-wrete.^ pat tyrae were i-seie ^^ meny grete wondres harde 
and dredful,!^ ffor under pe arisynge of pe sonne was i-seie a 
dredful cluster ^^ of fuyi'e.^'^ And in a feste among pe Ar- 
tynes ^* blood ran out of j)e looves,^^ as it were out of newe 
woundes ; and pe erpe was i-bete sevene dayes to giders ^^ wip 
grete hayle ^^ stones i-medled ^^ with scherdes. Among pe 



Abmbe. ^]^^ Romanes by iiij. yere, in Avhiche batelles ij. consulles were MS. Harl. 
sleyne, Porcius and Cato ; but at the laste thei were overcommen 2'26i. 
by Marius, Pompeius, and Silla. ^ transmi- 

gracione. 

Capitiilum tricesimum nonum. 

Ptholomeus Sother, expulsede by Cleopatra his moder, 
whiche was sleyne by Ptholomeus Alexander, recurede the 
realme of Egipte, in whom he reignede viij yere. For the cite- 
synnes expulsede Tholomeus Alexander for the sleenge of his 
moder. Salustius, the writer of story es, was borne this tyme. f- 182. b. 
Mony meruayles were seen abowte this tyme : for a quantite of 
fire apperede vnder the sonne at the risenge of hit ; and bloode 
ranne owte from brede kytte, as if hit hade commen from a 
wounde, in a feste amonge the Aretyues ; and hayle made 
holowe the grownde thro the fallenge of hit continually by 



' loere, Cx. " dredfol, y. 

- he, a. >- closter, a. ; clouster, y. ; clustre, 



•5 Scylla, Cx. 

** Pompeius, Cx. 

"' Tholomeus, Cx., et infra. 

^ recuerede, y. ; rekeveid, Cx. 

" slayn, Cx. 

•"^ cyteyeyns, Cx. 

^ wryte, Cx. 

^^ seen, Cx. et infra. 



Cx. 

^^fyre, Cx. 

^^ Aretines, /8. ; Aritines, Cx.. 

'^ loves, 0., y., and Cx. 

^^ togyder, Cx. 

''" hawl, 0. ; hawel, y. 

^'^ ymelled, y. 



152 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI IIIGDEN 

Apud Samnitas Beneventanos, terra ^ hiante, flamma 
prorumpens usque ad coelum extendi visa est. Auimalia 
etiam inter homines vivere consueta, relictis stabulis 
et pascuis, ad montes cum balatu et mugitu coneur- 
rerunt. Canes quoque consortia hominum reliquerunt.- 
Oroshisl^ * In quadam planitie CampanijB ^ visi^ 
sunt quasi acies et exercitus pugnantiurn" continue 
per plures dies, et audiebatur tinnitus^ et fragor 
armorum,^ et post hoc apparuerunt ibidem ^*^ vestigia 
hominum et equorum.^^ Nee mora, quin statim post 
Bellum bella socialia civile bellum exortum est, quod ^^ suscita- 

Civile. 

verunt duo fratres germani Gracchi dicti/^ propter 
legem agrariam, qua cautum ^^ fuerat ab olim quod 
senatus non ^^ intromitteret de agris cujuscumque 
decedentis ^^ quos in vita prius habuerat, sed agri 



1 terral om. B. i ^^ ibi, A. 

- (h'sertieiimt, B. ! ^^ vestigium equorum, B. 

•^ libra ijuinto. A., full reference 
is lib. v., cap. 18. 

■* Orosius . . . equornm'] om. CD. 



^- quod . . . extabnit (page 154)] 
om. CD. 

*'' qui Gracci dicti sunt. A., but 



-' Campania''] om. A. | the qui is written above the line and 

*• WS7, B. ! seems in a different ink. 

'! piKjnantiuml om. B. ^*tafiium,A. 

'^ tnuiuttwi, B. i '5 et scuatus non se, B. 

'■> aimorum (sic), B. • ^^ decentis^ A. 




MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. ITT. 15 



«5 



Sampnites and Benevcntanes ])e eor])C ^ oponede and leye ^ of Trevisa. 
fiiyre "* was i-seie ^ broke oute and strecche up in to hevene. 
Also bestes J>at were i-woned^ to lyve among men forsoke 
stable and lesewe,^ and flij '^ to hilles and mountayns, low- 
ynge and bletynge. Also houndes forsook*^ companye of man- 
kynde. Orosius, lihro 5^. In a pleyn ^ of Campanya were 
i-seie^ as it were scheltroms and oostes ^^ of fi^tynge men 
meny dayes to giders,!^ and noyse and liurtlynge ^^ to gidre ^-^ 
of armure ^* was i-lierd, and |)ere were afterward i-sene 
foores 1^ and steppes of men and of hors ; ^^ and noujt longe 
afterward,!^ after the bataille j^at heet ^^ bellum [Sociale, 
bygan ])e batayle pat is ycleped bellnm] ^^ Civile. Tweie 
breperen germans ^o bygunne pat bataille, eiper of hem heet ^i 
Graccus.^^ pe bataille was bygonne for pe lawe pat hatte 
Rgraria.2^ In pat lawe it was of olde tyme pat pe senatoures 
sehulde entremete of no dede man his feeldes ^^' pat he hadde 
while he was on lyYe,^^ but pe feeldes wip oute eny ^6 plee 



Aburbe. vij. daies. Also at the Sampnites and amonge the Beneven- MS. Harl. 
tanes therthe openynge, a flamme brekenge up from hit Avas 2261. 

seene to be extendede vn to hcvyn. Also bestes vsede to be . 

and lyve amonge men levenge theire stables and pastures, jriacione. 
ranne up to the hilles, and dogges lefte the companye of men. 
Otosius, lihro qiiinto. Men were seen as fi^htenge in mony 
daies by continuacion in a pleyne grounde in Campania, where 
the strokes were herde, and after that the stappes of men 
apperede per and of horses. And a batelle ciuile folowede 
soone after, whiche was movede by ij. breper german for the 
lawe of feldes, in whom it was rehersede that pe senate scholde 
not intromitte of the feldes of eny man dyenge whom he hade 
afore in his lyfe, but the grownde scholde be taken to the 



^ ertli, Cx. I ^^ armour, Cx. 

- ki/, fi. and 7. ; hyJie, Cx. ^■'forows, Cx. 

■^Jire, a. '*"' horses, Cx. 

* seen, Cx.,et infra. ^" afterward] om. Cx. 

5 ivonte, Cx. I *^ called, Cx. 

*• liswe, 7. ''■* From a., /3,, 7., and C: 

" ^labels and lesoiv and flcdde, ' -'^ germains, Cx. 
Cx. "' ?t'«« named, Cx. 

^forsoke, Cx. 
'J playne, Cx. 

^" shiltrons and hoostes, Cx. 
'^ togeder, Cx. 
'■- Jiurli/ng. Cx. 
^•^ iugedres, a. ; togeder, Cx. 



-■- Agractus, 7. 

-'* lawe called ayaria, Cx. 

'-■' mennes feldes, Cx. 

-5 h/vi/nge, Cx. 

-'' any, Cx. 



154 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Marius, 



illi sine strepitu judicii ad sanguine propinquiores 
devolverentur ; sed nobiles tunc aliter faciebant, nam 
occupaverant agros plurimorum. Unde Gracclius quidam 
in die rogationum, quo solent restituenda peti, publice 
petivit agros sic occupatos restitui plebi. Qua de 
causa excitati nobiles cum fragmentis subselliorum 
occiderunt ducentos plebeioS; quos in Tiberim projece- 
runt ; quin etiam ^ ipse Gracchus occisus fuit, et diu 
inhumatus extabuit.^ Quin ^ etiam * Sulla consule 
contra Mithridatem proficiscente, et in Campania ad 
amputandum socialis belli reliquias existente, Marius, 
qui sexies fuerat ^ consul, septima jam vice consulatum 
afFectavit, quin etiam ad ® subeundum bellum Mithri- 
daticum se obtulit. Quo cognito, Sulla cum quatuor 
legionibus revertitur, urbem intravit, legatum Marii 



' et, B. 

- See uote 12, page 152. 

3 Quin . . . subvenlret (page IGO) 
is abbreviated to a short passage in 
CD. 



^ el, A. 
^ fuit, B. 
'^ quin . . 



arf] et, A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



155 



sciiulde falle to ]>e uexto of pe blood ; but pe gentil ^ men Treviba. 
dede ^ operwise, and helde and occupied feeldes of meny men. ■ 

perfore oon Graccus ^ in ^* a day of prayers, whanne alle |>ing 
schulde be axsed ^ ]mt schulde be restored, axede openliclie ^ 
])at ])e feeldes J^at were so i-liolde schulde be delyvered and 
restored ajen to pe peple. perfore J)e gentil '' men were 
i-meoved^ and wroojj, and slowj two hondred of ])e peple 
wi]> feet and gobouns ^ of chayers,i^ of formes,ii and of stooles, 
and ])rewc hem in to Tyber ; and Graccus was i-slawe,i2 and 
unburied longe tyme. Also Silla ])e consul wente into Cam- 
pania a^enst^^ Metridas, and was in Campania ^^ forto destroye 
al ])c relifi^ of pe bataille J)at heet i^ [bellum] i^ sociale. 
panne Marius, })at hadde be consul sixe sipes, desired now for 
to be consul ]>& sevenj^e tyme, and profrede ^^ hym forto ^^ 
undertake ])e bataille a^enst Metridas. Whan Silla wiste i^ 
])erof he tornede ^o ajen to |)e citee Avijj foure legiouns,^! and 
entrede into the citee, and slou^ Marius his messanger,22 and 



Ab urbe. nyeste of his bloode. But the senate did other wise that tyme, MS. Harl. 



for thei occupiede the londes and possessiones of mony other 
peple. Wherefore a man callede Graccus desirede those pos- 
aessiones to be restorede to the peple in a day of Rogacion, 
when thynges to be restorede awede to be askede. Anoon 
the noble men did arise, and did slee cc. of the commune 
peple, whom thei caste in to the water of Tiber ; and also that 
Graccus was sleyne, lyenge long after or that he was beryede. 
Also Silla the consul, beeuge in Campania to finische the 
batelle socialle ageyne Mitridates, Marius, wliiche was consul 
vj. tymes covetenge to be consul in the vij*^^^ tyme, offrede hym 
selfe to take that batelle ageyne Mitridates. Silla, the consulle, 
hauenge knowlege j:>eroff, returnede to the cite of Rome with 
iiij. legiones, which entrens^e in to hit did slee the messynger 



2261. 

A transmi- 
aracione. 



^ jantil, 7. 
- di/de, Cx. 
•' Gracilis, 7. 
■» on, Cx. 
^ axed, Cx. 
'' axed opcrdy, Cx. 
' jeniyl, a. ; jantd, 7. 
** irweved, Cx. 
9 goheltis, /8, 

^^ gobuns, 7.; yohettes of chayres, 
Cx. 

^^ fourmes, Cx. 



^'-' slayne, Cx. 

^'^ ayenst ... Campania'] om. Cx. 

^* releef, a. and Cx. ; reJef, /3. 

'■' called, Cx. 

^*' From a., )8., 7., and Cx. 

^^ profered, /3. and Cx. 

^'^ for'] om. Cx. 

'^ waste, a. ; v?uste, 7. ; wyste, Cx. 

-^ tourned, Cx. 

-' legyons, Cx. 

-- me^sagcr, Cx. 



156 



POLYCHRONICON EANULPHl HIGDEN 



occidit, faces ad inflammandum urbem poposcit, Marium 
infra Capitolium obsedit. Marius interim commovere 
equestrem plebem frustra temptavit. Tandem ^ servis 
spe libertatis efc pr3ed«3^ ad arma sollicitatis,^ nee 
tamen repugnare ausis, ipse Marius Capitolium con- 
scendit, a quo vix^ multa suorum csede diffugit. 
Inde divertens Marius fugit ad loca palustria,^ ubi a 
pastoribus inter ulvas inventus remissus est Sullse, 
qui statim misit eum ^ ad Cimbros,' ejus potis- 
simos inimicos, qui statim incarceraverunt eum.^ Ibi ^ 
furise videbantur ei assistere, et lumen coruscare ; ad 
quern trucidandum cum speculator ^^ mitteretur, manus 
ejus obriguit, et vox in aere facta est. Qua voce ^^ 
Cimbri^^ attoniti et consternati Marium abire per- 



^ Tamen, B. 

- scBpe liheratis et prceda; ad arma 
soUicitatis, A. ; scepe liberatus et. 
prcedie (sic), B. 

3 soilicitanus, B. 

•* cwwi, A. 

5 palustria'] from A.B. ; palustri, '• 
MS. 



^ eos, A. 

" Cumhros, B. 

'■ maritaverunt ejus (sic), B. 

*> ibique, A. 

'" spieulator, MSS. 

^^ vice, B. 

12 Cumbri. B. 



MONACHl CESTKENSIS, LIB. HI. 157 

axecle brondes forto sette the citee on ^ fuyre,^ and byseged ^ Trevisa. 

Marius wi|) ynne ])e Capitoyl. pe menc tymc Marius 

fonndedc an idel ^ forto meove ^ J^e comounte ^ of* horsmen, to 
liclpe liym at ])at tyme. [And] "^ at ];c laste he egged bonde 
men to dedes of armes for hope of pray and of fredom, but 
pey durste^ nou^t wij) stonde. panne Marius went up 
in to l^e Capitoyle, and hadde meny of his men ^ i-slawe, 
and scapede Avel unnej^e.^^ panne Marius flij, and tornede 
in 11 to maryse ^^ and into ^^ watery ^^ places ; ];ere herdes ^^ 
fond hym among mory flagges and sprayes, and sente hym to 
Silla ; and Silla sent liym to ];e Combres,!^ ]?at were pe worste 
euemyes J)at he hadde, and ]?ey prisoned ^'^ hym. pere it 
semed |)at godes ^^ come to hym, and were wijj hym J^ere, and 
lijt schoon i*^ in }>e prisoun whan [that] ^^ pe tormentor was 
i-sent for ^^ to slee hym, ]jg tormentoures hond faillede and 
schoke 22 for drede, and a voys was i-herde in ])c ayer ;2'^ and 
whanne pat voys was i-herde ^^ pe Combres were astonyed 
for drede, and fil ^5 doun ^6 to pe grounde, and leet ^7 Marius 



Ab urbe. of Marius, desirenge fyre to brenne the cite, segenge Marius MS. Harl. 
within the Capitolye. This Marius gedrenge helpe, and not 2261. 
able to ^iffe resistence to Silla, fledde ageyne to the Capitoly, ^ transmi- 
from whiche place he fledde with grete difficulte, mony of his gracione. 
men sleyne. Marius departenge from the Capitoly fledde in to f ^^^. a. 
myry places, whiche founde by scheperdes amonge elmes, was 
sende to Silla the consul, whiche sende hym to his moste 
adversaries, the Cumbres, a certeyne peple, whiche prison ede 
hym anoon, and sendenge pis Marius to be hedede, the hondes 
of the heder began to tremble, and a voice was lierde in the 
aier, pro whom the Cumbres, aferde, returnede, and sufFrede 



' a, a. and Cx. tT ^^Jled and tourned to marreys and 

'■^fyre, Cx. ! to wattry, Cx. 

•' besieged, Cx. | ^^ herodes, Cx. 



■* ydel, fi. ; fondedc an ydel, y. 

^ meve, 0. ; atte last Marius 
ymagyned to fynde a mean to meove, 
Cx. 

^ comonte, Cx. 

^" Cx., not )8. or 7, 

^ ]>urste, a. and 7. 

" men'] cm. a. 

''^ slayne and unneth escaped 
hym self, Cx. 

^' m] om. a. 

^2 marreys, fi. ; marcys, 7» 

1^ to, a. 



^•^ Cunbres, Cx., ct infra. 

^' emprisoned, Cx. 

'^ goddes, /8. and Cx. 

^^ lyghte shone, Cx. 

-" From Cx., not /8. 

-' in, Cx. 

-'fay led and shake, Cx. 

-■^ eyer, Cx. 

-^ and . . . i-herde'] wherwith, Cx. 

-■\feUe, Cx. 

'-'' doim] 6m. Cx. 

-' let ten, Cx. 



158 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



miserunt. Ranulphus. De quo eventu canit Lucanus 
libro ij" ^ sic : Exul limosa Marius caput ^ ahdidAt 
ulva, etc, Titus. Hie Marius ^ liberatus auxilio 
clese Maric?e ibidem cultge^ cui se devoverat,^ as- 
sumpto Cinna ^ socio suo, Romanos multipliciter 
infestavit, et septima vice consulatum occupavit, quern 
non nisi tresdecim diebus obtinuit, id est a kalendis 
Januarii, quando consules solebant recipere insignia 
consularia/ usque ad idus Januarii.^ Iste nempe 
Marius post liberationem carceris [in] ^ Africam trans- 
fugiens, collectis undecumque auxiliis, ad profligandum 
rempublicam Romanam rediit ; exercitum suum in 
quatuor partes divisit/*^ quarum unain partem, id est 
tres ^^ legiones, ipse assumpsit, Carbo aliam/^ Sertorius 
aliam, Cinna quartam. Sertorius cum Pompeio acriter 
conflixit ; Marius et Cinna urbem ^^ ingressi multos ex 
senatoribus et consularibus occiderunt. Augustinus,^* 
lihro tertio}^ Fecit quoque Marius consulem Octavium 



1 Line 70. 

- caput'] frolil ^. ; capit, MS. 
'* sic, added in A. 
■^ ibt deculta, A. 
'' devoravcrat, A. 
^ Stjnna, B. 

' considaria] from A.B. ; consi- 
naria, MS. 

^* usque . . . Januarii] om. A. 



^ m] from B. 
^" dimisit, A. 
^' tres] om. B. 
'- ipse, B. 
^'■^ iirbi, B. 

1^ dc Civitatc, added in B. 
15 capitulo 29, B. ; 24, A. It 
should be 27. 



MONACH[ CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



159 



goo bis way. Ijc. Lucanus speke|? qf ]ns hap, libro 2°. Trevisa. 

Marius [was] ^ flemed,^ and i-liidde^ in ])G busshes of ]>o 

fenny more. Titus, pis Marcius * was so delyvered by help 
of f c goddes ^ Marica, })at was i-worscbipped ^ Jjere ; he 
hadde i-puttc bym self to hire'' by his avow.^ He took wij> 
Iiym his felawe Cinna, and grevede pe Romayns in meny 
nianere wise, and gat the office^ of consul, and occupiede it 
in^^ pe seven])e tyme ; but be occupiede |)at offyse but ]?rittene ^^ 
dayes at J)at tyme, from J)e firste day of lanyver,!^ whan consuls 
fongej) here solempne consul array,i^ to Jje ]?rittenf>e day of the 
same monjje.^^ Marius, after ]mt he come out of prisoun, 
passede into Aflrica, and gadrede help in i^ every side, and 
come ajen to destroye ])e comounte ^^ of Rome, and deled his 
cost ^'^ in foure partyes. Oon partie, ]?at is ^^ pre legiouns, he 
took to 1^ bym self. Carbo hadde l^e secounde party. Ser- 
torius []7e ]?ridde, and Sinna ^^ ]>q fourj^e. Sertorius] ^^ fau^t 
strongliche with Pompeus. Marius and Cinna entrede in to ^^ 
]?e citee, and slou^ meny of ])e consuls and of pe senatoures. 
Augustinus de Civitate. Also Marius made Octavius ]?e con- 



Ab urbe, Marius to departe. Titus. This Marius dely verede thro the MS. Hael. 
helpe of the godesse Marica, to whom he hade made promyse 2261. 
of honor to be doen to here, takenare with hym Cynna his . ^ . 
felowe grevonde the Romanes in mony wise, and occupiede gracione. 
the consulate the vij*^^^ tyme, wherein he contynuede but xiij. 
dayes, that is to say, from the kalendes of lanuary, when 
the consuUes were wonte to receyve theire power and noble 
thynges, vn to the idus of lanuaiy. This Marius wente to 
Affrike after his delyueraunce, whiche gedrenge a grcte hoste 
wente to Rome, and dividede the hoste in to iiij. partes, of 
whom he hade oon parte, Carbo an other, Sextorius an other, 
Synna the iiij"'^ Sertorius ^afe soore batelle to Pompeius ; 
Marius, and Synna entrenge the cite, did sle mony of the 
senatores and consuUes. Augustinus de Civitate, libro tertio, 
capitulo 24^. This Marius causede Octavus the consul to be 



'fleme, 7. 

'' y-hjd, a. ; hulde, Cx. 

•* Marius, /3. 

^ godas, a. ; c/oddesse, Cx. 

^' worshiped, Cx. 

" hir, Cx. 

'^ afouz, 7. 

^ ihoffyce, Cx. 

^" ill] om. a., 7., aud Cx. 

" fhi/rten, Cx. 

J- January Cx. 



'^ receiven thearayjyrst of consul, 
Cx. 

^* moneth, Cx. 

i'5 on, Cx. 

^^' comonte, Cx. 

''' made his hoost, Cx. 

'^ was, Cx, 

'3 to] om. Cx. 

'0 Cinna, Cx. 

-^ From a,, /3., 7., and Cx. 

-2 into] om. Cx. 



160 



POLYCHKONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 



Sulla. 



decapitari, et caput ejus pro rostris poni ad commune 
spectaculum, id est in loco publico ubi solebant cives 
consedere et confabulari. RanulpliiLS. Deinde, sicut 
dicit Lucanus, in quodam convivio quod tenuit in 
campo Martio, capita nobilium interfectorum tanquam 
fercula fecit super mensas apponi. Aucjustinus uhi 
supra. Tanta quoque fuit Marii ssevitia ut multi 
maluerunt seipsos occidere quam in manus Marii cadere. 
Unde et Catulus consul venenum bibit, et^ Merula 
pontifex Jovialis incidit sibi venas usque ad mortem 
cruentans.^ Item prseceperat Marius ut nuUi parce- 
retur etiam in prsesentia sua veniam petenti, nisi 
ipsemet manum dextram extenderet in signum miseri- 
cordia?. Unde et ^ residuum ^ senatorum ac nobilium 
qui evaserunt trans vecti in Grseciam precibus cogerunt 
SuUam consulem ut pene perditse reipublic^e subve- 
niret.* Eutropius.^ Sulla tunc temporis apud Athenas 



' vt'\ om. i\. 

- Slightly transposed in B. 

'* residui, A.B. 



^ See note 3, page 154. 
^ Lib. V. cap. 6. 



MONACHI CESTllENSIS, LIB. III. 



161 



sul his heed i-smyte ^ of, and leet sette ))e heed in Prorostris, Trevisa. 

]?at is ])G comoun ^ place of Rome, ]?ere ]?inges bee]) i-sette '^ 

in si^t of ^ men to loke, byholde, and wondre |)eron.^ pere 
burgeys were i-woned^ to stonde and loke aboute and telle 
here mery '' tales. ^. Lucanus seip [that] ^ in ])e feelde 
]>at hatte '-^ Marcius, at pe grete feste, i-made ^*^ sette ]>e hedes 
of gentil men ^^ ])at were i-slawe ^^ in stede of messes uppon pe 
mete bordes. Titus. Marias was so cruel ])at meny men 
hadde levere slee hem self j)an come in Marius his honde. 
perfore Catulus ]>q consul drank venym, and Merula, lupiter 
his 1^ owne bisshop, kutte ^^ his owne ^^ veynes, and bledde ^^ 
anon to ^'^ depeJ^ Also Marius heet ^^ ]?at no man schulde be 
spared fey ^^ he axede mercy in his owne presens,^^ but ^if 
he hym self putte for]) the rijt honde in tokene of mercy, 
perfore ]?e senatoures ])at lefte and gentil men ^2 of Rome 
passede into Grees and prayede^"^ Silla the consul to helpe 
]>e comounte ^^ of Rome J)at was nyh i-lost. lEutropius.'] ^^ 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab virbc. hedede, commaundenge his hedde to be sette up to a si^hte in MS. Harl 
the cite, where the citesynnes were wonte to sitte and talke. 2261. 
^. And as Lucanus reherseth he causede the hedes of the noble 
men of Rome, in a feste that he made, to be seruede to hym and 
to be sette on the table. Titus. The cruellenesse of Marius 
was soe grete that mony men hade leuer to sle theym selfe 
then to putte theyme in his mercy. Wherefore Catullus the 
consul drunke poyson, and Merula the byschop louialle bledde 
to dethe ])ro the kyttenge of a veyne. This Marius Jafe a 
commaundemente that his men scholde not spare eny man 
thawjhe the man askede mercy of men, withowte that he did 
holde up his rijhte honde in signe of mercy. Wherefore the f. i83. b. 
residu of the senatores and noble men fleenge to Silla in to 
Grece, causede hym thro theire preiers to helpe the cite of 
Rome. Eutropius, Silla the consul hade devicte Archelaus, 



^ be smyten, Cx. 

^ comu7ie, Cx. 

'^ be sette up, Cx. 

^for, a. and Cx. 

'■> Iperon'] on, Cx. 

^ bouryei/s were wo7ite, Cx. 

7 there mijry, Cx. 

«Cx. 

^ called^ Cx. 

•^ he made, )8. and Cx. 

^^jantil, y., et infra. 

'■- slayne, Cx. 

^"^ Jupiters, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



kytte, Cx. 

oiv7te'\ om. Cx. 

bled, Cx. 

anon to^ om. Cx. 

deth, Cx. 

bade, Cx. 

though, Cx. 

presence, Cx, 

genteline?}, Cx. 

Grece and prayd, Cx. 

comynte, Cx. 

From a., /3., y., and Cx* 

L 



162 



POLYCHRONICON RANTJLPHI HIGDEN 



Archelaum ducem Mithridatis ita devicerat,^ ut centum 
millibus occisis, ipse Archelaus triduo in paludibus 
nudus lateret. Quo cognito Mithridates pacem petiit ; 
Sulla consensit, ut minus periculi^ a tergo habens, 
securius ad bellum civile contra Marium properaret. 
Unde et ^ Sulla lediens tot millia hominum consumpsit 
aut proscripsit, ut Quintus Catulus palam Sull?e diceret : 
" Cum quibus tandem victuri sumus, si ^ in bello 
" armatos, in pace ^ inermes ^ occidimus/' Augustinus^ 
libro iii^, capitulo xxi.^ Verum quia Sulla^ in ilia c^ede 
licentiam dederat suis occidere^^ quemcunque vel- 
lent, apei ta est via antiquis odiis vindicandis ; proinde 
perniciosor ^^ erat rei publicse justitia Sullae punitiva 
quam si scelera Marii mansissent impunita; quia per 
ambos plura fuerant homicidia quam per unum. 
Eutropius}^ Istud namque civile bellum per decern 



^ devicit, A.B. 
2 pcricula, B. 
"■' cQ om. B. 
"* si after pace in B. 
^ tot, added in B. 
^ ineremoSf B. 



' This passage is omitted in CD. 

^ 24, A. correctly. 

3 Always Silll in MBS. 

^•^* Angtistinus ... occidcrt] om. B» 

" promptior, B; 

'- Lib. V. cap. 9* 



MONACHI CESTIIENSIS, LIB. III. 163 

pat tyrae Silla at Athene hadde overcome oon ^ Archelaus, Trevisa. 

Metriclas his ^ duke, and i-slawe ^ an hondred j^owsand [of] * 

men ; so pat Archelaus hidde hym self naked ))ie dayes in 
deep watery^ mores. Whanne pis was i-knowe,^ Metridas 
prayep ^ [for] ^ pees, and Silla assentej? ^ and grauntep, for 
to have ]>g lasse peril behyndc ^^ hym, and forto go pe save- 
loker ^1 and pe sikerer ^^ to cruel ^^ bataille ajenst Marius. 
panne Silla come a^en to Rome, and slouj and exciled ^* so 
many powsandes of men, pat Quyntus ^^ Catulus seide to hym 
opounliche,!^ " Wi]> whom schulle ^^ we lyve, Jif we sleep ^^ 
" armed men'^in bataylle and unarmed men in pees ? " Angus- 
tinus, libro o^, capitulo 24°. For Silla poo ^^ Jaf leve in pat 
stryf to his men forto ^o slee whom pat pey wolde, pe way 
was [y-] ^ opened forto ^ take wreche of al olde wreppe.^^ 
perfore Silla his ri^t in punschynge^^ was worse to the 
comynte ^3 of Rome pan Marius his wickednesse pou^ V^y} ^* 
were unpunsched ; ^5 ffor by hope were moo men i-slawe 
])anne by ])at oon. Eutropius. pis civile batayle durede 



Ab urbe. gouernour of the hoste of Mitridates, at Athenes, that c. mt jyig. Harl. 
men sleyn, that Archelaus lay bare in a marras by the space of 2261. 

iij. dayes. Mitridates vnderstondenge that askede peas. Silla 

made grawnte to hym perof, in that he my^hte be moore sure gracione! 
ageyne his enmyes knowenge noo treason to be behynde hym 
as by Mitridates. This Silla commenge to Rome did slee as 
peple innumerable, in so moclie that Quintus Catulus seide un 
to Silla the consul : " What men schalle we haue hereafter to 
" lijhte with vs if we slee so mony men ? " yiitguslinus, libro 
tertio, capitulo 24°i In wliiche conflicte a wey of malice was 
made open, in that Silla the consul ^afe to his men licence 
to sle whom thei wolde for betwenc Marius and Silla peple 
as innumerable were sleyne. Eutropius. This batelle civile 



^ one, Cx. 
" his] om. Cx. 
** slayn, Cx. 
** From a. and 7. 
^* icatlry, Cx. 
^ knowen, )8. and Cx. 
7 praj/d, Cx. 
^ Cx!, not 13. 

'^ assented and graimted, Cx. 
'" /esse perylle byhynde, Cx. 
" savelokr, y. ; more, savcly, Cx. 
^- sycurcrc, a, ; sicurcr, P. ; surer, ■ ^* they, Cx 
Cx. 1 ^^ UJipunysshedj Cx 



^^ \)C civel, a. ; the civile, Cx. 

^* exylcd, Cx. 

'^ Quintus, Cx. 

"• openly, Cx. 

^^ shal, Cx. 

^" slee, Cx. 

1» than, /8. and Cx. 

"^forl om. Cx. 

-^ wrath, Cx. 

-- in punschyn()c~\ om. Cx. 

2"* comontc, Cx. 



L 2 



164 



POLYCHRONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 



annos protractum plus quam^ centum quinquaginta 
millia virorum consumpsit, exceptis senatoribus, con- 
sularibus, prsetoriis/^ et eedilitiis. Ranidphus.^ Unde 
hie est advertenduii), quod [sex] ^ fuerunt apud Ro- 
manos bella civilia : primum fuit Marii contra urbem, 
secundum fuit SuUse conti*a Marium et ejus fautores, 
tertium fuit Sertorio contra Pompeiuni, quartum fuit 
Catilinie contra remj^blicam, quintum fuit Lepidi 
contra Catulum, sextum fuit inter Julium et Pompeium. 
Eutropius.^ Post hsec Sulla rediens gloriose de Mithri- 
date triumpliavit. Trogus,^ xxxvii? Mithridates filius 
Mithridatis, rex Ponti, per xl. sex. annos contra Romanos 
rebellavit, ita ut si quando victus videretur clarior 
resurgeret. Hie per cognates sues ereptus ab insidiis 
matris suiB, quae quinque filios occiderat, tutoribus 



' (]uam~\ om. B. 

2 prcetoribus, B. 

^ This passage is omitted in CD. 

** sex'] added from A.B. 



^ Lib. v., cap. D. 
<"' lihroy B. 
' capp. 1-3. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 1G5 

ten ^ere, and destroyede moo ])au an Iiondred })Owsand of ^ Trevisa. 

men and fifty powsand, wij)0ute senatoures, consuls, pre- "' 

tories, and edelynes,^ men of dignyte. I^. perfore here take 
liede of sixe batailles pat were among the Romayns, and 
everiche j^erof was i-clepede ^ bellum civile. In pe firste 
bataille Marius fjiujt a^enst the citee. In ]>e secounde ba- 
taille Silla fiinjt a^enst Marius and a^enst his fautoures.^ 
In ]>e pridde bataille Sertorius faujt a^enst Pompeus. In pe 
fourJ)e bataile Catilina^ fau^t a^enst \>e comounte. ^ In J?e 
fifte bataile Lepidus fau^t ajenst Catulus. pe '' sixe ^ batayle 
was bytwene lulius and Pompeus. Eutropius. After ];is 
Silla tornede ajen, and hadde worschipfulliche ^ J)e maistrie 
of Metridas. Trogtts, libro 37^. Metridas, [Metridas] ^^ his 
sone, kyng of Pontus, was rebel ^^ to pe Romayns sixe and 
fourty Jere, so pat J if it semede somtyme pat he was over- 
come, he wolde arise ajen wip more myjt and strengpe. pis 
was dely vered by his kynnes ^^ men out of pe awaytes ^^ of his 
owne moder, pat hadde i-slawe ^^ here owne fyve sones ; and 



Ab urbe. contynuenge as by x. yere destroyede and wastede cl. mt of MS. Harl. 
the Romanes, excepte senatores, consulles, and mony men of 2261. 
other grete offices. ]^. Wherefore hit is to be attended that ^ trausmi. 
per were vj. civile batelles amonge the Romanes. The firste triacione. 
was of Marius ageyne the cite. The secunde was of Silla 
ageyne Marius and his supporters. The thridde was of 
Stertorius ageyne Pompeius. The iiij*^^® was of Catilena 
ageyne the cite. The v^^^ was of Lepidus ageyne Catulus. 
The vj*^® was betweno lulius and Pompeius. Eutropius. 
Cilia departenge from Rome after that batelle, hade a victory 
glorious of Mitridates. Trogus, libro 17°. Mitridates, the 
son of Mitridates and kynge of Pontus, rebellede ageyne the 
Romanes by xlvj. yere, whiche was more my^ty after that he 
semede to haue loste the victory. This Mitridates delyverede 
from the power of his moder, whiche hade sleyne v. childer of 



^ o/*] om. Cx. I ■'' sixtli, Cx. 

- Edelicies, a., /8., and 7. ; Edyli- j ^ worschrpliclie, a. and )8. ; icur- 
cies, Cx. shipfulhj, Cx. 

3 and every hatayll ivas called, 1 ^" From a., $., and Cx. ; Metridas 

Cx. I \>ut was Metridas keys sone, y. 

■* fauctours, Cx. '' rebell, Cx. 

^ Catiliniy 7. ; Catelina, Cx. '- kyn his, a. ; /cyn hys, 7. 

^ comente, Cx. I '^ aweytes, /8. and 7. 



Here Cx. inserts a. | ^* slayne, Cx. 



16G 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



datus est, qui eum adolescentem equo feroci imponunt, 
equitare et jaculari cogunt. Sed cum supra vires 
setatis equum regeret, tutores sui ei ^ venenum parant ^ 
quod metuens puer prsesagus antidotas s?epius^ bi- 
bebat. Quibus remediis ita prsesentes insidias '^ 
stagnabat, ut ne ^' volens quidem ^ senex veneno 
mori posset. Igitur post venenum timens ferrura, 
venandi studium finxit, quo per septem annos neque 
urbis ' neque ruris tecto usus est, sed per silvas 
vagatus in montibus pernoctabat, ubi frequenter feras 
cursu fatigabat, quandoque cum eis ^ congrediens per 
exercitium corpus ^ ad laborem solidabat. Itaque 
cum ad regni sui administrationem accessisset, Scytbas ^^ 
antea " inimicos ingenii calliditate perdomuit, Pontum 
et Macedonian! occupavit ; Asiam quoque, cum quibus- 



1 £z] om. A.B. 

- parant, from A.B. ; paravit, 
MS. 

2 sape, A. 

'* insidias^ om. B. 
* nee, B. 



'- quidaniy A. 

' urbis'\ from B. ; urhem, MS. 

'' eis] cm. B. 

'-' corpufi] om. A. 

1" Schitas, A. ; Shitas, B. 

" ante, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



1G7 



fis Jongelyiig was i-take i to wardeyns to kepe, pat sette hym Trevisa. 

uppon a wylde hors, and compelled hym to pleye^ and to 

ryde, and while he rulede fe hors over myjt to his elde, his 
wardeynes arayede ^ venym forto J eve him to drynke. pe wise 
childe dradde perof, and drank of ])e^ medecynes of triacle,^ 
l)y ])e whiche remedyes he put of ]je peril of venym in his 
^oujje,^ so ])at he my^te nou^t deie by venym whan he wolde 
liave deide [by venym] ^ in his elde. panne after venym he 
dradde yre, and feyned hym ])at he wolde wende^ an hont- 
ynge, so J)at in sevene ^ere he come uevere in citee no]?er ^ 
in smal toun ; so fat al ]?at tyme he liadde nevere hous over 
heed, but walkede and lay by nyghte in hilles and in moun- 
taynes,^^ and ]?ere ofte he travaylede^^ wylde bestes, and 
took hem wij> swifte rennynge,^^ ^^d faujt wi]> hem som- 
tyrae forto make his body stedefast ^^ by use in traylle ^^ forto 
dure.l^ Also whan he come to rulynge of J>e ^^ kyngdom he 
chastede J)e Schytes,!^ pat myjte noujt be overcome tofore- 
honde ^^ by sleype ^^ of witte. He occupiede Pontus and Mace- 



Ab urbe. her awue, by his cosynnes was taken to tutores, whiche settenge MS. Harl, 
that childe on a wilde horse, tauthte hym to ryde. But when 2261. 
this Mitridates hade connynjije to rewle an horse, his tutores , , . 
ordeynede poyson for hym, whiche removenge that drunke f^iacioue. 
diuerse pociones and raedicynes for poyson, where ]>ro he !"• 184. a. 
cowthe not be poysonede thau^he he wolde hym selfe. This 
Mitridates dredenge hym to be sleyne priuely of his tutores, 
feynede hym as to go to hunte, where he wente up and downe 
in J)e woodes, and hade his bedde in the hilles, and comme not 
in eny cite or towne by the space of vij. yere, where he vexede 
wilde bestes oftetymes thro reinienge, puttenge his body oper- 
while in grete exercise of laboure. Whiche made kynge hade 
victory of men Scicia, whiche were afore that tyme as vincible, 
and made peim tame, occupienge Pontus and Macedony. 



^ taken, Cx. 
- play, Cx. 
•* made, 7. 
^ of\>e] ofte, )8. 
^ ofte medycynes, y. 
cynes of treacle, Cx. 
^ yougth, Cx. 
" From )8. and Cx. 
^ goo, Cx. 
9 ne, Cx. 
'" montaynes, Cx. 



ofte medy- 



" a., /3., and Cx. omit the first 
ofte, and insert it here. 

^2 eornyng, 7. 

^3 stidefast, fi. ; sludefast, 7. 
sty df as I, Cx. 

i'^ travayle, a. ; travayl, Cx. 

^^ tendure, Cx. 

^** i>e] om. a. and Cx. 

^"^ chastysed. the Scites, Cx. 

^^ byfore, Cx. 

19 slcyght, Cx. 



1G8 POLYCHRONICOX TvANULPHI ITIGDEN 

dam amicis suis tacite a regno suo profectus, per- 
vagatus est,^ situs regionum - explorans. Post lioc ^ 
in. regnum suum rediens reperit parvulnm filiuni 
quern uxor sua simul et soror, Laodice nomine, con- 
cubinarie * in ejus absentia genuerat.^ Igitur vene- 
num per uxorem redeunti Mitln^idati paratur ; sed 
re ^ per ancillam uxoris detecta, scelus in auctores ^" 
vindieatur. Deinde hieme adveniente non in eonvivio 
sed ^ campo equo viribus aut cursu eontendebat, exer- 
citum suum^ in consimiii^*^ labore exereens invictum 
reddebat. Deinde Galatiam invadit, minas Romano- 
I'um parvipendens. Seeunda uxor Mithridatis propter 
amorem mariti tonsis capillis habitum mutavit, equi- 
tatui assuefecit,^' quo facilius mariti periculis inter- 



1 et, A. s ;«, added in B. 

- silum reyionlSy B. '-^ suuni] ora. B. 

•' hcEc, B. '" cottsimiUI from A.B. ; cuiisi- 

•* concubinario, B. i Hum, MS. 

^ yenuii, B. I '' assuefecif] from A.B. ; assii- 

^ re'] om. B. i fecit, MS. 

" auctortm, B. i 



MONACHI GESTRENSrS, LIIl. ITI. 



1G9 



donia. Also he wente priveliche ^ out of his kyngdom, and Trevisa. 

took wi]) hym som of his frendes, and passed into Asia, and 

wenfe abonte in Asia, and aspyed^ ^q places and contrayes^ 
of ])at lond, and come a^en panne in to his owne kyngdom, and 
fonde a litel sone pat Laodice, pat was hope his wif and his 
owne suster, hadde [y-] * broujt forp by a copener ^ while ho 
was absent in oper londes. perfore pe wif ordeynep ^ venym 
for Metridas whanne he come home. But he was i-warned 
by a wenche pat served his wyf, and took wreche of pe doeres 
of pat false dede. panne whan wyntcr was i-come ^ he Avolde 
nou^t be in festes, but in pe feeld, stryvynge on ^ his hors in 
rennynge,^ oper ^^ in grete dedes of strengpe, and made his oost 
use ^^ suche travayle and dedes forto make hem konnynge ^^ 
by use, stalworpe, and stedefast ^^ efte sones whan pey schulde 
fi^te. panne he werred in Galacia, and despisede pe manas^^ 
of pe Romayns. Metridas his secounde Avyf schaar hir heed for 
love of here housbonde,i^ and usede hir forto ride, forto helpe 
what sche ^^ myjte Jif hire housebonde fille ^^ in eny peril, ^^ 
and forto be wip hym alway. Here ^^ housebonde was overcome 



Aburbei Also this Mitridates entrede secretely in to Asia with feweMS.IlARL. 
^men of truste with hym, to knowe the costes of pat resion 



alle 2261. 



abowte, whiche taryenge a longe season, his wyfe conceyvede a 
childe by a concubyne, wherefore sche ordeynede poyson for 
Mitridates. But that treason expressede to Mitridates by a 
maide longenge to his wife, that treason was fullefillede by his 
awne wife poysonede thro Mitridates, in that sche wolde haue 
destroyede hym. Also in wynter he usede to labor in the 
feldes, causenge his hoste in the same wise, whiche causede 
theyme to be invincible in a maner. After that Mitridates 
entrede in to Galacia, despisenge in a maner the Romanes and 
theire powere. The secunde wife of Mitridates, schauenge 
the heire of her hedde, chaungede her clothenge, and usede 
her to armes, that sche my^hte helpe to avoide the perelle and 



A traiismi- 
gracione. 



^ pryvely, Cx. 

- espyed, Cx. 

•' cuuntrees, Cx. 

■* From a. 

^ ropyner, )8, and Cx. ; copener, y. 

•' ordeygned, Cx. 

' Cornell, jS. and Cx. 

^ wi>, 7. 

^ eoniynge, 7. 

>" or, $. and Cx. 



'^ hoost to use, Cx. 

' - connynge, Cx. 

'^ studefast, 7. ; stydfaste, Cx. 

'^ despysed the mmiase, Cx. 

^^ hvshand, Cx., et infra. 

1'' heo, fi. 

^'J'ul, 7. 

'^ husband fell in ony peryll, Cx. 

I'J hir, )8. 



170 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

esset ; ipsumque victum a Pompeio per efferas gen- 
tes fugitantem infatigabiliter secuta est. Giraldus. 
Quotiens summi ^ consules, Sulla et Pompeius, Mithri- 
datem vicerant,^ totiens clarior apparuit. Nam Baby- 
loniam et Asiam [occupavit, Scythas pacificavit, Cap- 
padociam et Armeniam subegit, regnum suum usque 
ad Indiam dilatavit, ac Ephesum perveniens omnes 
Bomanos per Asiam] ^ constitutos sub uno die necari 
fecit, prsemissoque Archelao duce suo cum centum 
millibus pugnatorum totam Grseciam sibi substravit ; 
tandem a proprio filio Pharnace* tentus venenum sponte 
liausit, sed nil ei nocuit. Unde a quodam milite 
Gallo, quem prius offenderat, ad hoc invitato, occiditur. 
Post cujus mortem Pompeius Tigranem ^ regem Syriae 
fecit, et templum Jerusalem incendit.^ 



* summil om. B. 
" vicei'unt, B. 
3 Added from B. 
'^ Fornace, B. 



° Tigrantem, A. 

^ The whole of this chapter is 
much varied and abbreviated in CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



m 



of Pompeus, and flij,i and sclie^ sewed hym alway among Trevisa. 

[wel] 3 cruel naciouns. Giraldus. As ofte as pe ^ hyteste 

consuls, Silla^ and Pompeus, overcome Metridas, so ofte lie 
semed pe more myjty and strong, ffor he occupiede Babi- 
lonia^ [and Asia,] ^ and pesede ® j?e Scliytes,^ and wan Asia,i^ 
and made sugett ^^ Capadocia and Armenia ; and made his 
owne kyngdom strecche strei^t anon 12 to Ynde and come to 
Ephesius ;i^ and slowj al ])e Romayns in oon day J?at were in 
Asia. Tho ^'^ he seute Archelaus, [that was] ^^ |)e duke to 
fore 1^ hym into Greciai7wi]> an hondred powsand of^*^ fijt- 
ynge men, pat gat hym al Grecia. Att pe laste he was i-holde 
of his owne sone Farnaces, and drank venym by his good 
wille, ffor ho wolde deye,l^ but it greved hym noutt. perfore 
a knyjt of pe Galles pat he liadde i-greved was i-prayde for 
to slee hym, and slow^ hym anoon. After his deeth Pompeus 
made Tigranes kyng of Siria, and brende Avip fuyre ^*^ pe 
temple of Jerusalem. 



Ab urbe. treason of her howsebonde. Giraldus, This Mitridates ap- MS. Harl. 
perede ever moore myjlite and victoryous after that pe noble 2261. 
consulles of the Romanes, Silla and Pompeius, hade victory of . , . 
hym, tor he occupiede J^abilonia and Asia, and hade reste with gracione. 
men of Scicia, subduenge to hym Capadocia, Midarmenia, 
and encreasede hys realme vn to Ynde. Whiche commenge to 
Ephesus causede alle the Romanes beenge lefte in that cuntre 
to kepe hit to be sleyne in oon day. Also Archelaus, a prince 
lungenge to hym, haue^^ an hoste of a c. thowsande men with f. 184. b. 
hym, made the londe of Grece subiecte to hym. Which 
holden of his awne son, Farnax by name, drunke poyson 
voluntaryly, but hit grevede hym not ; whiche was sleyne of a 
kny^hte whom he hade offended, desirede by Mitridates to do 
so. After the dethe of whom Pompeius made Tigranis kynge 
of Siria, and brente also the temple of lerusalem. 



^fleddey Cx. 
- heo, j8. 

^ From a. ; ful, /8. and Cx. 
** )>f'] om. Cx. 
•^ Sylla, Cx. 
^ Babyloyne, Cx. 
'' From a., )8., 7., and Cx. 
^ peesed, iS. 

^ pleased the Scites, Cx. 
^" (md wan Asia"] om. a., jS., 7. 
and Cx, 



^' subgett, Cx. 

^2 stretche streyht unto, Cx. 

^-■'' Ephesus, /8. 

^•* \>oo a. ; Than, Cx. 

'•^ Cx., not 7. 

"^ due hyfore, Cx. 

^" Grece, Cx., et infra. 

''^ o/] om. Cx. 

1^ have dyed, Cx. 

-•^ brente withfyre, Cx. 

21 Sic in MS. 



172 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Cap. XL. 
[De rrhus Romanis, prcecifuc de Pompeio et Julio 

Ab urbe. Ptolomeus Dionvsius regnavit iEgyptiis triginta annis. 

GG9. 

gnxcione. Cuius diebus Plautus Latinus rhetor, masjni Pompeii 

509. ^ or 

libertus, doctor Rom^e claruit. Et Sulla consul post 
Aburbe. victoriam suam de Mitliridate Romre obiit. Nicomedes 

G7G. ' 

gracione!" rex Bithyni?D obiit, et populum [Romanum] ^ heredem 

51G. 

sibi instituit. Quo mortuo, Mithridates, pace rupta,^ 
Bithyniam et Asiam Minorera invadit. Contra quern 
duo consules Romani sunt directi, quorum unura devicit. 
Ab altero tamen terga ejus insequente, ita devictus 
Abiirbe. ©st ut centum millia amitteret. In Italia novum 

677. ' 

gracione. bellum septuaginta quatuor gladiatorum exortum est. 
Qui csedibus, incendiis, rapinis, stupris incumbentes, 
consules Romanos devicerunt, quadraginta millia^ ar- 
matorum congregaverunt. Sed post triennium in 
Apulia a Marco proconsule sunt devicti. Alexandra, 



* Romamini] added from B. j '■^ l.v., A.B. 

- pace rupta] ova. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



173 



Copltuliim quadrages'unnm . 

TiiOLOMEUS ^ Denys regnede ])ritty Jere in Egipt. In Trevisa. 

his tyme Plautus Latinus, jje grete Pompens liis'-^ enditour 

and faire speker,'^ Libertus J^e doctour, florische|> ^ at Rome. 
Silla ^ ])e consul deyde at Rome after ]mt he hadde ]?e victorie 
of Metridas. Nichomedes, kyng of Bithinia, made peple of 
Rome his heires whan he deyde. Whan he Avas dede, Metri- 
das braak J)e pees,^ and werrede in Bythinia and in Htel Asia. 
Tweye consuls of Rome were i-sent a^enst hym. He over- 
come ]?at oon of hem, and was overcome of J^at o|7er, Jjat come 
byhynde, and folowede after hym, and slow^ of his an hon- 
dred ])owsand fy^tinge men. In Italy bygan a newe bataylle 
of foure and seventy [of] '^ comoun writers ® and cokkers, ])at 
[robbede],^ brende, and slow, and dede spousebreche ^^ and 
ojjer leccherie,^^ and overcome ])e consuls of Rome, and gadrede 
hem sixty ]?owsand men of arnies. But after |)re ^ere, Marcus 
])e consul overcome hem in Apuleya ^^ [Naples]. ^-^ Alexan- 



Capitu lam quadragcsinimn. 
Ab urbc. pTHOLOMEUS Dionisius reignede in Egipte xxx*^ yero. In 



MS. Harl. 

226L 



the tyme of whom Plauctus Latinus, maister to grete Pompeius, A transmi- 
was at Rome, a noble man of fame, and Silla the consul diede ""^^^^" ' 
at Rome after the victory of Mitridates. Nicholnedes, kynge 
of Bithinia, diede, levenge the peple of Rome his heire ; after )>e 
dethe of whom Mitridates brekenge peace, entrede in to Asia 
and in to Bithinia, ageyne whom ij. consuUes of Rome were 
sende, oon of whom Mitridates ouercome ; but the o]?er consul 
causenge hym to fie, did sle a c. mt of the hoste of Mitri- 
dates. A newe batelle was movede to Ytaly of Ixxiiij. m'*' men, 
whiche vsenge to brenne, to robbe, and to do adultery, hade 
victory oftetymes of the Romanes ; but they were deuicte after 
that in Apulea by Marchus the proconsul of Rome. Alex- 



' Pthotomeus, Cx. 
- his'] om. $. 
•' rethoricicn, Cx. 
^ was in prosperytCy Cx. 
^ Sijlla, Cx. 
^ brake the peas, Cx. 
' From a. and /3. 

'^fl/yters, a. and 7,; fizters, /3.; 
fi/yhters, Cx. 



^ From a., $., y., and Cx. 

in I / 



Cx. 



^^ spoushruche, y. 

^' brake spousage and dide lechery ^ 



'- Apulia, a. ; Apulea, Cx. 
'^ Added in Cx., and above the* 
line in /9. 



174 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Ab urbc. 

679. 

A transmi- 

gracione. 

519. 

Ab urbe. 

683. 

A transmi- 

gi'acione. 

523. 



quae et Sabina, uxor Alexandria regnavit apud Judseos 
novem annis, ^ et^ consilio Phariseorum, quorum 
secta tunc oriebatur, multos Judseorum relegavit aut 
occidit. Eutropius, lihro 6®^ Virgilius Maro prope 
Mantuam nascitur.^ Piratse omnia maria infestabant, 
ita ut Romanis toto orbe victoribus sola navigatio 
tuta non essefc ; quos tamen Pompeius consul com- 
pescuit. Inde Pompeius bellum suscepit ^ contra 
Mithridatem, et Tigranem regem Armeni^e, qui Mithri- 
datem fugientem contra Romanos foverat. Igitui 
Pompeius nocturno prselio Mithridatem devicit, castra 
dirupit^ quadraginta millia occidit, Tigranem ad dedi- 
tionem ^ cocgit, Armeniam et Asiam illi ademit, tri- 
butum sex millium talentorum argenti illi^ imponens, 
eo quod bellum Romanis sine causa ^ commoverat. 



^ dnnis'] om. B. 

" a, A. 

3 Cap. 12. 

^ CD. add : " Marcus Porcius 
*' Cato, Stoicus philosophus, claret. 
*' Eutropius, libro sexto. Appio rex 



" LibysB Romanos in testamento 
" fecit heredes." 

^ ccpit, B. 

** disruplt, B. 

"> dedicationcm, A.B. 

^ sibi, B. 

^ sine causa\ om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 175 

dria,^ pat beet 2 Sabina also, Alisaimdre bis wif, regnede Trevisa. 
nyne ^ere among )?e lewes, and slowt and outlawede meny 
Icwes by counsaille of fe Pbarisees : ^ J?e secte of bem bygan 
at pat tyme. Eutropius, llbro 6<^. Virgil Marro is i-borc nyb 
to Mantua.* Skuraers,^ and see peeves [grevcdc and robbede 
al J)e see]/' so pat ])c Romayns, pat were victoris of alle pe 
world aboute, badde no siker seillynge ^ wip oute oper socour. 
But Pompeus po consul chastede ^ pese skumers ^ at pe 
laste. panne Pompeus toke a bataille a^enst Metridas, and 
a^enst Tygranes kyng of Armenye, ffor lie badde i-socoured 
and i-favored Mitridas pat was a^enst pe Romayns, and 
i-fonge ^'^ bym, and saved ^^ byni in bis flijt^^ wlian be flcyj ^^ 
from 1* pe Romayns, perfore Pompeus overcome Mitridas in 
bataille by my^te,^^ and destroyede bis castelles '^ and bis 
tentes, and slowj fourty [thousand] ^"^ of bis men, and made 
Tygranes to Jilde bym self, and by nam ^^ bope Armenye and 
Asia, and made bym bere a ^'"^ tribute of sixe powsand talentes 
of silver, ffor he badde i-meovcd werre wip oute cause ajenst 
pe Romayns. Trevisa?^ As I have i-seide to fore bonde, pe 
leste talent weyep fifty pounde, the myddel weyep pre score 
pounde and twelve, and pe moste weyep ,sixe score pounde. 
panne it folowep in pe storie.^^ [Therfor Pompeus ouercome 

A-burbe. andra and Sabrina, the wife of Alexander, reignede among:© Tvtc tt.^t 

IT • i«i Til PIT 1 Mo. -HARL» 

the lewes ix. yere, whiche did sle mony or the lewes, other 226I. 

putte tbeyme in exile, by the cownselle of the Pharisees, the 

secte of whom sche folowede. Eutropius. libro sexto. Virsri- ^ transmi- 
lius Maro, the poete laureate, was borne nye to Mantua. ,Shippe- 
men kepede the see ageyne pe Romanes, whom Pompeius 
destroyede. This Pompeius ^afe batelle after that to Mitriclates, 
and Tigranis kynge of Armenia in that he noriscbedc Mitridates 
fledde ageyne the Romanes. Wherefore Pompeius hauengc 
the victory of Mitridates, did slee xl*' m^ of his hoste in a 
batelle in the nyjhte, and toke Tigranis in to dedication, 
takenge from bym Armenia and Asia, causenge bym to pay a 
tribute of vj. mt talentes of siluer, in that he movede batelle 



' Alexandra^ Cx. 

* other imjse called, Cx. 

'' counscyll of the Phareseys, Cx. 

♦ Mantilla, /8. 

^ Sct/mmers, /8, ; skuinors and se 
\>eoves, 7. ; Scomers, Cx. 
^ From a., /8., and Cx. 
7 non syhevj 7. ; sure saijlyng, Cx. 



'^ chastysed, Cx. '^ a] cm. Cx 



^* seued, $. 

'- in hisjli-tft'] om. Cx. 

''^Jiedde, Cx. 

^^ from] om. Cx. 

•^ nyyte, o. and j8. ; nyghte, Cx. 

^^ castels, Cx. 

^' From /8. and Cx. 

'^ toke from him, Cx. 



'-• skumeres, a, ; \>ceves, 0. 
skumors, 7. ; theves, Cx. 
"^ received, Cx. 



-" Trevisa ... storie] om. /3. and 
Cx. 



176 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Mithridates ifcaque cum uxore fugiens, non inulto pesfc,^ 
cum in suos saBviret, ac duos filios suos trucidasset, 
Pharnaces ^ tertius filius, exemplo fratrum suorum 
terrifcus, exercitum qui ad persequendum eum missus 
fuerat sibi conciiiavit, ita ut apud Bosphorum ^ patrem 
obsideret ; cujus cum vocem precantis filius audire 
nollet, Mithridates rogavit deos ut filius suus Phar- 
naces aliquando hanc vocem a filiis suis audiret.* 
Dedit ergo venenum uxori et ^ filiabus, quo et obi- 
erunt.^ At cum ipse veneno mori non posset, Galium 
militem ad sui jugulum provocavit ; sicque obiit Mithri- 
dates septuagesimo setatis su^e anno, et regni sui anno Ix. 
Deinde Pompeius Albanos, Hiberiam, Syros, et Arabes 
devicitJ Marianus, libro iwimo.^ Anno xvi. hujus 
Ptolomei Horatius Flaccus, poeta satiricus et lyricus, 



^ non multos post dies, B. 

- Fernaces, B. ; Furnaces, MS. 

^ Bosforum, MSS. 

^ Slightly transposed in B. 

^ et, from A.B., a,, MS. 

^ obircnt, B. 



"* B. omits this paragraph ; A. 
places it before the passage relating 
to the birth of Virgil above. 

•"^ The full reference is, iKtas 
" VI., anno mundi 4131." 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, lAB. III. 



177 



Metridas. Than] i Mitridas ileyj^ \vi]> his wif, and nou^t Trevisa. 

longe afterward was wel ^ cruel to his owne men, and slow^ 

his tweio soncs. panne Farnaccs ])e * ])ridde sonc took cn- 

samplc of his bre])eren, and was afcrdc ^ wcl ^ sore, and made 

])e oost ^ torne to hym ])at was i-sent forto^ pnrsewe hym, 

and byscgc ^ his owne fader at Bosforum ^^ ; the fader 

crye]' ^^ mercy, but \)g sone wolde noujt here.^^ pan [this] ^^ 

Metridas prayde his goddes ])at his sone Farnaces moste ^* 

somtyme here ^^ ])e same vois ^^ of his owne sones. panne he 

Jaf his wif and his dou^tres venym to drynke, and slowj hem in 

J)at manere. For he my^t noujt deie ^^ by venym, he prayede 

a kny^t of Galles to slee hym, and he slowi hym anon, and 

[soo]^'' Metridas deide ])e ^ere of his age pre score and ten, 

and ])C Jere of his kyngdom pre score evene. After pat Pom- 

peus overcom pe Albans, and ]>o men of Hiberia, of Siria, and 

of Arabia. Mar., libro primo. pe ^ere of Ptholomeus six- 

tene, Oracius )jc poete satiricus and liricus was i-bore ^^ at 



to pe Romanes withowte any cause. This Mitridates, fleenge MS. Harl, 
with his wife, exercise grete crudelite, in so moche that he did 2261. 
slee ij. of his sonnes. Farnaces, the thridde son, perceyvenge a t^ansmi- 
that fledde, whiche drawede to hym an hoste sende from Mitri- gracionc. 
dates his fader to sle hym, in so moche that this Farnaces 
besegede his fader at Bosforus. Mitridates perceyvenge that, f. 1 8.5. a. 
askenge mercy, and hauenge noo grawnte })erof, ^afe poyson to 
his wife and to his ij. doubters, pro the whiche thei dyede, 
but he receyvenge venom other poyson hade noon hurte ])erof. 
Wherefore he desirede a kny^hte whom he hade trowblede 
afore to throtelle hym, and so this Mitridates diede in the 
Ixx*^ yere of his age, and the Ix. yere of his reigne. After 
that Pompeius made subiecte to hym the Albanes, Hiberia, 
and hade victory ageyne men of Siria, and also of men of 
Araby. Marianus, libro 1°. Oracius Flaccus, the poete sati- 
ricus and liricus, was borne this tyme at a cite of Ytaly 



^ From Cx. ; not in /8. nor 7. 

-Jledde, Cx. 

"' wel] om. Cx. 

^ his, Cx. 

^ sooreferd, Cx. 

Ifal, 7. 

<" hoost, Cx. 

^ for~\ om. Cx. 

^ besieged, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



1« Gofforn, Cx. 

^^ cryed, a. and Cx. 

^- huyre, 7., et infra. 

!■' Cx., not. ^. 

'■♦ myghte, Cx. 

^''foys, 7- 

IS not dye, Cx. 

''" From /8. and Cx. 

^^ were born, Cx. 



M 



178 POLYCHBONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

apiid Venusiam Itali?e urbem nascitur. Petrus sexto} 
^fi87^^ Mortua Alexandra, quse ^ primogenitum .suum Hyrca- 

A tvansmi- 

^^527^^ num pontijficem et regem futurum designaverat, duo filii 
relicti, Hyrcanus et Aristobulus, ob imperium ad versa ntes, 
occasionem praebuerunt Romanis ut Judaeam invaderent. 
IJnde Pompeius adveniens vix tertio mense urbem 
Jerusalem cepit, tresJecim millibus Judceorum occisis, 
cseteros in fidem accepit ; urbis muros solo a3quavit, 
sacerdotium Hyrcano designavit; Aristobulum vinctum 
cum duobus filiis suis Eomam secum duxifc, Scaurum 
Syriso ^ priBsidem reliquit. At cum Pompeius prius 
fuisset in bellis * fortunatissimus, quia tamen in por- 
ticibus templi equos suos stabulaverat, nunquam post- 
modum pugnaverat quin devinceretur. Eutropius, lihro 



^ The correct reference is, 
" Hist.Machab. Lib. II., cap. viii." 
" quif B. 



'^ SirlcE, B. 

^ m bellis] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTllENSIS, LIB. III. 



179 



Venasia/ a citee of Italy. Trevisa, Here take hede fat Trevisa. 

som 2 poete is i-clepcde liricus, and som poete is i-cleped 

satiricus, and lia|> }7at name of satis, J^at is inow, for }?e matire ^ 
]7at he spekej? of he touchcj? at J^e fullc ; and j^rc poetes bee]) 
spccialliche i-cleped * satirici, Oracius, Persius,^ and luve- 
nalis. Petrus. Whanne [that] ^ Alexandra ^ was dede, jmt 
ordcynede her eldest sone Hircanus to be kyng and bisshop 
afterward, pe tweie sones [|>at] ^ were on ly ve, Hircanus and 
Aristobolus, stryved^ for ]?e empere,^^ and Jaf ]7C Romayns 
occasioun to werre ^^ in ludea, J^at is j^e lewerie.^^ perfore 
Pom pens ^^ come and took Jerusalem unne])e ])e J>ridde 
mon])e,i* and slow^ prittene jjowsand of^'^ lewes, and toke 
})e ojjere uppon here fay,i^ and jn'ewe doun ]m walles of 
Jerusalem evene wi]? J^e grounde, and ^af Hircanus |?e preost- 
hood,!^ and ladde Aristobolus i-bounde, and his tweye sones wi]) 
hym into Rome, and lefte Staurus ^^ lorde of Siria. Pompeus 
hadde i-bc to forehonde ^^ strongest in batayles, but [for] ^o he 
hadde i-stabled his hors ^^ in ]7e porches and in 22 ojjer places of 
]7e temple he hadde never grace afterward wel to speke,'^*"^ and so 
he fautt nevere afterward ^* but he were ^s overcome. Eutro- 



callede Venusia. Petrus. Alexandra dedde, whiche seide MS. Harl. 
Hircanus here firste son to be bothe bischoppe and kynge, 2261. 
Hircanus and Aristobolus stryvenge for the jrouernayle, movede . ^ . 
the Romanes to entre in to the lewery. Wherefore Pompeius gracione. 
commenge to lerusalem gate hit unnethe by the space of iij. 
monethes, xiij. mt of the lewes sleync, makenge the walles of 
the cite egalle with the erthe, and Jafe the bischopryke to 
Hircanus, and broujte Aristobolus bownde with his ij. sonnes 
vn to Rome, and made Staurus presidente in Siria. And 
si the that this Pompeius was most fortunate in batelle, he 
hade neuer victory after that tyme, for cause he sette his horses 



^ Vemisia, y, ; Venacia, Cx. 


^^ moneth, Cx. 


- a, a. and 7. 


1^ o/"] om. Cx. 


^ matier, Cx. 


^'^J'eye, /3. ; fey, y, ; theyr othes, 


* be speciallj/ called, Cx. 


Cx. 


^ Percius, Cx. 


17 prysthode, Cx. 


« Cx., not /8. 


'■^ Scaur us, y. 


' Alexandre, Cx. 


1» had be by/ore, Cx. 


^ From a., y., and Cx. 


'^ for, added from P. 


^ slrijve, a. ; stnjvcn, Cx 


'1 slabuled his horses, Cx. 


^^' thcmpirc, Cx, 


" <n] om, Cx. 


'' went/, y. 


-^ spede, a.,y., and Cx. 


'' Jewry, Cx. 


'^ ivard] om. Cx. 


^^ Pompeius, Cx., et infra. 


-* was, Cx. 



M 2 



180 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



sexto} His itaque ^ gcstis, Pompeius, postquam ^ 
cum viginti duobus regibus feliciter conflixerat, in 
Asiam se recepit, et linem antiquo bello orientali 
dedit, prsecedentibus currum ejus filiis Mithridatis et 
filiis Tigranis. '^ Horatius Flaccus ^ apud Venusiam 
nascitur.*" Sergius Catilina/ nobilis genere sed pravus 
ingenio, cum quibusdam clarissimis ad delendum pa- 
triam conjuravit. Efc quamvis Julius Caius^ partes 
« ejus perorando defenderet, sub TuUio tamen^ Cice- 

rone, tunc consule, et Marco Catone contra eum per- 
orante/^ urbe pulsus ^^ est/^ et cito post prselio inter- 
fectus. Socii quoque ^^ ejus, ab Antonio altero consule 
deprehensi, in carcere sunt strangulati. Ranulphus. 
De quibus Salustius librum edidit qui intitulatur de 

Ab urb3. coniuratione Catilina?.^^ Titus Livius ^^ scriptor ^^ nas- 
690. *^ 

tridoS!^' citur. Et Yirgilius Cremonoe ^^ eruditur. Julius Caius 

530. 

Abiirbe. Csesar ^^ factus est consul, et decreta est ei ^^ Gallia 

62. 

\Sone' ^^ Illyricum cum legionibus denis. Qui per novem 

5.T2. ' 



^ Capitulo 14. 

- ita, A. 

•^ postquam]^ om. B. 

■* Dionisius, C.D. 

•^ ex libertino patre, added in C.D. 

^ C.D. add : " Apollodorus Per- 

gamenus, Grsccus orator, prsDcep- 

tor Calidii et Augusti, clarus ha- 

bctur." l^iiiropius libra sexto. 

7 Catelina, B. 

'^ Gains, A. ; Gai/vs, B. 

^ taincii'] om. B. 



^^ Sei-giiis, added in B. 

" phus (sic), B. 

^- est^ om. A. 

^'^ socii que, B. 

^' Cicero in exiliurn annum facit, 
added in C.D. 

'^ LiberiuSf B. 

"^ historiacus, added in A.B. 

'' Crumonce, B. 

^^ Gains Julius Ca:sar, A.; Gains 
Julius, B. 

'=> in, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. ITI. 181 

piusy libro 2^^.^ Wbamie al J/is wan i-doo, after [that] 2 Trevisa. 
Pompeus hadde i-fou^te realliche^ wi]> two and twenty 
kyngos, he wente into Asia, and made an ende of |)e olde 
biitayle of ]?e Est londes. Metridas his sones wente to fore ^ 
]>e^ chare, and Tygranes his sones also. Oracius Flaccus^ 
is i-l)ore at Venusee.^ Sergius Catilina,^ a noble man of 
blood, but evel and schrewed ^ of witte and of wil, conspired 
wijj som greet men and ^^ stalwor]?e forto ^^ destroye ]?e con- 
tray. And pey lulius Gains pletede for hym, and defended 
his party, no])eles in Tullius Cithero ^-^ ])e consul his tyme, 
Marcus Caton pletede a^enst hym, and so [he] ^ was i-putte 
oute of ]?e citee, and sone after i-slaAve ^^ in [a] ^^ batayle. 
Also his felawes were i-take of oon Antonius, ano]?er consul, 
and i-prisoned to her lyves ende. Salustius made a book of 
hem. pe book hatte^^ ]>e book of Catilin his conspu-acie.^^ 
Titus Livius,^' ])e writere of stories, is i-bore, and Virgil lernej> 
at Gremoria. ^^ Gains lulius Cesar is i-made consul, and 
Gallia was iuged ^^ to hym and Iliricus, ]?at is Grees,^^ wij) 
ten legiouns. lulius fau^t ten Jere a^enst \q Germanes and 



in the porches of the temple. Sergius Catilena, a noble man MS. Harl. 
of bloode, but wickede in vitte, entendede the destruccion of 2261. 
the cite, drawenge mony other men to hym, and thaujhe Caius . 

lulius defendede his parte in pletenge for hjn\, titte he was gracione. 
expulsede from the cite by Tullius and Cithero consulles, 
Marcus Cato pletenge ageyne hym. And his felawes taken by 
Antonius, an other consul, caste in to prison, were throtelede 
in hit, of whom Salustius makede a boke of the coniuracion 
of Catilene. Titus Livius, the writer of stories, was borne f. 185. b. 
this tyme at the cite of Home, and Virgilius the poete was 
taujhte at Cremena. Gains lulius Cesar made aconsulle, hade 
Fraunce and Iliricum assignede to hym with x. legiones, 
whiche Jafe batelle by ix. yere ageyne men of Fraunce and of 



' sexto, Cx. 
; Cx. 

•' realich, fi. ; realych, 7. ; fuvyh- 
Un rtjalb/, Cx. 
^ bi/fore, Cx. 

' his, a. and Cx. ; fils chaar, fi. 
*^ FlaclHs, Cx. 
'' Vemisye, Cx. 
^ Catelina, Cx. 
'• scherewed, 7. ; shrewde, Cx. 
'" ajuC] om. Cx. 



^^ right stronge to, Cx. 

1- Cythero, Cx. 

'** afterward slayne, Cx. 

'■* From a. 

' ' in named, Cx. 

^^ (Attelimis conspyracy, Cx. 

•'' Lihius, fi. and 7. 

^^ Cremona, Cx. 

^'^juyged, fi. and Cx. 

2" Grece, Cx. 



182 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



annos contra Germanos et Gallos gravissima bella con- 
fecit ; quadringenta quadraginta millia Germanoruin/ 
qui ad subjugandum Galliam Rlienum transierant, usque 
ad internecionem ^ delevit. Deinde facto ponte Rhe- 
num [transgressus Suevos perdomuit, deinde omnem 
Galliam subjugavit, Britannos traditis] ^ obsidibus tri- 
butarios fecit. Inter tot successus ter tantum [male] * 
pugnavit. Ranulphus. Sub hoc anno, qui secundum 
Bedam sexagesimus est ante incarnationem, venit 
Julius Caesar ad subjugandum Britanniam in hunc 
modum. Beda, lihro primOy capitulo secundo, et 
Orosius, lihro sexto. ^ Julius consul, dum contra 
Germanos et Gallos, qui tantum Rheno flumine diri- 
muntur,^ bellum gereret, venit ad Morinos/ ubi prge- 
paratis centum triginta navibus onerariis et actuariis,^^ 



1 Gramanorum (sic), B. 

- internecionem~\ from B. ; Intcr- 
nitionem, MS. 

3 transyressus ... traditis^ added 
from A. " transgressus Suevos per- 
" domuit. Marianus, libra primo. 
" Anpo sexto decimo Ptolomei 
" Horacius Flaccus poeta satiricus 
" et lyricus apud vetustissimam 
" urbeni Italia? nascitm'. Deinde 
" Julius omnem Galliam subju- 
" gavit Britanno (sic) traditis," B. 
" transgressus Suevos, quorum 100 
" sunt pagi, perdomuit. Inde om- 



*' nem Galliam quw. inter Alpes, 
" flumen lihodanum, Rbenum, et 
" oceanum Britanuicum est per 
*' novem annos subjuijavit. In 
'' quibus devictos Britannos, qui- 
" bus usque tunc Romanorum nomen 
'' incoguitum erat, acceptis," CD. 

* male'\ from B. 

•' B.C.D. do not refer to Orosiu*;. 
The reference is lib. vi., cap. 9. 

^ (lin'muntur~\ from A.B. ; diri- 
munt, IMS. 

" Majoranos, B. 

^ armariis, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 183 

Galles in meny harde batailles in every side.^ Trevisa. Trevisa. 

Here Galles beep i-cleped men of Gallia. Gallia is i-closed 

wij) pre noble watres, wi|> pe Ryne and ]jq Roone^ and pe 
pce of occean. pey^ Gallia and Fraunce be ofte i-counted"^ 
alle oon londe and contray, nopeles as we spekej? comounliche^ 
of Fraunce ^ and now here of Gallia ; Gallia conteynep ^ al |?e 
reame ^ of Fraunce and meny oper contrayes ^ and londes anone ^ 
to ])e Ryne norJ>ward, to ]>e Roon ^^ estward, to ])e see of Bri- 
tayne and of Engelonde westward, panne it folowep in pe 
storie : lulius nyne ^ere made harde batailles ajenst pe Ger- 
mayns and J)e Galles, and destroyed foure hondred powsand and 
fourty Jjowsand of Germanes ^^ pat passed pe Ryn ^^ forto wynne 
Gallia, panne he made a brigge ^^ and passede pe Ryne forto 
Wynne ^^ Swevia ; pan he wan alle Gallia, and took plegges ^^ 
of [the] ^^ Britouns, and made hem tributarie. Among alle 
his grete dedes he faujt evel but pries, and no moo. Beda 
acountep pis ^ere sixty tofore ^^ pe Incarnacioun. pis ^ere 
lulius Cesar come forto wynne ^*^ Britayne in pis manere : 
while lulius pe consul werrede a^enst pe Germayns and 
pe Galles, pat beep ^^ to-deled onliche "^^ by pe ryver of ^^ Ryne, 
he come to [the] ^^ Morians, and ordeyned hym an hondred 
schippes and pritty, wip seilles ^3 and wip oores, and seillede ^* 



Abuvbc. Germanny, whiclie destroyede cccc. and xl^' m^ of the Ger- MS. IIarl 
maynes that hade comnien passede the flode callede Rhenus, 22G1. 

to subduew Fraunce to tlieyme. Whiclie makeno;e a brisfi^e 

over the fioode Rhenus, made tame the men of Sweuia, after 'gracione. 
that alle Fraunce and Britones, also makenge tlieym tributaries 
to hym whiclie fau^hte but thryes ylle amonge alle these 
batelles and victoryes. lulius Cesar comme to subiecte 
Briteyne to hym, after Bede, in the Ix. yere afore the incarna- 
cion of Criste, takenge with him a c. and xxx^' grete .schippes 



' in every side'\ om. a., ^., 7. and 
Cx. 

- Rine ... jRowe, Cx. 

^ acompled, Cx. 

^ speke comonly, Cx. 

'' From be ofte . . . Fraunce is, 
in error, written twice over in the 



^- Ryne, Cx. 
'•^ hrugye, 7. 

'■* and loan, a. and /3. ; and loanne, 
Cx. 

^' pledges, Cx. 

^'^ From j8, and Cx. 

'' by/ore, Cx. 



MS. j '^ cam J. C. to wynne, Cx 



*> conteyned, Cx. 

^ rente, 7. 

^ countrees, Cx. 

'■* unto, Cx. 

1" Rone, Cx. 

" Germaynes, Cx. 



'■' be, Cx. 
-" only, Cx. 
-* o/] om. Cx. 
-^ Cx. 

'^'^ sayles, Cx. 
24 sayled, Cx. 



184 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHl HIGDEN 



ill Britanniam est transvecfcus. Ibique primum ^ 
acerba pugna fatigatus, deincle adversa tenipesfcate cor- 
reptus/ plurimam naviuiii et equitnm partem amisit. 
Eegressus inde ad Galliam quasdam militum legiones 
ad Hiberniam misit. Ac navibus iterum paratis, dum 
ipse in hostes Britaunos pergit, quadraginta naves 
tempestate franguntur, et ipse primum vietus, Labieno 
tribuno ccciso, vix secundo prselio Britannos fugavit. 
Nam Britanni ripain Tamesis ^ fluminis,^ ubi Julius ^ 
applicuerat,^ acutis ^ sudibus prsestruxerant, quorum 
vestigia, ad modum femoris humani grossa et plumbo 
circumfusa, usque hodie visuntur infixa. Quo comperto, 
Romani periculum vitantes urbem Trinovantum per 
industriam Andragii, datis quadraginta obsidibus, ca- 
piunt, ac ^ deinde uvbeiii Cassibalaiii munitam et 
opulentam, in paludibus sitam, occupant.^ Exinde 
Caesar a Britannia reversus in Galliam repentinis bel- 
lorum tumultibus undique conflictatus est. ^" Apud 
Britannos mortuo rege Lud, qui urbem Trinovantum 



^ primum'] om. B. 
- corruptus, B. 
•' Thamensls, MS. 
^ Jiuvii, B. 
» Casar, B. 
^ applicuit, B. 



" acutibvs, B. 

^ ac\ from B. ; a?i, MS. 

'* occupant^ from A. ; occupavit, 
MS. 

^" Galfridus et Al/ridus, added in 
A.B. 



MONACHI CESTPtENSIS, LIB. III. 185 

into Britaync. pere he was first a^ sette wij? weP hard Trevisa. 
fyUinge ; and afterward in hnrde '^ tempest ])at fil a^enst hym 
he loste"* meny schippes and horsmen, and tornede into 
Gallia, and sente certeyn legiouns of knyjtes into Irlond, and 
arrayede eft his schippes, and liadde fourty schippes i-broke ■ 
in grete tempest, while he wente ajenst ])e Britouns, and was 
overcome at J)e firste bata3de, and Labienus ])e consul was 
wounded and deyde rijt pere. Unnel^e at ])e secounde batayle 
lulius chasede^ ])e Britouns, for ])e Britouns hadde i-pi^t^ 
scharpe stakes in Ipe ryver of Tempse,'' ]?ere lulius hadde 
i-londede ; ])e stakes were grete, i-schape as a manis ])igh,^ and 
i-Jote^ aboute wi]) leed as it is [^it] ^^ i-sene. Whanne ])e 
Romayns were ware^^ of |)is gyle, forto scape pat peril pey 
took ])e citee [of] ^^ Trinouantum by sley Jpe ^^ of oon Andra- 
gius, and fenge ^^ fourty plegges, and wente pennes and occu- 
pied ])e citee Cassibala, a strong citee and a riche, i -sette 
among watres. pan Cesar wente into Gallia, and was a ^ 
sette wij> harde batailles on i'^ every side. Lud, kyng of 
Britouns, is deed ; he cleped Trinouantum Caerlud by his 



Abi;rbe. laded With men; where he hade grete resistence of Britones, in MS. Harl. 
so moche that he loste a grete parte of his schippes and of his 2261. 
men. After that he returnede vn to Fraunce, and sende vn to ^ transmi- 
Irlonde a certeyne legiones of peple ; whiche entrengje the see sracione. 
to comme to Briteyne ageyne, loste sodenly xl*' schippes ; 
whiche was ouercomen by the Briteynes in the firste batelle, 
and Labienus the tribune was sleyne. And so lulius putte the 
Briteynes to flijhte the secunde batelle by score fiihte, and 
with grete difficulte, for the Britones hade stopped the mowtlie 
of Tliamys with trees, where that lulius londed. The Romanes 
perceyvenge pat, and avoidenge perelle, toke the cite of Tri- 
nonaunte by consente of Androgius, where thei occupiede also 
a ryclie and plentuous towne off Cassibelanus, sette in a fenny 
cuntre. After that lulius returnede from Briteyne vn to 
Fraunce, Lud the kynge of Briteyne dedde, whiche namede 
and callede the cite off Trinouante Caerlud, and made a tate 



^ a] om. Cx. I 9 ,^ette, Cx. 

- right, Cx. '" From a., p,, and Cx. ; yut, y. 

^ a yrete, Cx. j ^' war, Cx. 

'• aloste, a. i '- Cx. 

■'> chaced, Cx. ' '^ slej/ght, Cx. 

•"' piiylite, Cx. ^ ' received, Cx. 

' Temse, /3. and 7.; Thamys, Cx. ^^ in, a. 

« \>eiy, P. ; \>}/y, 7. 1 



186 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPIII HIGDEN 



a nomine suo Caerlud appellaverat, et portam occi- 
dentalem in ea/ quse a nomine suo Ludgate dici- 
tnr, exstruxerat,^ successit ei in regnum frater suns 
Cassibalanus. Nam Lud reliquerat duos filios, Andra- 
gium et Tenuantium, ad regendum immaturos ; sed 
pubescente eorum retate, dedit Cassibalanus Andragio 
urbera Trinovantum cum ducatu Cantire, et Tenuantio ^ 
ducatum Cornubije. Sub quo tempore Julius Cajsar 
Britanniam advectus ^ est, bisque repulsus. Sed dum 
propter necem nepotis regis,^ quern nepos Andragii 
in ludo palaestrae enecaverat,^ rex ipse et Andragius 
plurimum disceptarent, vocatus Julius per Andragium 
Britanniam subjugavit, regemque Cassibalanum tribu- 
tarium fecit ; qui post recessum Jidii vii. annis vixit. 
Aburbe. Crassus^ collega Pompeii et consul, post mortem Gabinii 
gracioue. missus est prsesBs Syriae, ut Parthos rebellantes repri- 

536. 

meret ; ad quam expeditionem sustentandam sustulit 
Crassus de templo Jerusalem duo millia talenta/ a 
quibus etiam ^ Pompeius abstinuerat ; ob hoc contra 
Parthos dimicans victus capitur. In cujus gutture 



1 occidentalem in ca'\ om. B. 

* restruxeraty B. 

^ Taniantio, A. ; Teitnuantio, B, ; 
Tenuantia, MS. 

■* advectus, from A.B. ; adventus, 
MS. 



^ regisi ^m. B. 

^ enecaverat, from A.B. ; evocu- 
verat, MS. 

^ talentorum, B. 
>* et, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 187 

owne name, and bulde jiere ])e west tate, and cleped ^ hit Trevisa. 

after his owne name Ludgate. His bro])er Cassibelanus 

regned after hym, for Lud lefte [after hym] ^ tweie soncs on 
lyve, Andragius and Tenuancius,-^ and were to Jonge to rule * 
])e rewme.^ But whan pey come to age, Cassibelauus ^af to 
Androgius ])e citee Trinouantum wi]j ])e ducherio of Kent, and 
he Jaf Tenuancius^ ]>e ducherie of Cornwayle. pat tyme 
lulius Cesar sey led into Bretayne, and was twyes i-putteof; 
but svhile ])e kyng and Andragius were at grete stryf for 
Andragius his' nevew in wrastelynge, Andragius sente for 
lulius Cesar, and he com and Avan ])e londe, and made kyng 
Cassibelanus [tributarye] ^ ; and Cassibelanus lyvede sevene 
^ere after pat lulius was a goo.^ Crassus, Pompeus ^^ his 
felowe and consul, after Gabinius his dee)? ^^ was sente to be 
rulere of Siria, forto chaste ])e Parthes^^ j,at were i-worj;e 
rebel. 1^ Forto spede pat iornay ^'^ Crassus took two powsand 
talentes out of pe temple of Jerusalem, pe whiclie Pompeus 
sparede. perfore Crassus fi^tynge ajeust pe Parthes ^^ [was 
overcome and i-take. pe Parthes] ^^ melted ^'^ golde, and 
helde ^^ it ^^ in his prote, and despised hym, and seide, " pou 



Aburbe. in that cite callede Ludgate, Cassibelanus, his broper, suc-MS. PIakl. 
ceedede hym in the realme of Briteyne. For Lud hade lefte 2261. 

ij. sonnes, Androgius and Tenuantius, to yonge in age to haue . 

gouernayle of a realme. Wherefore Cassibelanus ^afe to gi-Sne.^' 
Androgius the cite Trinouante, with the duchery of Kent, and f. 186. a. 
to Tenuantius the ducherye off Cornwayle. This Cassibelanus 
was made tributary to lulius Cesar, lyvenge after the de- 
partenge of lulius vij. yere, Crassus the consul, and felowe 
of Pompeius, sende to fijhte ageyne men of Parthia after the 
dethe of Gabinus, and made presidente of Siria, toke ij. mt 
talentes from the temple of Jerusalem, from whom Pompeius 
abstenede, that he myjte supporte his hoste. Wherefore he 
wns taken and overcommen by men of Parthia, in the throte 
of whom men of Parthia caste golde y-meltede with suche an 



1 culled, Cx. : ^^ Gahynus detJi, Cx. 

From Cx., not 13. ^- chastsey the Parches^ Cx. 



^^ ivaxen rehelle, Cx, 

^"^ joxirneye, Cx. 

^'^ Perches, Cx. 

^" From a., /8., and Cx. 



3 Andragius and Teamnicius, Cx 

■* (joveine the royainme, Cx. 

^ reume, a. 

^" Tenuacius,MS.; Temancius, Cx. 

' his'] om. Cx. I ''' melt, j8. and Cx 

^ From a. and Cx. | ^^ poivred, Cx. 

9 ago, /8. , I'J if] om. )8. 

'0 Pompeius, Cx., et infra. I 



188 POLYCHEONICON RANXJLPHI HIGDEN 

Partlii liquefactuin aurum infundentes, improperando ^ 
dixerunt. " Romane, aurnm sitisti, aurum bibe." 

Cap. XLI.2 
[De hello civ Hi quod gesserunt Ccesar et Pompcius.] 

iEoYPTlORUM Cleopatra, filia Ptolomei Dionysii, irri- Aburbe. 

A transrai- 

peravit iEgyptiis ^ annis viginti duobus ; videlicet, ^rapjone. 
duobus annis ante Julium Csesarem, quinque sub Julio 
Csesare, et quindecim annis sub Octaviano Augusto. 
Ortum est bellum civile inter Julium et Pompeium Aburbe. 

702. 
A transmi- 

socerum ^ ejus in hunc modum. Giralchts. Nam Kracione. 

^ 342. 

Julius post decennales sudores,^ quibus ^ Galliam, 
Germaniam, Britanniam subegerat,'^ triumphum sive 
honores tantis victoriis debitos ^ expetiit ; ^ sed con- 
tradixerunt Pompeius, Cato, et Marcellus consul, jusse- 
runtque ut dimisso exercitu Julius ad urbem rediret. 
Eutropius, lihro sexto}^ Et ex Marcelli consulis aucto- 
ritate Pompeius magnus ad legiones, quce apud Luce- 



^ improperantes, B. I ^* 9"^ ^* 

- This chapter is a good deal i ' subjugaverat, B. 

varied and abbreviated in CD. ' ^ debitos] om. B, 

3 anley B. 9 petiit, B. 

•• socium, B. I 1" Cap. 19. 
5 ludores, B. .• 



MONACHl CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 189 

Romayn, pou art ^ aferst after ^ gold, now drynke gold at Trevisa. 
\)G fulle." Cleopatra,^ 



Capitulum qiiadragesimum jJrimum. 

Cleopatra, \q doubter of Ptliolomeus^' Denys kyng of 
Egipt, was emperise^ of l^gipt two and twenty ^ere ; [two 
yere]*' tofore'^ lulius Cesar, fyve Jere under lull us, and fiftene 
Jcre under ^ Octovianus ^ Augustus. A batayle civile bygan 
bytwene lulius and his wifes fader Pompeus in J)is manere. 
Giraldus» For lulius whan [that] ^ he hadde i-travailled ten 
Jere, and wonne Gallia, Germania, and Bretayne, he axede 
J7e worschippe Jmt was due ^^ for so grete victories and noble 
[dedes],^ but Pompeus, Cato, and Marcellus J)e consid ^^ wi]) 
seide hym, and heet ^^ hym leve J)e oost ^'^ and come a^en to 
pe citee. Eutropitis, lihro 6°. And by auctorite of Marcellus 
])e consul,^^ pe grete Pompeus was i-sent wij> heste^^ to j^e 



Aburbe. exprobracion, seyeuge, " O thow Roman, thow base thurstede MS.Harl. 
*' golde, now drynke golde." 2261. 

A transmi* 
gracione. 

Capituhim quadragesimimi prinmm. 

Cleopatra, the dojhter of Ptholomeus Dionisius, reiguede 
in Egipte xxij. yere, that is to say, ij. yere afore lulius Cesar, 
and V. yere vnder lulius Cesar, and xv. yere vnder Octaui- 
anus Augustus. A ciuilc batelle began to sprynge betweno 
lulius and Pompeius, his fader in la we. Giraldus. For 
lulius askede condigne honores after the x. yere y-paste in 
whom he hade soore and grevous labores. But Pompeius, 
Cato and Marcellus seide contrary perto, commaundenge hym 
that he scholde comnie to the cite withowte eny hoste. Eutro- 
pius, libro 6*^. Pompeius Magnus was sente to the legiones 



^ art] om. a. ^^ dewe, /8. and Cx. 

" thou JRomaync art a ihjrstc, ^. ^^ consuls, Cx. 

and Ox. \ ^- lete, a. : bade, 13. and Cx. 

•^ Cleopatra'] om. /3. and Cx. ^^ hoost, Cx., et infra. 

■* Thoiomeus, Cx. \ ^'^ wi\> seide . . . oost]. Thesd 

" empericc, $. ; empryce, Cx. | words out of the previous sentence 

^ Cx. ! are here wrongly repeated by the 

7 hyforc, Cx. scribe in MS. 

^ after, Cx., wrongly. So also /3. ^^ commandement, Cx. 

'•^ Octavianus, Cx. ! 



190 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

riam erant, cum imperio^ missus est. Propter quam 
repulsam Julius Caesar cum exercitu suo contra 
patriam venit. Suetonius.'^ Cum multee essent digni- 
tates Romanse, quarum aliee durabant per annum,^ 
alise per biennium, inter omnes tamen excellentior * 
erat dictatura, per quinquennium duratura. Et primo 
quidem unus factus est dictator, sed crescente repub- 
lica facti sunt tres dictatores, ut si forsan ^ esset 
dissensio inter duos tertius reform aret. Contigit autem 
quod hi tres simul erant dictatores, Pompeius,^ Julius, 
Marcus Crassus. Ex quibus,^ Pompeius quia veteranus 
erat et emeritje jam militise, domi ad conservandum 
rempublicam residebat ; Crassus vero ad debellandos 
Parthos missus, dolo captus periit, Julius vero ad partes 



^ cum imperial om. B. 
' Julius, capp. 27, 28. 
^^ solum, added in B. 



' excellentior] om. B. 

•^ forte, B. 

'' Pompeius . . . quibus] om. B. 



I 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. HI. 



191 



legiouns pat were at Lucrecia/ and for pat of-puttynge Julius Trevisa. 

Cesar wi]> his oost come ajenst po contray. Suetus.^ pere 

were meny manere dignytecs in Rome, som ^ perof durede 

con 56rc> ^''Om two Jerc*; ])o clieef^ dignite [among alle 

was ])e dictator his dignyte,] ^ pat durede fy ve ^ere. But first 

was but oon dictator, but afterward pe comounte^ encresede, 

and were i-made pre dictatoures in Rome, for Jif pere fil^ 

ony discord bytwene the tweyn, pe pridde schulde redresse it. 

Hit happede pat pese pre were dictatoures in fere,^ Pompeus,^^ 

lulius, and Marcus Crassus, of pe whiche Pompeus, for he was 

an olde man, and of pe chivah^ie Emerita, lefte at home forto 

goverae pe comynte. Trevisa. In pe fyve and twenty chapi- 

tre of pe firste book hit is i-write pat somtyme [the] ^^ knyjtes 

of Rome, after pat pey were sixty ^ere olde, schulde noujt be 

compelled to dedes of armes, but he ^^ schulde be at home and 

have a '^'^ certeyn lyflode, and panne pey were i-clepede ^^ 

kny^tes ef pe chyvalrie emerita, pat is, i-putte out of dedes of 

armes. panne it folowep in pe storie. Crassus was i-sent to 

werre ^^ ajenst pe ParpeSj^^ and was i-take and i-lost by gile 



A transmi- 
graciouc. 



Aburbe. lefto at Liccria by the auctorite of Marcellus the consul, MS. IlATtL 
wherefore lulius Cesar come with his hoste to ^iffe batelle 2261. 
to the cite of Rome. Suetonius. Sythe there were mony 
dignites of Rome, of whom somme durede by oon yere, somme 
by the space of ij. yere; neuerthelesse the dignite of dicta- 
tours was moste cxcellente, endurenge by the space of v. yere. 
Firste oon dictator was made, and after that thre, for this con- 
sideration, that and if per were dissencion betwene tweyne of 
theyme, the thridde scholde remove hit. Hit happede that f. 186. h. 
Pompeius, Crassus, and lulius were dictatores to gedre, and 
Pompeius was lefte at the cite of Rome for cause that he was 
of grete age, and owte of the rewarde or meritte of cheuallery. 
Crassus was sende to Jiffe batelle to men of Parthia beenge 
ageyne the Romanes, whiche was taken tlu'o treason and sleyne. 



' Luceria, $., y., and Cx. The 
MS. y. is very much injured in this 
portion. 

'^ SuetoniuSy a., /3. and Cx. 

•* somme, Cx. 

^ iom two yere^ cm. Cx. 

"* c/a/ef, Cx, 

*■' From a., i8.,and Cx. 

' comonte, Cx., et infra. 



'Me, Cx. 

'•* ^ferc, fi. ; togeder, Cx. 

^" Pompeius, Cx., et infra. 

11 From Cx., not /3. 

1^ ])ei, $. ; thei/, Cx. 

1"^ a] cm. Cx. 

1^ callyd, Cx. 

15 werrye, a. and /8, 

1'' Parches, Cx. 



192 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDE^^ 

occidentales missus, per quinquennium ^ subjugando 
Gallos et Allobroges ^ est moratus. Inde propria 
auctoritate fultus protelavit dignitatem suam per aliud 
quinquennium, quo debellavit Britannos et iterum 
Gallos. Unde in redeundo Romam, cum ad ^ Alpes 
venisset, mandavit Pompeio, cujus filiam desponsaverat, 
ut pararet sibi triumplium. Pompeius vero, propter 
prsesumptionem dignitatis prorogatse,"* de consensu 
senatus triumplium negavit ; unde Julius iratus ad 
urbem contra Pompeium properavit. Eutropius, libro 
sexto, capitido ix^.^ Igitur Pompeius timens sibi, cum 
senatu et consularibus viris ^ Grgeciam fugit, ubi 
bellum contra Julium instauravit ; Julius vero urbem 
quasi vacuam ingressus serarium publicum ^ fregit. 
Orosiiis, libro sexto.^ Auri pondo quatuor millia cen- 
tum triginta, argenti vero pondo nonaginta millia 



^ in, added in A.B. ' ^ capitulo ix°'] om.A.B. It should 

■^Alabrogos,B. I be capitulo xix. 

•• suis, B. 
3 ad] om. B. I 7 ptihlicum-] om. B. 

■* prcerogata, A.B. i ^ Cap. xvi 



MONACHT CESTRENSTS, LTB. III. 198 

and be tresoun.^ lulius was sent in to j?e west londes, and Trevisa. 

dwelled pere 2 fyve Jere, to make ])e Galles and the Alio- 

brogues. ]7at beef Burgoynes, sugette ; ^ j^an he hilde * ])e 
dignite oJ>er fyve ^ere by his owne auctorite, in ]?e whiclie 
fyve ^ere he werrede ^ a^enst |)e Britouns, and eft ajenst ]>e 
Galles. panne in his comynge to Rome ward, whanne he 
come to Alpes, he sente to Pompeus, whos doubter he hadde 
i-wedded, j?at he schulde araye for hym triumphum, J?at is 
]>e worschippe^ ])at a victor of Rome schulde have in his 
comynge to Rome after pe victorie. But for lulius hadde 
i-holde^ pe dignite by his owne auctorite lenger J)an he 
schulde, Pompeus wernede hym ])e worschippe ]iat hatte^ 
triumphus, by assent of J>e senatoures. panne lulius was 
wroo]), and wente to pe citee a^enst Pompeus. Eutropius, 
libro 6°. po^ Pompeus dradde, wi]) [|?e] ^^ senatoures and 
consuls, and flij ^^ in to Grecia,^^ ^nd arrayed pere a batayle 
a^enst lulius Cesar. lulius entrede into |?e citee of Rome as 
it were a voyde citee, and brak in to pQ tresourie.^^ Orosius, 
libro 6^, lulius took foure ]?owsand pounde of gold [and] ^^ 



Ab urbe. lulius Cesar sende in to pQ weste partes taryede by the space MS. Harl. 
of V. yere in subduenge to hym men of Fraunce, and the 2261. 
peple callede Allobroges, whiche prolongede his office by his ^ transmi- 
awne autorite by v. yere foloenge, in whiche tyme he made gracione. 
Brifceyne subiecte to hym. Whiche returnenge from Fraunce 
and comenge to Alpes, sende to Pompeius, the doubter of 
whom he hade mariede, that he scholde ordeyne to hym con- 
digne honoure for his grete tryumphes and victoryes. But 
Pompeius denyede to hym that honoure by the consente and 
cownsaile of the senate, in that he hade prorogate his office 
by the space of v. yere. Wherefore lulius movede in wrathe, 
made haste to the cite to ^iffe batelle to Pompeius. Eutropius, 
libro 6". This Pompeius dredenge hyra, fledde with the senate 
and consuUes vn to the londe of Grece, where he instorede a 
batelle ageyne lulius. But lulius entrenge in to the cite of 
Rome as voide, brake up the place of j^eire treasure. Orosius, 
libro 6°. Whiche brou^hte owte from hit iiij. m* c. et xxx*' 



bi/ tray son y Cx. "^ was called, Cx. 



2 }pere] om. a. and Cx 
^ Allobrogues, men of Burgoyne, 
suhget, Cx. 
"^'helde, Cx. 
'^ warryd, Cx. 
•* worship, Cx., et infra. 



» Than, Cx. 
"> From a., )8. and Cx. 
^^ fledde, Cx. 
^2 Grece, Cx. 

^^ as hit were into a citee \>at is 
I'oyd, and brak \>e comoun tresorye. 



~ holden, Cx. I a., j8. and Cx. 

VOL. IV. N 



194 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

eduxit, quae militibus suis distribuit.^ Et pacem 
simulans omnes simul dignitates occupavit. Inde His- 
panias petiit,^ validissimos Pompeii exercitus cum 
tribus eorum ducibus contrivit. Inde Grseciam veniens 
cum Pompeio dimicavit. Primo prselio Julius victus 
est et fugatus, quia nocte superveniente Pompeius 
sequi noluit. Unde ^ dixit Julius quod Pompeius 
nescivit vincere, et ilia tantum die se potuisse supe- 
rari. Deinde apud Thessaliam^ pugnaverunt, ubi acie 
Pompeiana habuit quadraginta millia peditum, sex- 
centos equites in sinistro cornu, quingentos in dextro, 
et totius orientis auxilia, cum nobilitate senatorum, 
prsetorum/ et consularium virorum. Caesar vero in sua 
acie habuit peditum non Integra triginta millia, equites 
mille. Tandem prselio commisso exercitus Pompeii 
fugit, castra ejus dirupta sunt, ipseque Pompeius ad 



1 Eutropius, A.B. 
- ubi, added in B. 
3 et, B. 



"* Tessaliam, B. 
^ procerum^ B. 



I 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. .195 

six score and ten of silver ; he took foure score [fowsand] ^ Trevisa. 
and ten j^owsand [pound]/ and delede to his knyjtes. Eutro- 
plus. And in liknesse of pees he occupiede pe dignitees 
everichon, and wente pan in to Spayne, and J^ere he destroyede 
Pompeus his strengest oostes,^ and ]?re cheventeynes.^ panne 
he come into Grecia,'* and fau^t wij> Pompeus. In ]je firste 
batayle lulius was overcome and i-chased,^ and whan nytt 
come Pompeus wolde nou^t folwe ^ and pursewed '' pe 
chaas.^ perfore lulius seide ]?at Pompeus couj^e nou^t take 
]?e victorie, and fat onliche ]?at day he myjte have [y] ^ be 
overcome. After j^at J)ey faujte in Thessalia ; ]?ere Pompeus 
his scheltrum ^^ hadde fourty ])Owsand of ^^ foot men, and sixe 
hondred [hors men] ^ in ]}e lefte wynge, and fy ve hondred in 
])e ryjt wynge, and al ]7e helpe of J?e est side, wi]? noblete ^^ of 
pe senatoures, pretories, and consuls. Cesar hadde in his 
scheltrum nou^t fuUiche ^^ j^ritty fowsand horsmen ; and at 
pe laste in pe batayle Pompeus [his] ^ oost fli^,^* and his tentes 
were destroyed, and he hymself fleigh ^* to J)e Jonge Ptholo- 



Ab urbe. ti of golde, and Ixxxx^^ m*" li of siluyr, and distribute hit to MS. Harl. 
his knyjhtes. Eutropius. This lulius occupiede that tyme 2261. 

allemoste alle the dignites of Rome. After that he wente to . 

Speyne, Avhere he hade victory of thre gouernoures and dukes gracfone!" 
of Pompeius with theire hoste. After ]7at lulius wente to the 
londe of Grece, and tafe batelle to Pompeius. But lulius was 
ouercommen in the firste batelle, and fledde, and Pompeius 
wolde not folowe for cause that hit was ny^hte. Wherefore 
lulius seide that Pompeius cowthe not haue victory, in that he 
folowede hym not, seyenge that Pompeius myjhte haue hade 
victory oonly in that tyme. After J^at thei faujhte at Thessalia, 
where the wowarde longenge to Pompeius hade xl^' m"^ of foote f. 187. a. 
men, vj.''. horse men in the lifte parte, and v.^. horse men in the 
ryjhte honde, and alle the helpe of the este, with the senatours, 
pretors, and consulles. lulius hade in his hoste abowte the 
nowmbre of xxx*^ m^ foote men and m'*' horse men. This 
batelle begunne, the hoste of Pompeius fledde, and Pompeius 



^ From a., fi. and Cx. 

- strengthe hoostes, Cx. 

•^ cheueteynes, 0. ; capytains^ Cx. 

^ Grece, Cx. 

■' overcomen and chaced, Cx. 

^folowe and pursue f Cx. 

" pursewe, a. ; pursue the chace, 0. 

^ chaccj Cx. 



^ From a. 

^0 Pompeius sheltron, Cx. 

11 o/] om. Cx. 

12 nobley, fi. and Cx. 

13 schetrone, /8. ; shiltron not fully, 
Cx. 

^'fly^ ^- '■> fi^d'^^^ Cx. 

N 2 



J96. 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Ptolomseum juvenculum, regem -^gypti, cui tunc a 
senatu ^ tutor datus fuerat, fugit auxilia petiturus. 

Seel rex magis fortunam quam amicitiam secutus, 

oceidi fecit Pompeium, cujus caput et annulum misit 

Julio ; quibus conspectis Caesar lacrimas fudit. Mox ^ 
Alexandriam ascendit, sed Ptolomseus insidias paravit. 
Unde Caesar vi insistentium hostium pressus scapham 
ascendit, qua mox pondere ^ subsequentium gravata ac 
mersa;, Csesar per ducentos passus, una manu elevata 

qua chartas tenebat, ad navem natando pervenit. Ubi 
mox navali certamine pulsatus, magna facilitate classem 
regiam aut demersit aut cepit. Sed Alexandrinis pro 
vita regis sui exorantibus, Julius annuit, monens eum 
ut magis amicitiam Romanam quam arma temptaret. 



' senaioribus, B. 
^ Moxque, A.B. 



^pondere] from A.B. ; ponere, 
MS. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, L1J3. III. 



197 



meus, kyng of Egipt, and axede help of hym, for he was Trevisa. 

assigned hym^ by J?c senatoures to bo his tutor and his 

wardeyn. Noj^eles pe kyng folowede more hap and fortune 
|7an frendschipe, and leet slee Pompeus, and sente to lulius 
his heed and his ryng. Whan luKus sigh ^ the heed and ])e 
ryng he weep wel bitter teres,^ and wente anon^ to Alex- 
andria, and Ptholomeus arrayede ^ busshementes ^ ; ]?an Cesar 
was oversette wij; strengj?e of his enemyes, and wente into a 
boot ]?at was so hevy lade wi|) men f>at folowede hym }>at it 
sanke doun and was a-draynt/ pan Cesar swam J^re hondred 
paas wi)? oon bond, and hilde ^ ]?e chartres ^ above fe water in 
his o]?er hond/^ and come to a schippe. pere he was i-conforted 
anon, and drenchede oJ>er took ^^ al J?e kynges navey ^^ in 
batayle of J^e see esiliche^^ i-now. But fe Alexandrynes 
prayede for hir kynges lyf, and lulius grauntede, and chargede 
hym ])at he schulde [raj?er] ^^ assaie ^^ ]?e frendschipe of 
[|?e] ^^ Romayns ])an dedes of armes. NoJ^eles anon as he 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. fledde to Ptholomeus, yonge that tyme of age, kynge of Egipte, MS. Harl. 
to whom he was tutor, desirenge helpe of hym. But this '2261. 
Tholomeus, folowenge fortune rather J>en frendeschippe, causede 
Pompeius to be sleyne, sendenge to lulius his hedde with his 
rynge. lulius seenge that wepede soore, and wente anoone to 
Alexandria, but Ptholomeus hade ordeynede an hoste to resiste 
hym, where thro lulius compellede entrede in to a schippe, 
whiche was drownede thro the multitude of peple entrenge in 
to hit. Where lulius did swymme by cc. passes with the oon 
honde, hauenge writenge in that other honde, vn tille that he 
comme to an other schippe. After that he other drownede the 
schippes of Tholomeus other toke ]7eim. Then the seide lulius 
grawntede life to Tholomeus the kynge, at the instance of the 
citesynnes of Alexandria. To whom lulius Jafe a monicion 
that he scholde attempte after that the frendeschippe of the 
Romanes ra])er then batelle ageyne theyme. But this Tholo- 



* hi/tn'] om. Cx. 
2 sawe, Cx. 

2 wepte wel better teeris, Cx. 
^forthwith, Cx. 

* Tholomeus araied, Cx. 
^ boyschementes, y. 

' dreynte, Cx. 

« helde, Cx. 

"^ chutics, y. 

^" with that other handc, Cx. 



^^ eyther toke, Cx. 

•■^ There are several leaves miss- 
ing here in MS. o., which goes on 
again at the end of cap. 4. lib. iv., 
" And some of hem wolde telle 
" what was to comynge," &c. 

^'^ easely, Cx. 

1^ From /8. and Cx. 



essay^ 



Cx. 



198 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Qui tamen mox ^ ut liber fuit bellum Csesari intulit, 
sed cito cum suo exercitu delefcus est. Caesar itaque 
[regnum illud] ^ Cleopatrse commisit, cum qua consue- 
tudinem stupri habens per biennium demoratus est.^ 
Hugutio, capitulo Janus. Sub quo tempore Julius 
kalendarium correxit/ et rationem bisexti invenit. 
Ranulphus.^ Romani namque, sicut et Hebrsei, usque ad 
tempora Numse Pompilii incipiebant annum ^ a Martio. 
Et quamvis ipse Numa Januarium et Februarium ad 
annum confusum adderet, annus tamen mansit incor- 
rectus usque ad tempora Julii. In cujus honorem 
postmodum Quintilis mensis, id est quintus a Martio, 
dictus est Julius, quia *in eo mense natus fuit, vel quia 
in illo mense aliquam celebrem victoriam fecerat. 
Simili ratione sextilis mensis dictus est Augustus in 
honorem Augusti Ca^saris. ^ Rediens de ^Egypto Caesar 



1 mox~\ om. B. 

2 regnum illud^ from A.B. 
•* est] om. B. 

■' emendavitf B. 



^ Ranulphus] om. B. 

^ annum] om. A. 

7 Eutropius, added in A.B.C.D. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 199 

was fre he }a£ Cesar a batayle, but he^ was 2 sone des- Trevisa. 

troyed,3 he and his oost. Cesar bytook ]:)at kyngdom to a 

woman ]jat heet ^ Cleopatra, and dwelled wi|> here two ^ere 
in leccherie. Hugiicio, [capitulo lanus~\.^ pat tyme lulius 
amended j^e kalender, and fonde ])e cause of J?e lepe ^ Jere. ]^. 
pe Romaynes, as [the] ^ Hebrewes, bygonne ^ here teres in 
Marche anon^ to Nuraa Pompilius his ^^ tyme, and ])is Numa 
putte laniver ^^ and Feverer ^^ to ])e ^qvq in an uncerteyn 
manere, but J^e Jere was not ful ^^ amended to fore ^^ lulius his 
tyme. Quyntilus,^^ |)e fifte monj^e ^^ after Marche, was after- 
ward i-cleped ^^ lulius in worschippe of lulius Cesar, for he 
was i-bore in ]?at mon]7e, o}>er in J)at monpe he dede som ^^ grete 
dede and som grete ^^ victorie ; ffor suche a manere skile 
Sextilis, the sixte monj^e after Marche, is i-cleped Augustus in 
worschippe 20 of Augustus Cesar. Eutropius. Cesar tornede 



Ab urbe. meus restorede to liberte, ^afe batelle ageyne to lulius, but he MS. Hael. 
was sleyne anoon, and a grete parte of his hoste destroyede 2261. 
also. The body of Tholomeus borne vn to the londe by the . . . 
impulsion of the see was knowen by hys haburion of golde. gracioue," 
Then lulius Cesar toke that realme to Cleopatra, with whom 
he taryede by the space of ij. yere, vsenge here at his pleasure. 
Hugo, capitulo lanus. In whiche tyme lulius correcte the 
kalendary and founde the reason of bisexte. Ijlj. The Romanes 
began the yere from Marche, like as men of Hebrewe did vn to 
the tyme of Numa Pompilius ; and fau^he that Numa Pompilius 
did adde to the yere confuse lanuare and February, neuerthe- 
lesse the yere remaynede as incorrecte vn to the tymes of 
lulius Cesar. In the worschippe of whom the v*^® monethe f. 187. b. 
from Marche, callede afore Quintilis, was callede lulius, for 
cause he was borne in that monethe, other elles in that he 
hade a grete and solenne victory in that monethe; and also the 
sexte monethe was callede Augustus in lyke wise in the 
worschippe of Augustus Cesar. Eutropius. Then lulius 



^ Cx. inserts and his hoost here, 
omitting the last four words of the 
sentence. 

2 were, Cx. 

•^ distrut/ed, fi. 

^ callyd, Cx. 

5 From )8. and Cx. 

^ lupe, 7. 

7CX. 

^ bygan, Cx. 
^ untOf Cx. 



1° hys"] om. j8. and Cx. 

^^ Januar' )8. and Cx. 

^" Fehruar\ ^. and Cx. 

^^ fully, 7. and Cx. 

1'* hifore, fi. ; by/ore, Cx. 

^5 Quintilis, Cx. 

^^ monetk, Cx., et inira. 

^7 callid, Cx. 

^^ dyde somme, Cx. 

^^ som grete'] om. Cx. 

-° worship^ Cx. 



200 



POLYCHRONICON lUNULPHI HIGDEN 



Pharnacem ^ Mithridatis filiuin, qui Pompeio contra 
Julium in auxilio ^ fuerat, vicit acie et ad mortem 
coegit. Inde regressus Roraam tertio se consulem fecit. 
Inde in Africam profectus duces ^ nobiles, Scipionem 
et Porcium Catonem, cum ipso Juba rege Mauritanise, 
devicit acie, qui tandem seipsos interemerunt.^ ^De^ 
isto Catone refert Seneca epistola vicesima sexta,^ 
et Policratica, libro septimo capitulo ultimo, quod 
venenum bibit, gladium pectori infixit, et sic spiritum 
effudit, ne regnantem videret Csesarem. Item Seneca, 
iio libro ad Severum^ : " Nee Cato post libertatem 
" vixit, nee libertas post Catonem. Item qusedam ^ 
alia historia ^^ Romana dicit ^^ quod Cato non interfuit 
in bello commisso inter Julium et Pompeium, sed quod 
audita clade Pompeii legit librum Platonis de immor- 
talitate animge, et sic seipsum vulneravit, quod tamen 
dissuaserunt ejus [amici].^^ Unde et medici venientes 
et ^^ fomenta apposuerunt/* sed ipsis recedentibus vul- 
nera sua reaperuit/^ et^^ sic expiravit. Nee est istud 
factum excusabile in Catone quamcumque^^ fuerat lit- 
teratus et gloriosus ; primo quia hoc sibi ^^ dissuaserunt 
amici ejus, viri cordati ; secundo quia ipse non consuluit 
hoc filio suo, sed magis suasit ut viveret ^^ sub Julio 
victore ; tertio quia ex invidia seipsum occidit, nolens 



1 Fornacein, B. 

^ auxilium, B. 

•* duos, B. 

■* Faustus quoque SillcB Jilius 
Pompei generis a Ccesare interfectus 
est, added in CD. 

5 9>, added in A.B. 

^ Be ... Grcecos (page 202)] 
abbreviated in C.D. 

' The epistle is 24 in the edition 
of Seneca by Lipsius. Antwerp. 
1652. 



^ The quotation is from Seneca 
de Providentia, cap. 2. 
^ In quadam, B. 
^° Item, quadam alia historia, A. 
'^ dicitur, B. 
^2 amicil from A.B. 
1^ et'] om. B. 
'* posuerunt, B. 
^* reparavit, A.B. 
»6 sed, B. 

'' quantumcumque, A. 
'** sibi] om. A.B. 
»9 vivct, B. 




MONACHl CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



201 



out of 1 Egipt, and overcome Faniaces, Metridas his ^ sone, in a Trevisa. 

bayle,^ and leet slee hym, for he hadde Pompous i-meyntened 

a^enst^ lulius; ))ennes he wente to Rome, and made hym con- 
sul J?e fridde tyme. panne he wente into AfFrica, and over- 
come in batayle J^e noble dukes Scipio and Porcius Cato, and 
luba [the] ^ kyng of Mauritania, and peygh ^ slowh ^ hem self 
afterward. B. Seneca, epistola 26% and Policratica, libro 7% 
capitulo 6° speke]?,^ of ]?is Catoun, and telle)? ^ J>at he drank 
venym and smoot hym [silf] ^^ in to pe brest wij) a swerde, 
and so he Jalde ^^ up ]>e goost, ffor he wolde nou^t see Cesar 
regno while he were on lyve.^^ Also Seneca, 2^ libro ad 
Severum: Cato lyvede noutt after fredom,!^ no]>ev^'^ fredom ^^ 
after Cato. Also an ojjer storio of Rome seij? J)at Cato was nou^t 
in J)e batayle fat was of lulius- and Pompeus ; but he horde of 
Pompous his 2 doeJ>, and radde Plato ^^ his book do Immortalite 
animge, and sigh ^^ in })at book j^at }?e soulo may no^t deie,!^ 
and so he wounded hym self, but his frendos couusailled hym 
forto 1^ love, and seche^^ dodo salve ^*^ to his woundes ; but 
whanne ])ey were agoo he opened his owne ^^ wounde, and so he 
deyde. pis doynge is nou^t excusable in Cato, were he novere 
so wel i-lettred and so glorious. Firste for his frendos ^^ couu- 
sailled '^^ hym })e contraryo, ])at were wise men and kynde. Also 
for he counseillod23 noujt his sone forto doo so, but he couu- 
sailled hym more ^^ forto ^^ ly ve under lulius ])0 victor, pe 



Ab urbe. Cosar returnenge from Egipte hade victory of Farnaces, the MS. Harl. 
son of Mitridates, in that he Jafe helpe to Pompeius ageyne ^^^l- 
hym, and hurte hym to dethe. After that he returnede to l>e » + Z • 

• r« T-> 111 till '^ A transmi- 

cite 01 Rome, and made hym the thrydde tyme consul ; goenge gracione. 
from thens vn to Affrike, whore he hade victory ageyne Scipio 
and Porcius Cato with the kynge of Mauritany, whiche did 



* remeoved from, Cx. 

■^ Ais] om. )3. and Cx. This is 
general in these texts. 

** batail, $. ; bataj/l, y. 

■* rnayntened Pompeus ayenes, fi. 
and Cx. ; Yholpe, P., y. 

^Cx. 

6 hy, y. 

" they slough, Cx. 

*^ speken, Cx. 

^ seye, Cx. 

'" From &., y. and Cx. 

'' yelde, Cx. 



^2 alyve, Cx. 

^'^ freodom, y. (bis). 

^* nowther, Cx. 

15 Platoes, p. and Cx. 

^6 sawe, Cx. 

^7 dye, Cx. 

^^ybr] om. Cx. 

19 a leche, )S. 

20 his cure, $. and Ci. ; salf, y. 
-' owne'\ om. Cx. 

22 vrendes, y. 

-^ counseylled, Cx., et infra. 

-^ rather, Cx. 




202 



POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 



sulFerre gloriam Julii victoris. Et sic videtur quod 
Cato magis seipsum occidit ex infirmitate, ut^ declina- 
ret adversa, quam ex honestate ut vitaret turpia. Est 
autem hie ^ sciendum, quod apud Komanos multi 
fuerant Catones. Unus fuit Cato qusestor, qui trans- 
tulit Ennium poetam de Tarento usque ^ Komam. 
Alius fuit Mennius^ Cato, qui sub uiEmilio Paulo mi- 
rabiliter pugnavit contra Grsecos.^ Alius fuit Marcus 
Porcius Cato, dictus Uticensis, quia apud Uticam 
Africse seipsum interfecit, de quo nunc agitur ; et 
forte iste fuit Censorius Cato, de quo refert Jero- 
nimus in Epistola ad Nepotianum, quod^ jam senex 
effectus GrsBcas litteras addiscere nee erubuit nee de- 
speravit.'' Iste fuit ^ Stoicse seetse philosophus qui 



1 uf] from A.B. ; et, MS. 

2 /wc] om. B. 

3 in, B. 

^ Mennius] sic in omnibus MSS. 
^ See note 6, page 200. 



^ quia, B. 

7 non erubuit addiscere nee des' 
per nit, B. 

^ fuit'] om. B., but inserts it after 
philosophus. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 203 

Jjridde skile for he slow J hym self for ^ envie, ffor he wolde Tbevisa. 

noujt suffre and see lulius his wref J^e ^ and his ioye ; and so it 

seme}) J)at Cato slou^ hym self by unstedfastnes and foly, ffor 
he woulde noujt suffre angwische^ and desese, and noujt^ by 
honeste, forto^ voyde and scape ^ foule manere of doynge. 
Here take hede of meny Catouns fat were [in Rome] ^ among 
|)e Romayns : oon was Cato questor, he brou^t Ennyous ^ J^e 
poet out of Tarent into Rome ; ano]?er was Mennius Cato, pat 
fau^t wonderliche a^enst )>e Grees ^ in Paul Emilus ^^ his 
tyme. Ano|)er was Marcus Porcius Cato, ]?at was i-cleped Uti- 
sencis,!^ ffor he slow^ hym self at a citee J^at hatte ^^ Utica in 
Affrica ; ^^ of hym Ave spekej? noujt ^* at ]?is tyme ; and oon ^^ 
caas fis was Censorius Cato, of hym speke]? leronimus^^ in 
Epistola ad Nepotianum, and sei]? 'pat hym schamed^'^ nou^t 
whan he was an olde man to lerne lettres of Grewe,^^ nofer 
was [put] ^' out of trust and hope ^^ forto spede : pis was a 
philosofre of pe secte J^at hatte ^^ secta Stoycorum. Trevisa. 
Stoyci hadde fat name of a porche of Athene fat heet ^i Stoa, 
fere were i-peynt ^2 dedes and doynge of wise men and of 



Ab urbe. slee f eim selfe at the laste. Also hit is to be attended that f er MS. Harl. 
were mony noble men amonge the Romanes callede by this 2261. 

name Cato. For oon Cato was a questor, whiche brouthte . 

Ennius fe poete from Tharentus to Rome. An other was gracione!" 
callede Meninus Cato, whiche fau^hte nobly ageyne the 
Grekes with Emilius Paulus. An other Cato was namede 
Porcius Cato, and also Uiticensis, for cause he did sle hym 
selfe at Utica, a cite in Affrike, of whom hit is spoken of 
nowe. And perauenture this Cato was callede Censorius Cato, 
of whom Seynte lerom spekethe to ISepocianus, seyenge that 
he beenge of grete age schamede not neithe dispairede to lerne 
letters of Grewe. And this Cato was a philosophre of the 



^ by, )8, and Cx. 
- welthe, y. ; welthy Cx. 
•^ anguyssh, Cx. 
^* disease and not, Cx. 
^for'] om. Cx. 
^ escape, Cx. 
7 From Cx. 
^ Ennius, Cx. 
'•* Grekis, fi. and Cx. 
^° Emilius, P. and Cx. 
" Utisensis, y. ; called Utycensis, 
Cx. 



^^ callyd, Cx, 

^3 Affryque, Cx. 

^^ nou), fi. ; speke nowe, Cx. 

^^ in, p. and Cx. 

16 Jerom, fi. and Cx. 

^^ schamede, y. 

^^ Gru, y. ; Grece, Cx. 

•^ hope and trust, Cx. 

20 heet, Cx. 

-1 called, Cx. 

-2 peynted, /3. and Cx. 



204 



POLYCHRONICOX RANULPHI HIGDEN 



fecit unam magnam scientiam moralem quae dicitur 
Ethica Catonis, de qua extractus est liber ille parvus 
metricus qui legitur pueris in scholis. Eutropius, libro 
sexto} Post annum Csesar regressus Romam quarto 
se consulem fecit, et statim ad Hispanias est profectus, 
ubi filii Pompeii ingentia bella prseparaverant/'^ In 
quorum ultimo ita Caesar pa3ne devictus fuerat, ut 
fugientibus suis ipse seipsum occidere vellet, ne post 
tantam rei militaris gloriam ipse jam senex in manus 
juvenum ^ caderet, annos setatis Ivi. tunc habens. 
Tandem tamen * reparatis suis hostes vicit. Inde 
Romam rediens imperatorem se vocari fecit, ubi per 
tres ^ annos et vii. ^ menses insolentius ^ agere coepit 
contra consuetu dines Romanse libertatis. Isidorus, 
libro nono.^ Iste primus omnium ducum Romanorum 



^ Cap. XX. 
'^ reparaverant, A. 
■^ inter juvenes^ B. 
^ Tamen tandem, B. 



5 per tres"] from A.B. ; patres, MS. 

' Vj.y B. 

7 insolentias, B. 

8 Cap. iii. 



I 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



205 



stronge ; }>e firste philosofre of J)at secte heet^ Jenon. panne Trevisa. 

it folowep in fe storie : ])\s Caton made a grete sciens ^ of 

vertues'^ and of fewes,^ )>at is i-cleped Ethica Catonis, J)erof 
was J)at litel ^ book of metre i-drawe ^ ])at hatte ^ Caton, pat 
children Iernej> ^ in scole. Eutropius. After a ^ ^ere Cesar went 
eft to Rome, and made hym consul ]?e four])e tyme, and wente 
anon into Spayne, ))ere ^^ Pompeus his sones hadde arrayed 
wel ^1 stronge batailles ; in J^e laste batayle ]?ereof ^^ Cesar was 
so nyh overcome |?at his men fligh,!^ and he was in poynt to 
sle hym self leste in his elde he schulde falle into children ^* 
liond, afterward ^^ grete worschij) and ioye and grete dedes of 
chivalrie. Cesar was |)00 sixe and fifty J ere olde.^^ At ]?e laste 
his men tornede ^'^ ajen and overcome his enemyes, and efte 
[he] 1^ wente to Rome, and made men clepe ^^ hym emperour ; ^o 
and ]?ere )?re ^ere and seven mon]?es he dede outrageousliche ^^ 
ajenst j^e customs and 22 of [pe] ^3 fredom of Rome. \_Ysidorus, 
libro 9°.] 23 pis was J^e firste of alle ]?e duke of Rome ]?at was 



Ab urbe. stoicalle secte, whiclie made a science moralle whiche is callede MS. Harl. 
the etike of Cato, of whom that litelle boke vsede to be redde 2261. 

to childer in scoles is abstracte. Eutropius. lulius Cesar 

returnenge to Rome after a yere i-paste, made hym selfe gracione." 
consul in the iiij^^^® tyme ; after that he wente to Speyne, where 
the sonnes of Pompeius hade instorede a grete batelle ageyne 
hym. In the laste batelle of whom lulius was so wery and 
deuicte, his men fleenge from hym, that he was in purpose to 
haue sleyne hym selfe, leste that so noble a werreour after so 
huge and grete glory geten scholde falle in to J)e hondes of 
childer. At the laste this lulius gedrenge his lioste togedre 
and ^iffenge batelle to theyme hade the victory. Whiche 
returnenge to the cite of Rome, causede hym to be namede and f. I88. a. 
callede an emperour, where he vsede insolence by iij. yere and 
vij. monethes ageyne the consuetude of the liberte of Rome. 
Isidorus, lihro nono. This lulius was called an emperour 



^ was named, Cx. 
- science, Cx. 
•^ vertuives, 7. 
* maners, Cx. 
•' lytle, Cx. 
^ drawen, Cx. 
7 )>a< hatte'] om. Cx. 
^ luTne\>, y. ; lerne, Cx. 
^ an, Cx. 

^^ and soon after went into Spayne, 
wher, Cx. 

11 right, Cx. 

12 there, Cx. 



^•^Jledde, Cx. 
^^ childres, Cx. 
'^ after, 7. and Cx. 
1'' of age, Cx. 

^7 turnede, fi. ; tourned, Cx. 
18 From Cx. 
»9 callyd, Cx. 

-° and \>ere . . . emperour'] oiii. 
Cx. 

-1 outragely, 0. ; outragelych, 7. 

22 and] om. ^8. 

23 From )8. 



206 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



vocatus est imperator et Caesar ; Imperator quidem 
a singular! dominafcu unicse ^ monarcliise, Csesar vero eo 
quod C3eso mortuae matris ^ utero eductus sit. Ra- 
nulphus. Ab illo succedentes vocati sunt Caesares et 
imperatores, et etiam Augusti ab augendo rempublicam. 
Eutropius, libro sexto.^ Cum ergo Julius honores ex 
sua voluntate prsestaret^ quae prius a populo prsesta- 
bantur,* nee senatui ad se venienti assurgeret, aliaque 
insolita et tyrannica faceret, conjuratum est in eum a 
ducentis sexaginta^ senatoribus equitibusque Komanis, 
sed potissime a duobus Brutis. Veniens ergo die 
senatus ad Capitolium, viginti tribus vulneribus con- 
fossus interiit.^ 



^ unius, B. 

2 matris suce mortuce, B. 
^ Cap. XXV. 

* prcBstahantur'\ from A.B. ; prcB- 
itabantj MS. ; differ ebantur, CD. 



5 xl, B. 

^ This chapter is only slightly 
varied in CD. except in such por- 
tions as are noted to be abbre- 
viated. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



207 



i-cleped ^ Cesar and emperour. [He was i-cleped emperour] ^ Trevisa. 

for a passynge lordschippe [of] ^ oon principate ; and was 

i-cleped ^ Cesar for he was kutte ^ out of his moder ^ wombe 
whan his moder was dede : cesus in ^ Latyn [is] ^ i-kutte ^ in ^ 
Englisshe. []^] ^^ His successours were i-cleped emperours and 
Casars after hym ; and pe emperour was i-cleped Augustus for 
echynge of ]?e comoun profi^t : augere in ^ Latyn, eche in ^^ 
Englisshe.^^ Eutropius. Whanne [lulius] ^ schulde be ^^ his 
owne wille doo worschippe ^^ to f e peple, as the peple dede 
hjm. to forehonde,^^ he wolde nou^t ^^ noper rise ^^ a^enst ]?e 
senatoures whan ))ey come to hym, and dede^^ meny o]?er 
tirauntise ^^ and doynges ajenst ]?e customs ^^ of Rome, panne 
jn'e score senatoures and horsmen 20 of Rome, and specialliche 
tweyne, ey))er heet ^i Brutus, conspired a^enst hym, so ]7at in 22 
a day whanne pe senatours schulde come to gidres ^3 lulius 
come to Jje Capitoil, and was i-stiked ^^ poru^j^s ^nd hadde fre 
and twenty woundes, and deyde. 



Aburbe. and Cesar firste of alle the gouernoures of Rome; callede MS. Harl. 
emperours for the singuler lordeschippe of oon monarchy e, 2261. 
and Cesar in that he was taken from the wombe of his mader . . ._ 
sche beenge dedde. ^. Other governoures succedenge hym gracione. 
were callede emperoures, Cesares, and Augusti of encreasenge 
])e commune utiHte. Eutropius. This lulius Cesar tiffenge 
the dignites of Rome after his pleasure, vsede to be tiffen of the 
peple, and not risenge to the senate commenge vn to hym, and 
vsenge other cruelle actes ; wherefore Ix. senatores conspirede 
and intendede his dethe, specially ij. men of this name Brutus, 
with oper ij.''. noble men of Rome; whiche commenge to the 
Capitoly in the day of the eleccion of the senate, was woundede 
in xxiijt^ places, where thro he diede. 



^ i'"] ova.. j9. 

2 From )8., 7., and Cx. 

^ callyd, Cx. 

^ kit, 7. ; kytte^ Cx. 

^ moder s, Cx. 

«a,7- 
7 From Cx. 
^ ykuty 7. 
^ an, j8. and 7. 
1° ?^] From )8. and 7. ; ^ 
Englisshe, om. Cx. 
^^ an, 7. 

^^ ^!/) 7' and Cx. 
^^ worship, Cx. 



^^ di/de hym hyfore, Cx. 

^5 nouyf] om. Cx. 

1^ arise, )8. ; arryse, Cx. 

^^ dyde, Cx. 

^^ tyrauntryes, /8. ; iiraundys do- 
yngs, 7. ; tyrannyes, Cx. 

1^ costoms, 7. ; custommes, Cx. 

20 horsmen and senatours, j8. and 
Cx. 

2^ was called, Cx. 

^ ore, Cx. 

2' togeder, Cx. 

2* stykked thurgh, Cx. 

2S bur), i8. 



208 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Cap. XLII. 

De Julio Ccesare, primo miperatore Romano} 

Julius ad Capitolium tenclens litteras mortis suse 
indices accepit, asserente earum latere quod si eo die 
eoncionem intraret moreretur. Cui Julius : '' Nunc 
" ergo ^ cum astrologo conferam, et post eoncionem 
" litteras videbo." Vocato igitur ^ astronomo, qui in 
kalendis Julii * mortem pronunciaverat,^ ait Julius, 
" Hodie sunt kalendse, et adhuc vivo/' Cui astronomus : 
" Kalendse quidem sunt, sed nondum transierunt ; et 
" utinam mendax reperiar." Inde divertens Ceesar in 
Capitolium gladiator um capulis interemptus est kalen- 
dis Martii, unde nee vulnus in corpore ejus apparuit ; 



' A. omits heading. 
- ergo'l om. B. 
3 ergo, A. 



* Martis, B. 

^ pronunciabat, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



209 



Capitulum quadragesimum secundum. 

lulius wente to ward ))e Capitoil, and fenge^ lettres })at Trevisa. 

were iuges ^ of his de]?. J)e messanger ^ ])at broujt J)e lettres 

seide ]?at he schulde be deed Jif he come fat day among pe 
gardeyns ^ of Jje peple. " I scnal now," quod ^ lulius, " speke 
'* wi]? an astromyer,^ and afterward I schal see ]?e gaderynge ^ 
" and ))e lettres." pan he cleped ^ to hym an astronomer, j^at 
seide J?at lulius schulde deie in j^e kalendas. " To ^ day," quod 
lulius, '^bee])^^ \>q kalendas, and ^itl^^ am on lyve." "To 
" day bee)? pe kalendas," quod ^ \q astronomer, " but ])ey bee]> 
" noujt apassed ; ^^ and I ^^ wolde fat I ^^ were i-founde a Her." 
panne lulius wente to fe Capitoyle, and was i-slawe^^ with 
swerdes^^ of comoun contakkours,!^ fe firste day of Marche. But 
J'ere semed no wounde in his body, but f e lettres were i-founde 



Ab urbe. 



Capitulum quadragesimum secundum» 

luLius Cesar goenge to the Capitoly receyvede letters ex- MS. Hael. 
pressenge his dethe, the brynger of the letters seyenge that he 2261. 
scholde dye if that he entrede the cownselle howse. To whom ^ transmi- 
lulius seide : " Y schalle speke with an astronomyer, and then gracione. 
" y schalle rede the letters after that y comme from the 
" Capitoly." This astronomyer broujhte to the presence of 
lulius themperour, whiche hade schewede to hym that he 
scholde suffre dethe in the kalendes of the monethe of January, 
lulius seide " The kalendes of lanuar be fis day, and Jitte y 
" lyffe." To whom the astronomyer seide : " The kalendes be 
" now, but thei be not passede: y wolde that y scholde be pro- 
" vede a Iyer." lulius departenge from hym in to the Capitoly 
was sleyne anoon with the senatours in the kalendes off. 188. "b. 
Marche, and after his dethe no wounde apperede in his body. 



* receyved^ Cx. 

" juggis, Cx. A common error 
of the versions, from reading in- 
dices instead of indices. 

^ messager, Cx. 

■* gaderyng, 0. ; gadryng^ 7. and Cx. 

^ sayde, Cx., et infra. 

^ astronomer, Cx. 

' gadrynge, Cx. 

'^ callyd, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



9 this, Cx. 

10 be, Cx. 

'1 Ich, i8. and y. 
'2 a] om. Cx. 
13 Ich, )8. 

'' I/, )8. 
15 slayn, Cx. 

1^ sweordes, y. ; alles, Cx. 
15^ comyn contakeurs, y. ; 
contekkers or brawlers, Cx. 

O 



comune 



210 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



sed et litterse in manu ejus post mortem repertse 
sunt.^ Petrus, octavodecimo.^ Centesimo die ante 
mortem Julii fulmen^ cecidit ante statuam Julii in 
foro, [et] ^ de nomine Csesaris c litteram abstulit. 
Nocte etiam prsecedente obitum suum fenestrse thalami 
sui cum tanto impetu apertse^ sunt, ut Julius de 
stratu exsiliens ^ domum ruituram putaret. Die etiam ^ 
sequente mortem ^ ejus apparuerunt tres soles in oriente 
qui paulatim in unum corpus solare coierunt, signifi- 
cantes per hoc dominium^ trifidi orbis in unam mo- 
narchiam coiturum, vel potius notitiam trini Dei et 
unius toti orbi innotescendam. Bos quoque aranti 
locutus *^ est in suburbio Eomse, dicens frustra se 
urgeri. "In brevi/' inquit/^ "magis deficient homines 

" quam boves vel frumenta." Item in columna Julia, 
quae nunc a^^ peregrinis acus Petri dicitur, ubi pulvis 



^ sunt'] om, B. 

" The passage is from the Hist. 
Divers, added to Lib. ii. Machab. 
chap. xvi. 

^Jlumen, B. 

'' et] from A. 

'' operti, B. 

^ exilionisy B. 



7 autem, B. 

^ post mortem suam, B. 

^ divinum, B. 

^^ aranti loquutiis, A. ; aranti 
loquebatur, B. ; aravit, MS. 

^^ In . . . inquit] In brevi enim, 
A. ; Jubiter enim (sic), B. 

^2 a] om. B. 



i 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



211 



in his bond after his deej?. Petrus. An hondred ^ dayes to fore ^ Trevisa. 
lulius his deth fil ^ a li^tnynge uppon Julius his ymage in ]7e 
chepynge^ place, and took away fis^ lettre C of jjis name 
Cesar. Also fe nyjt to fore ^ his deth his chambre wyndowes 
were so griseliche ^ and so sterneliche i-oponed,® J^at lulius 
resede oute of his bedde, and wende fat ]>e hous hadde i-falle 
uppon hym. Al ^ ])e day afore ^^ his deeth ]?ere semede j^re 
sonnes in ))e Est, ))at went [a]^^ litel and litel to giders al in to 
oon sonne,^^ fat bytokened fat fe lordschippes ^^ of [f e] ^^ fre 
parties of f e worlde schulde al come ^^. in to oon princes lord- 
schipe. Of ere ^^ more verrayliche -^^ it bytokened fat al f e 
worlde schulde knowe f e Trinite, f re persones and oon God. 
Also an oxe spak to a plow^ ^^ man in f e subarbes of Rome, 
and seide fat he was i-priked and i-dryve ^^ in ^ idel, " For in 
*' a schort tyme," quod ^i he, " men schal fayle more fan oxen 
'' of er whete." Also [in] ^* lulius his piler, fat now pyl- 
gryms clepef ^^ Seynt Petres nedle,^^ fere f e askes ^^ were of 



Ab urbe. The li_^htenge descendede in the c. day afore his dethe afore MS. Hael. 
an ymage of lulius in the myddes of the cite, and toke awey 2261. 
this letter c from his name Cesar. Also in the ny^hte afore ' ._ 
his dethe the wyndowes of his chambre were openede with so gracione. 
grete a noyce that lulius Cesar did arise from his bedde, 
supposenge his chambre to haue fallen downe. Also in the 
day afore his dethe thre sonnes apperede in the este, whiche 
come to gedre in oon body of the sonne, signifienge f erby the 
lorde of the threfolde worlde to haue comme in to oon mo- 
narchye, but rafer to the knowlege of thre persones and oon 
God to be knowen to alle f e worlde. Also an ox did speke to 
a man beenge at the plowe in the subarbes of Rome, seyenge 
that he was constreynede in veyne, for men schalle fayle in the 



^ hondreth, Cx. 

" hifore, Cx. 

^fylle, Cx. 

"* clepyng, y. 

^ the, Cx. 

^ hyfore^ Cx. 

" gryslye, Cx. 

^ sternly opened, Cx. 

^ Aho, p., y., and Cx. 

^" after, P., y., and Cx. 

" From Cx. 

^- togeder alle in oon sonne^ Cx. 



^2 lordschip, y. 

" From j8., 7., and Cx. 

^5 come alle, Cx. 

16 Owther, Cx. 

17 verreylych, y. ; verely, Cx. 
1^ plowe, Cx. 

1^ prykked and dryven, Cx. 

^^ i/i] om. 7. 

-1 sayd, Cx. 

2^ calle, Cx. 

22 neld, 7. ; 7iylde, Cx. 

2* assheSj Cx. 



o 2 



212 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



combusti corporis Julii ponebatur, sic erat metrice 
scriptum : 

" Tantus Ccesar eras quantus et orhis. 

" Bed nunc in modica clauderis urna.^^ 
Ranulphus. In laudem etiam Julii multi multa scrip- 
serunt. Nam secundum Eutropium, libro sexto. Nam ^ 
eo die quo urbem ingrediebatur nullus puniebatur. 
Fecit quoque milites suos arma habere sumptuosa, ut 
metu tanti damni se defender ent.^ Erat enim vir quo 
nunquam ^ bellis * magis enituit. Ejus siquidem duc- 
tu ^ undecies centum et nonaginta duo millia hostium 
caesa sunt, exceptis bellis civilibus, quorum sanguinem 
noluit annotare ; signis collatis quinquagies dimicavit. 
Ad hsec ^ nullus eo celerius scripsit, aut velocius legit, 
quaternas etiam ^ epistolas simul dictare consuevit, et 



^ Nam'] om. B. 

2 CD., -which are much trans- 
posed, add : Eutropius libro sexto. 

3 ais, B. 



■* quo nullus unquam bellis, A. 
^ dictu, B. 

6 hoc, B. 

7 etiam] om. B. 



i 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



213 



lulius his body ]?at was i-brend,i hit was i-write ^ in metre Trevisa. 

in ])is manere : 

" pou were grete, Cesar, [as] ^ al Ipe world is at ene,* 
" And art now sette j^ere i-closed in a litel stene." 
51. Also meny men write meny J^inges and ^ preysinge of lulius 
Cesar, iFor Eutropius, libro 6°, seij? |?at no man was pun- 
sched J?at day^ pat he entrede in to ]?e citee. Also he 
made his kny^tes have costelewe'' armure, for pey schulde 
defende hem ])e mauloker ^ for drede of so greet lost.^ 
pere was nevere man more noble ])an he in batayle : by his 
ledynge [there] ^^ were i-slawe enlevene ^^ hondred })Owsand 
foure score ])owsand and twelve ]?owsand of [his] ^^ enemyes, 
al ^2 wij) oute ]?e batayles pat were i-cleped bella civilia, for 
he wolde no^t write pe nombre of hem J^at were i-slawe ^^ in 
civile batayle.^^ Trevisa. Bellum civile is a batayle bytwene 
])e Romayns hem self, and ^^ some of Rome ii^te]? and ^evep 
batayle ajenst opere of Rome.^^ pan it folwej) in pe storie. 
lulius faujt in '^'^ fyfty sijje ^^ wij? baner desplayed. Also no 
man wroot swifter }>an he ; no man radde ^^ swifter J^an he. 
Also he usede for ^^ to endite foure manere pisteles ^i and 
lettres at ones ; and whom he made suget by armour 22 he 



Ab urbe. cite Y&pev then oxen or whete. ^. Mony men did wryte MS. Harl. 
mony thynges in the lawde of lulius Cesar : for after Eutropius, 2261. 

libro sexto, noo man was punischede in that day in whom . , . 

lulius Cesar entrede in to the cite of Rome ; whiche made his gracione. 
kny^htes to make to theim armoure of grete coste, that thei 
scholde fijhte more boldely for losenge of so grete goodes and 
richesse. This lulius was a noble man in batelle and in armes, 
whiche did sle his euemys xj.^. and xcij. m^, excepte men that 
were sleyne in ciuile batelles, pQ nowmbre of whom he wolde 
not attende; whiche faujhte 1*^ tymes in sore batelles. And 
^itte for alle these labours he ^afe hym selfe to grete writenge; 
whiche wolde rede and endite epistoles at oon tyme ; and so 



^ ybarnd, 7. 

- writen, Cx. 

^ From j8., 7., and Cx. 

"* eve, Cx. 

5 in, &.,y., and Cx, 

^ punysshed this daye, Cx. 

7 costlew, Cx. 

'^ manlyker, 7. ; more vianly, Cx. 

^ grete losse, Cx. 

10 From Cx. 

^^ elleven, /3. 

12 a/] om. Cx. 



'3 slayn, )8. 
1^ batails, )3. 
^■^ whanne, /3. 
"* and some . 
om. Cx. 

17 in] om. )8. and Cx. 

^8 si];>es, fi. and Cx. 

^9 redde, Cx. 

20 /or] om. Cx. 

2^ pystleSf Cx. 

22 subget by armes, Cx. 



bataylis, Cx. 
. o\)ere of lioine^ 



214 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

quos armis subegit dementia magis vicit. ^Denique 
non erat dies sub bellicis tumultibus quo non scriberet, 
legeret, aut declamaret.^ Plinius.^ Julius Csesar, cujus 
manus non minus apta stilo quam gladio, cum nemo 
melius rempublicam administrasset, in tanto imperio 
unum solum interfici jussit, Doraitium scilicet, cui 
ante vitam^ donaverat, quem cum in civili bello ar- 
mis abjuratis contra se denuo pugnantem videret, 
militibus suis dixit, " Sufficit mihi semel vitam ingrato 
** dedisse." Suetonius.^ Simultates erga nullum tantas 
habuit quin data occasione remitteret. Item Julius 
magnse fuit patientiee. Nam milites in triumpho ip- 
sius Romse, ipso audiente nee indignante, dicebant, 
" Triumphat Caesar, qui subegit Gallos ; cur ergo non 
" triumphat Nicomedes, rex Bitbynise, qui subegit 
" Csesarem." Nam nimiam cum. illo ^ amicitiam habu- 
isse ^ ferebatur. Unde Tullius ad Julium dixisse fertur, 
" Ave rex et regina/' Et iterum " Ave regina ^ Bithy- 
" nise : mulier fuisti omnium virorum, nunc factus es 
" vir omnium mulierum." Policratica, lihro tertioP Cum 



^ Suetonius, added in CD. 

2 declinaret, B. 

3 Nat. Hist. vii. 25. 

4 vitce, B. 

^ Julius, 49, 50. 



^ cuvi ipso, B. 
"^ habere, B. 
^ rex, B. 
^ Cap. xiv. 




MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. ' 215 

overcome hem more by myldenesse. Also pere was no day in Trevisa. 

al his hard werres and batayles jiat he ne wolde ^ write, rede, 

oj^er endite. \^Plinius.'] ^ lulius Cesar his hond was [as] ^ 
able to fe pcnne as to pe swerd ; but no man governede J7e 
comounte bettre Jjan he. In alle his grete lordschip he heet ^ 
nevere slee man but oon, Domicius, to whom he hadde 
i-Jeve ^ his lif to forehonde.^ He took hym ones in a civile 
batayle, and ^af hym his lif, and made hym forswore armes, 
and sigh ^ hym afterward fijte ajenst hym in a batayle ; 
panne he seide to his kny^tes, " Hit is inow ^ to me to ^eve 
" an unkynde man ones his lyf." He was nevere so wroj» wip 
man fat he ne wolde ^ for^eve J if he seigh ^ skilful ^^ occa- 
sioun. Also lulius was of grete sufferaunce,^^ ifor in his 
worschippe ^^ in his comynge to Rome after a greet victorie, 
kny^tes of Rome seide in his owne herynge,^^ and he was nevere 
]?e wropere, " Loo Cesar took ^^ worschippe as a victor, for he 
" [ha])] 2 overcome pe Galles ; why ha]? Nychomedes kyng 
" of Bythinia non worschippe [as a victor, for he overcome 
" Cesar ; " ffor me seide pat he hadde to grete frenschip wij) 
hym].2 perefore me seip pat Tullius seide to lulius, " Hayle, 
" kyng and queue ; " [and eft, *' Hayl queue] ^ of Bithinia ; 
" ])ou were somtyme womman of alle men, and now ]}0U art 
*' made man of alle wommen." Plinius.^^ lulius Cesar was sore 



Ab urbe. J^er was noo day that scholde passe for his batelles, but he was MS. Hakl. 
Jiffen to enditenge other to other makenge. This lulius was ^^^^* 
a man of grete pacience, in so moche that he wolde suffre his ^ transmi- 
knyjhtes to say in his presence : " The Cesar or emperour gi-acione. 
" hathe a glory of victory that hathe subduede men of Fraunce ; 
" Then wherefore hathe not Nichomedes, kynge of Bithinia, a 
" triumphe of victory, whiche subduede to hym Cesar ; " with 
whom lulius Cesar hade grete familiarite. Wherefore hit is 
seide Tully to haue seide to lulius Cesar in pis wise, " Hayle 
" kynge and qwene ;" and after that, " Hayle qwene off Bithinia : f. 189. a. 
" thow was the woman of alle men, and now thow arte the man 
" of alle women." Polichronicon, libro tertio. lulius Cesar 



^ nolde^ $. ; nold, Cx. 

2 From $.,y.f and Cx. 

3 From Cx. 

"* bade, fi, and Cx. 
^ xeven, fi. and Cx. 
^ by/ore, Cx. 

7 sawe^ Cx. 

8 ynowhy Cx. 



^ iioldcy P. ; nold, Cx. 

10 skylfol, y. 

11 siiff'rans, y. 

12 worship, Cx., et infra. 

13 hyrt/ng, y. 

1^ takiji), j8. ; takej}, y. ; taketh, Cx. 
1^ Polf libro iii°, fi. and Cx. 



216 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Julius Csesar calvitium suum graviter ferret, et coma 
deficiente capillum ^ a vertice ad frontem retorqueret, 
quidam miles Romanus, de timiditate coram eo objur- 
gatus, sic respondit : " Caesar, facilius esset te calvum 
" non esse, quam me in Romano exercitu quicquam 
" timide egisse." Item cum de eo essent famosi li- 
belli et joculatoria carmina in ejus vituperium divul- 
gata patienter sustinuit. Et cum quidam eum de 
materna origine vituperaret, dicens eum panificum, 
ridendo dissimulavit. Unde Cicero de ejus laude 
dicit, " Nihil novit Julius oblivisci nisi ^ injur ias solo- 
" modo." Plinius.^ Auditorium TuUii Csesar intravit. 
Cui cum assurgeret TuUius, Caesar proliibuit, dicens, 
" Non assurgas mihi, major est* enim sapientia quam 
" potentia." Cui Tullius : " Orbis victori non assurgam ? " 
Et ^ Csesar, " At tu majorem lauream adeptus es 
" quam propagare terminos Romani imperii." ^ Cujus 
verbi occasione lex a Caesare emanavit ut nemo co- 
dicem ten ens aut legens cuiquam assurgat. Valerius.^ 



^ capillos, B. 
' prater^ B. 
^ Hist. Nat, vii. 31. 



* non est (sic), B. 

^ Et . . . imperil] om. B. 

^ B. omits reference. 



i 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



217 



a greved of his ballednesse, and heer fuilledc on his moolde ^ TKEAasA. 

and on his fortop ; he wolde bende ^ his heer from ]?e pol ^ 

toward \>g foreheed ; and a kny^t of Rome J>at was repreved ^ 
of kowardyse to fore ^ lulius, seide to lulius : " lulius," quod ^ 
he, *' hit were h^tere^ to make ])e noujt ballede jjanne it 
*^ were to make me doo eny j^ing cowardly in ]?e oost of 
" Rome." Also j^ere were famous bookes of mery^ gestes 
i-made and cunned opounliche^ in despite of hym, and he 
sufFred it pacientliche inow.^^ Also oon despisede hym and 
his moder kyn,ii and cleped hym bakere ^^ ; he low^,^^ and 
[he] ^* roujte nou^t ^^ j^erof. perfore Cithero in prey singe of 
hym sei]7, " lulius coufe not forjete but onliche in merj?e ^^ 
" and wrong." [PZ^?^^^^5.] ^^ Cesar come in ^^ a tyme into 
TuUius his scole, and Tullius aroos a^enst hym, and lulius 
forbeed ^^ hym, and seide, " Arise nou^t a^enst me, fFor wit 
" and wisdom is bettre ]7an my^te or ^o strengj^e." " Schal 
" noujt 1 21 arise," quod ^ Tullius, " ajenst ]>e victor of ]?e 
" worlde ? " " pou haste i-wonne," quod Cesar,^^ " a more 
" worschipful 2^ crowne and prise J^at^^ it were to strecche 
" out 25 [j)e boundes] ^6 of ]>e empere ^^ of Rome." And by 
cause of pat worde lulius ordeyned a lawe ]>ixt he pat radde oper 
hilde 28 a book schulde [not] 29 aryse ajenst no man. Valerius. 



Ab iirbe. come in a tyme in to the scole of Tullius, whiche rysenge to do MS. Harl. 
reuerence to hym, lulius seide in this wise : "Rise not to me, 2261. 

" for wisedome is more noble then power." To whom Tullius , 

seide : " Schalle y not arise to the lorde of the worlde ? " gJSione!" 
Then lulius Cesar seide : " Thow base geten more lawde then 
" to passe by or to go thro mony londes of the worlde." 
Wherefore a lawe was made that a maister beenge at lecture 
scholde not aryse to eny man. Valerius. Actius the poete 



1 molde, y. and Cx. 


1® mirie, ^. ; injury, y. ; only in- 


2 beende, y. 


jurie, Cx. 


3 polle, Cx. 


17 From $. and Cx. 


"* ypreved, y. 


18 on, Cx. 


5 reproved of cowardyse hyfore, 


^^forbeod, y. ; forbade, Cx. 


Cx. 


2f and, j8. and Cx. 


^ sayd, Cx. 


21 Ich not, )8. ; Shal I not, Cx. 


7 lyghter, Cx. 


22 quod Cesar"] om. Cx. 


8 mury, y. and Cx. 


23 connyng, y. 


9 knowen openly, Cx. 


24 ]pan, P., y., and Cx. 


^^ paciently yvowh, Cx. 


25 streche out of, Cx. 


1^ kynne, Cx. 


26 From /8., 7., and Cx. 


^2 called hym bakar, Cx. 


27 empyre, Cx. 


^^ he louy'] om. Cx. 


28 hulde, 7.; redde owther helde. 


'^ From Cx. ; y. has and. 


Cx. 


^5 nothynqe, Cx. 


29 From Cx. 



218 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Accius poeta Julio Csesari ad collegium poetarum 
venienti non assurrexit. Interrogatus autem^ cur 
tantsB majestati supersederet, respondit, " Inferior 
" superiori assurgit ; par pari convenit, sed sapientia 
" cunctos prsecellit ; " ^ quod quidem dictum Julius ap- 
probavit. Banulphus.^ Item adducti sunt coram Julio 
duo pueri mas et foemina ad invicem simillimi, quos 
cum diu inspexisset, munifice ditatos remisit cum his 
versibus. Versus, 

" Ite pares pariter paribus suadete medullis. 

" Convictus vestros non vincant oscula conchw, 

" Brachia non hederm^ non murmura blanda co- 
lumbar. 

" Vivite vos similes insimul absque dolo." 
Apuleius.^ Conjuratio Catilinae^ sub optimo consule 
Cicerone detecta est et damnata ; ubi nee nobilitas 
personse delinquentis, nee tanti patroni sui, scilicet 



^ ergo, B. 

2 excellit, B. 

3 CD. omit reference. 
* hederce] edere, MSS. 



^ B. omits reference. 
^" CatilincE, from A. ; CatilencB, 
B. and MS. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



219 



Acius J)e poete aroos noujt a^enst lulius Cesar, whan lulius Trevisa. 

come in to ]^e colage ^ of poetes, and me axed hym why he 

sat stille in ]?e comynge of so greet a lorde. '* pe lasse," quod 
he, " schal aryse ^ ajenst ]>e more,^ and peerc schal come to his 
" pere, but witte and wisdom passe]? al ; " and lulius alowede 
lawe.* [$^']^ -^ knave ^ childe and a mayde childe were 
i-broujt to fore ^ lulius, fat were most liche ^ hym ^ of any 
children on lyve ; ^^ and lulius byhelde hem in ^^ a tyme, and 
Jaf hem greet ^i^^®^) ^^^ sente hem a^en wi]? suche vers.^^ 
" Schewef al oon cleerliche,!^ and peeres goo]) ^* I-fere.^^ 
" Let no myskissynge ^^ have prise of Joure bo])e lyvynge. 
'' Noon yuy sprayse, no noyse of do ^^ none layes 
" ^ereliche ^^ [of chere] ^^ I-fere ^^ wi]? oute eny gile." 
Apuleius. pe conspiracie of Catelyn come out in ^i Cithero 
fe beste consul his tyme, and was i-dampned ; ]7ere no])er 
for noblete ^^ of })e persone ])at hadde agult,^^ no]7er real ^^ 
spekynge of lulius Cesar, pat was his patroun and his 
vorie,^^ and pleted 26 for hym for 21 myldenesse and pitee at 



Ab urbe. did not arise to lulius Cesar commenge to his scole, whiche MS. Harl, 
inquirede the cause ))erof seide : "pe inferior awe to do 226I. 
** reuerence to the superior, an egal man to a man egalle to hym ; ^ transmi- 
*' but wisedome precellethe all other thynges : " the seyenge gracione. 
of whom lulius did approbate and commendede gretely. ]^. 
Also there were ij. childer, ]>e male and female, broujte afore 
lulius Cesar like to other, that a man cowthe not welle discerne 
the male from the female, as vn to \q sighte ; whom lulius 
beholdenge sende the childer home ageyne, ^ifFenge to theyme 
riche Jiftes. Apuleius, ' The coniuracion of Catilene was 
schewed and expressede to the senate and condempnede ; where 
the nobilite of blode nei]?er the nobilite of the man pletenge 



1 collage^ 7. ; college^ Cx. 

2 rise, fi. 

3 gretter, j8. and 7. ; greter, Cx. 

^ J>is sawe, j8. and 7. ; his sayenqe, 
Cx. 

5 From 8. and Cx. 

6 man, Cx. 

7 hyfore, Cx. 
^ lyke, Cx. 

9 fiyni] om. 7. 

10 alyve, 8. and Cx. 
" on, Cx. 

12 versus, 8. and Cx. 
1^ cher^ lich, /8. -, on ch ere lyche, 7. ; 
chere lyke, Cx. 
14 gon, Cx. 



'^ yfere, 7. 

^^ myskussyng, 7. 

I'' douen, fi. ; douene, 7. ; douves, 
Cx. 

1^ ^e /dcAe, /8. ; ye-lyche yfere, 7. ; 
?/e Z^^e, Cx. 

^9 From Cx., not in 7. 

2*' be]> yfere, 7. 

21 by, Cx. 

22 nobley, fi. and Cx. 

23 ygfzV^, iS. ; gilt, Cx. 

24 nowther roialle, Cx. 

25 avowrye, 0. and Cx. ; avowery, 

7- 

26 ;?ferferf, )8. 



220 POLYCHRONICON IlANULPHI HIGDEN 

Julii, facundia pro dementia perorantis, Marco Catone 
in contrarium persuadente, reo potuit suffragari. Sa- 
lustius} Fuerunt duo viri prseclari, Marcus Cato et 
Caius ^ Julius, quibus genus, setas, et eloquentia prope 
sequalia fuere. Magnitudo animi par, sed gloria diversa, 
Cato vitge integritate, magnus Julius magnificentia et 
magnitudine.^ Illi severitas, isti liberalitas gloriam 
addidit, CsBsar dando ^ Cato nihil largiendo ^ lauda- 
tur, in Csesare miserorum refugium, in Catone malorum 
supplicium. In Csesare laborare, vigilare, sua negligere, 
nihil negare quod posset, bellum novum parare, tri- 
umphum op tare, dulce fuit. Catoni, quoque studium 
modestise, constantise, severitatis, non divitiis cum divite, 
non factione cum factioso, sed virtute cum strenuo, 
pudore cum modesto, certabat magis esse bonus quam 
videri bonus. Itaque quo minus petebat gloriam, ipsam 
magis assequebatur. Alfridus et Galfridus. De- 



' Catilina, 53-54. 

- Gains, A. 

•^ mansuetudinc, A.B. 



'• Umdatur, added in B. 
•^ nichil, added in B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



221 



fat tyme Jif he myjte hym lielpe,i fFor Marcus Cato pletede Trevisa. 

a^enst hym, and preved hym gulty.^ Salustius. pere were 

tweie noble men, Marcus Cato and Gains lulius, wel nyh^ 
of [one] ■* worjjynesse of blood, of age, and of noble and 
real ^ speche, and i-liche greet of herte, but ])ey were of 
dyvers ioye and worschippe.^ Cato was greet in clennes 
of lyf, and lulius ^ in largenesse of Jiftes and in mildenesse. 
pat oon liadde worschippe by cruelnesse, and |)e® o]?er by 
fredom of ^iftes. Cesar by Jiftes, Cato by Jevynge of ^ none 
Jiftes is i-preysed. In Cesar socour and refute of wrecches 
and of nedy ^^ men. In Catoun, punschynge ^^ of evel doers.^^ 
In Cesar, wakynge and travayle for gendrynge of his owne, 
no ]?ing werne J>at he my^te do arraye ^^ newe batailles, 
desire triumphis and worschippe^* as a victor of Rome, al 
]>is was likynge to Cesar. Catoun loved besynesse of sober- 
nesse, of stedfastnesse, of sturnesse ; ^^ he stroof nou^t ^^ wij) 
richesse a^enst J?e riche, noujt with tresoun ^^ a^enst fe tray- 
tour ; but wi]? streng]?e ajenst fe stronge, wiJ? honeste ajenst 
fe sobre man ; he desirede more to be good Jeanne [to] ^^ seme 
good ; so ]}at ]?e lasse he desired good ^^ worschippe ]?e more 
worschippe he hadde. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Whanne Cas- 



Aburbe. for hym, lulius Cesar, my^hte haue eny fauor, Marcus Cato MS. Harl. 
laborenge and movenge the sentence to procede ageyne hym. 2261. 
Salustius, Marcus Cato and lulius Cesar were ij. noble men, ^ transmi- 
the bloode, age, and eloquence of whom were allemoste egalle, gracione. 
and like of audacite ; but thei were diuersificate in glory, for 
Cato was grete in vertuous lyfe, and lulius in magnificence 
and mansuetude, exercisenge cruellenesse or cruelte, and Cato 
liberalite, thro whom he hade glory. lulius Cesar was com- 
mendede in Jiffenge, and Marcus Cato was commended ^iffenge 
noo thynge, in that he was the lufFer off vertu, of trawthe, of 
ryjhteuousenesse, causenge iuste sentence and iuggemente to 
procede ageyne wickede men and oppressores of the poore 
peple, whiche desirenge litel glory hade moche. Gaufridus f. 189. b. 



^ yif. . . helpe] mj/yht noyt hym 
helpe, y. 

2 preved him gilty, Cx. 

3 nighe, Cx. 

^ From y. and Cx. 

^ roially Cx. 

^ worship, Cx., et infra. 

7 a7id Julius'] om. Cx. 

8 that, Cx. 

^ yevynge of] om. y. 
*^ neody, y. 



^^ punisshynge, Cx. 
^2 dedes, y. 
^'^ araye, Cx. 

^^ desirous triumphous and wor- 
ship, Cx. 

^^ sternesse, Gx. 
^^ strofe not, Cx. 
^J" trayson, Cx. 

18 From )3. and Cx. 

19 good] om. )S., y., and Cx. 



222 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



functo Cassibalano ^ apud Britanniam,^ et in Eboraco 
sepulto, successit ei nepos suus Tenuancius, dux 
Cornubise, filius regis Lud, et ^ frater Andragii. Nam 
ipse Andragius * cum Csesare Romam perrexerat.^ 

Cap. XLIII. 

[De Augusto Imjperatore Romano et de Regihus 

JudcBce.] 
Ab urbe. Interfecto Julio CsBsare, Octavianus ^ genere Roma- 

707. 

gracione. nus, patiG Octavio ^ senatoie genitus, maternum genus 
ab ^nea per Juliam familiam sortitus, Julii Cassaris 
nepos ex parte sororis,^ adoptione filius, quem ille 
testamento heredem reliquerat, annos octodecim jam^ 



^ Geoffrey spells the names Cas- 
sihellaunus and Androgens. See 
Book iv., chap. ii. 

2 Britonum (sic), A. 

3 ac, B. 

^ Julii Cesaris nepos ex parte 
sororis, added in B. evidently by an 
error of the scribe, who has inserted 
here a portion of the next sentence 
and omitted it from its proper place. 
See note ^. 



^ perrexit, B. This chapter is 
but slightly varied in substance in 
CD. ; it is, however, much trans- 
posed. 

^ Octovianusy A., et MSS. saepis- 
sime. 

7 Octovio, A. 

^ Julii . . . sororis'\ om. B. 

^ interim, A. ; nouj B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



223 



sibelanus was dede in Bretayne, and i-buryed at Jork, his 
neve we Tenuancius ^ [was kyng after hym. Tenancius] ^ 
was duke^ of Cornewayle, and kyng Lud his sone, and 
Andragius his broker. Andragius was i-went ^ with lulyus 
Cesar to Romee.^ 



Trevisa. 



Capitulum quadragesimum tertium. 

Whan lulius Cesar was i-slawe,^ Octovianus of Rome, 
ey^tene J ere olde/ was i-sent wi]? tweie consuls for to pursue ^ 
Marcus Antonius, pat was ]?o i-demed^ open enemy to fe 
comounte,^^ ffor he was arise a^en^^ pe senatoures, and a^enst 
hem j)at slowj lulius Cesar, pis Octovanius was a Romayn, 
Octavianus ^^ \q senatour his sone, and come of Eneas in ^^ 
his moder side by [the]^ kynrede^^ |)at hatte lulia familia, 
and was lulius Cesar his nevewe of his suster i-bore, and his 
owne sone adoptivus, and lulius made hym his eyer ^^ in his 



Ab urbe. €t Alfridus. Cassibelanus dedde at Briteyn, and beriede at MS. Harl. 
Yorke, Tenuantius, son of kynge Lud and duke of Cornewaile, 2261. 
was made kynge, for Androgius, his elder bro|?er, wente to ~ — . 
Rome with lulius Cesar. gJlcS!' 



\_Capitulum quadragesimum tertium,'] ^^ 

luLius Cesar sleyne, Octauianus, a Roman of kynde geten 
by Octauius, a senator of Rome, commenge by his moder from 
the stocke of Eneas, whom lulius assignede to be heire to 
hym in his testamente, whiche hauenge xviij. yere in age, 
was sonde to pursewe Marcus Antonius, iuggede by the senate 
commune enemye to theyme, in that he movede batelle 
ageyne theyme, for cause thei hade putte lulius Cesar to 
dethe. After that, this Marcus Antonius fleenge to Lepidus, 
a noble man in the hoste of Octauian, was accordede with 



1 Tenancius, fi. and Cx. 
- From &.,y., and Cx. 
^ due, Cx. 

^ was i-went'] wente, Cx.; i-, om. 
p. ; a-went, y. 
^ Rome, /3. 
^ slayn, $. and Cx. 
7 of age, Cx. 
^ persuwe, y. 



^ jpan demed, fi. and Cx. 
^^ comente, Cx. 

^^ made insurrection ayenst, Cx. 
^2 Octavius, P., y., and Cx. 
^3 on, Cx. 
^'^ kynrad, y. 
^5 heyre, Cx. 

1^ The numbering of the chapter 
is omitted in the MS. 



224 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHl HTGDEN 



habens, missus est cum duobus consulibus ad perse- 
quendum Marcum Antonium, qui tunc publicus hostis 
judicabatur, eo quod contra senatum et contra occisores 
Julii insurrexerat.^ Quo apud Mutinam devicto, duo- 
busque consulibus jam in via obeuntibus, tres exer- 
citus Octaviano apparuerunt.^ Octavianus, procurante 
Lepido magistro equitum, ad quem Antonius confu- 
gerat,^ pacem fecit cum Antonio. Unde et Romam 
profectus anno setatis* vicesimo consulatum extorsit. 
Inde imperavit quinquaginta sex annis sex mensibus 
aliquantisque diebus, hoc est a mense Martio usque ad 
kalendas Octobris. Ex quibus duodecim annis cum 
Antonio, xl. quatuor solus regnavit, sicque totum orbem 
in unam monarchiam redegit. Et sicut a Julio Caesare 
reges Romani dicti sunt Caesares, sic ab isto Octa,viano 
Augusto subsequentes dicti sunt Augusti.^ HugutioJ^ 
Iste non solum dictus est Augustus ab augendo rem- 



» 



^ insurrexerat, from B. ; insur- 
rexerant, MS. 
^ paruerunt, A.B. 
^Jugerat, B. 



■* Slice, added in B. 
^ Augustus, B. 

^ capitulo Augeo, added correctly 
in A.B. 



i 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



225 



testament. Marcus was overcome at Mutina, and pe tweyne Trevisa. 
consuls deyde by pe weye. panne Octovianus come to Rome — 
wip ^ pvc grete oostes ^ at his heste.^ Octovianus made pees 
wij? Marcus Antonius, at pe "* profrynge ^ of oon Lipidus,^ pat 
was mayster of pe horsmen to hym. Marcus Antonius was 
i-flowe.^ panne Octovianus come to Rome in his twentipe 
Jere of his elde,^ and took pe dignyte and made hym self 
consul by strengpe, and panne ^ afterward [regned] ^^ em- 
perour sixe and fifty Jere sixe monpes ^^ and somwhat of 
dayes, pat was from pe monpe ^^ of Marche to pe firste day 
of Octobre. In pe whiche tyme he regned twelf J ere wip 
Octovianus,^^ and foure and fourty Jere allone ; and so he 
broujte al pe worlde into oon principalte and lordschippe.^^ 
And as pe kynges of Rome hadde pe name of lulius Cesar, and 
were i-cleped Cesares, so pey pat come after pis Octovianus 
Augustis ^^ hadde pe name of hym, and were i-cleped Augusti. 
\_Hugo, capitido Augeo.'\ ^^ pis hadde noujt pat name one- 
liche ^^ of augere, pat is forto eche and ^^ make more, for he 
made more and echede pe comoun profijt,^^ but for he was ^^ 



Ab urbe. Octauian thro the meane and labor of that noble man MS. Harl. 
Lepidus, the oper ij. consuUes of Rome dedde in the way. 2261. 
Wherefore Octauian commence to Rome in the xx" yere of . . ~ • 

,. Til PI ir»! nr»!-^ transmi- 

nis age, did sle mony oi the senate and oi the consulles tor the gracione. 
dethe of lulius, where he reignede afterwarde Ivj. yere 
vj. monethes and certeyne dales, that was from the monethe of 
Marche vn to the kalendes of October. Whiche reignede 
xij. yere with Antonius and xliiij. yere alloone ; and so he 
redacte the worlde in to oon monarchye ; and like as the princi- 
palle gouernoure of Rome was callede Cesar from lulius Cesar, so 
emperoures folowenge were callede Augusti of this Octauianus 
Augustus. Hugo^ capitulo Augeo. This Octauianus was not 
callede Augustus oonly of encreasenge of thempyre, but for 



' Octovianus . . . t/;ip] had Oc- 
tovianus, jS. 

2 than had Octavianus the grete 
hoostes, Cx. 

^ commaundemente, Cx. 

■* )?e] om. /8. 

^ atte desyre, Cx. 

^ Lepidus, y. 

^ yjlowe, y. ; Jledde, Cx. 

^ of age ^ Cx. 

^ ))anne^ om. H. and Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



'" From )3. and Cx. 

^' monethes, Cx. 

^- moneth, Cx. 

^3 Antonius, fi. and Cx. 

^** principate and lordship, Cx. 

^^ Augustus, Cx. 

1*' onli/, Cx. 

^^ for encreace or, Cx. 

^^ comune prqfite, Cx., et infra. 

^*^ for a was, y. 



226 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



publicam sed quia in mense Augusto^ natus fuit, vel 
quia in illo mense victoriam habuit de Antonio et 
Cleopatra. Et fuit hie Augustus filius Atise,^ filise^ 
sororis Julii. Eutropius, lihro septimo.^ Igitur primo 
anno imperii sui Augustus in ultionem interfectionis 
Julii senatum proscripsit, Brutum et Cassium fugavit, 
Ciceronem, Ixii.^ setatis suae anno, sub specie con- 
cordise ad placitum Antonii tradidit. Augustinus de 
Civitate, libra tertio, capitulo tertio in fine.^ Octa- 
vianum adhuc adolescentem Tullius foverat sub spe 
rei ^ publicse promovendae ^ contra Antonii malitiam, 
sed postmodum Augustus permisit Antonium occidere 
Ciceronem quasi quadam concordiae pactione. Cum 
ergo ^ Antonius linguam Tullii abscinderet, pro eo quod 
multa invectiva contra eum dictasset, respondit Tullius 
metrice, Nit agis, Antoni ; scripta diserta onanent 



^ Augustiy B. 

2 AcicB, B. ; Accice, MS. 

^ Cap. iii. 

^filii, A. 

5 62, A. ; 162, B. 



^ in fine\ om. B. The true re- 
ference is cap. XXX. 
7 rei\ om. A. 
^ promovendaf MS. 
^ igitur, B. ' 



MONACHl CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



227 



i-bore in pat monthe ^ J^at hatte 2 Augustus, ofer for he Trevisa. 

haddo fe victorie in pat monpe of Antonius and of Cleopatra. 

pis Augustus was ]>o sone of oon Actia, lulius his^ suster 
doubter. Eutropius, libro 7^. panne Augustus pe firste J ere * 
of his empere,^ in wi'eche of lulius his dep, exiled pe sena- 
toures, and chasede^ Brutus and Cassius, and took Cithero to 
Antonius his paleys in hope of acord : Cithero was poo '' in his 
sixty and twelfpe Jere. Augustinus de Civitate \_Dei\ ^ libro 3°, 
capitulo 30. Tullius hadde i-favered and tenderliche ^ i-kept 
Octovianus in his Jowpe ^^ ajenst pe malys of Antonius, in 
hope pat he schulde helpe moche ^^ pe empere ^^ and pe comyn 
profite of Rome ; nopeles Octovianus leet Antonius sle Tullius 
Cithero as it were by a manere covenant of acord. panne 
whanne Antonius wolde kutte of Tullius his tonge, for he 
hadde i- wrote ^^ moche ^^ a^enst Antonius in blame of hym, 
panne Tullius answerde in metre [and seide] : ^^ "Nou^t doost 
" [thou,] 15 Antony,!^ writynge schal nedes ^'^ abyde. [Eu- 



Ab urbe, cause he was borne in the monethe of Auguste, other elles for MS. Harl. 
cause he hade victory of Antonius and Cleopatra. This 2261. 

Augustus was son of Actia, the dojhter of pe sustyr of lulius , 

Cesar. Eutropius, libro 7°. This Augustus condempnede grS?S" 
the senate in the firste yere of his reigne, in vengenge the 
dethe of lulius, and chasede from the cite Brutus and Crassius, 
takenge Cithero to Antonius in the Ixij. yere of his age 
callede as to acorde. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libro 8°, £ 190. a. 
capitulo tertio. This Tullius norischede Octauian beenge 
tender of age, trustenge and supposenge the seide Octauian 
to comme to honor ageyne Marcus Antonius and the malice of 
hym. But Octauian suffrede Marcus Antonius to sle Tullius 
as by a conuencion of Concorde. And when this Antonius 
kytte aweye the tunge of Tullius, in that Tullius hade writen 
mony thynges ageyne hym, Tullius seide in this maner : 
" Antonius, pow dose noujhte, for the writenge remaynethe." 



' monethf Cx., et infira. 

'^- \>at hatte'\ om. Cx. 

^ Aw] om. /8. This is general in 
this MS., and will not be noticed 
in future. 

■* )ere] om. Cx. 

^ empyre, Cx. 

^ chaced, Cx. 

7 f>a7i, /3. and Cx. 

« From Cx. 



'^ tendrely, Cx. 

^^ yongthy Cx. 

'1 mychcy /3. 

12 tkempyre, Cx., et infra. 

^3 wryten, )8. and Cx. 

^^ Added from /3., 7., and Cx. 

^5 From /8. and Cx., not 7. 

IS Antoni, y. 

'7 neduSy y. 

p 2 



228 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Eutropius} Octavianus igitur cum Antonio apud 

Macedonian! occisores Julii, Briitum et Cassium, cum 

magna multitudine peremerunt,^ et ex tunc rempublicam 

inter se diviserunt, ita ut Augustus Hispanias,^ Galliam, 

Italiam, Antonius vero Orientem teneret. Valerius, 

lihro quarto.^ Porcia, magni Catonis filia, cum Brutum 

virum suum interemptum agnosceret, cum ferrum non 

afFuit, carbones ardentes ore hausit. Hoc tempore 

secundum quosdam Ovidius Naso poeta Pelignis nas- 

Aburbe. citur. Salustius, orator et historiarum scriptor, Komse 

717. ^ 

A transmi- 

grac^ne. obiit. Hic Ciccroni ^ semper semulus,^ Terentiam ' 



557. 



a Cicerone repudiatam^ in uxorem duxit. Ideoque 
contra eum Cicero invectiones fecit. Isidorus,^ lihro 
primo}^ Iste Salustius,^^ ludi magister, primus K. lit- 



^ CD. omit reference. It is 
lib. vii. cap. iii. 

^ percurreruntf B. 

3 Hispaniam, B. 

^ Cap. vi. 5. 

^ Citheroneniy B. ; Citheroni, MS. 
et sic passim. 

^ fuit, added in A.B. 



7 Terrentiam, B. ; Tarentiani, 
MS. 

8 repudiatam] om. A. 

^ Isidorus . . . Jude(E'\ om. CD. 

10 Cap. iv. 

1' Some texts of Isidore read Sal- 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



229 



" tropius]" 1 panne Octovianus wi]> Antonius in Macedonia ^ Trevisa. 

slowj hem pat slowj lulius [Cesar],^ bo]?^ Brutus and Cas- 

sius, and greet multitude of opere ; and afterwarde J?ey delede 

\Q empere hem^ bytwene, so ])at Augustus schulde holde^ 

Spayne, Gallia, and Italy, and Antonius hilde ^ ]?e Est londes. 

Valerius, libro 4°. Porcia, [the] ^ grete Caton his doujter, whan 

sche ^ hirde pat hir housbonde ^^ Brutus was [i-slawe,^^ for 

sche ^2 hadde [noon Qggo. tole],^ sche ^^ took brennynge coolys i* 

in to ^^ her moupe. Som telle]? ^^ pat Ovyde ^^ Naso, the poete, 

was i-bore at Peligius.^^ Salustius, pe advokett^^ and writere 

of stories, deyde at Rome, pis hadde alwey ^^ envie to Cithero. 

He wedded Therencia ^^ to wif, pat Cithero hadde by dyvers 

tyme ^2 i-putte from hym and forsake ; perfore Cithero made 

gestes in blame ^^ of Salustius. Ysidorus, libro primo. pis 

Salustius was maister of pleyes,^* and put first pis lettre k to 



A transmi' 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. Eutropius. Octauian takenge with hym Antonius, and goenge MS. Harl. 
to Macedony, did sle Brutus and Cassius pe sleers of lulius 2261. 
Cesar with a grete multitude of peple, and then thei diuidede 
thempyre betwene theyme, so that Octauian scholde haue 
Speyne, Ytaly, and Fraunce, and Antonius scholde reioyce the 
cuntre of pe este. Valerius, libro 4^^. Porcia, the dojhter of grete 
Cato, knowenge the dethe of here howsebonde, and hauenge 
noe knyfe nye to her, receyvede hot brennenge cooles of fire 
into her mowthe. Ouidius Naso, the poette, was borne this 
tyme after the sentence of diuerse men. Salustius the writer 
of stories diede abowte this tyme at Rome. This Salustius was 
contrarious alleweyes to Cithero, whiche toke Terentia to hys 
wife refusede of Cithero, wherefore Cithero made mony 
menciones and writenges ageynes hym. Isidorus, Ethimologia, 
libro primo. This Salustius, maister of disportes, founde firste 



1 Added from /3,, 7., and Cx. 

2 in Macedonia^ ova. Cx. 

3 From Cx. 
'* bote, y. 

5 ham, 7. 

^ schulde holde] helde, &. ; hielde, 
Cx. 
7 helde, Cx. 
s From 7. and Cx. 
' heo, a., )8., and 7. 
^^ hosbond, 7. 
^^ i-slawe'] slayne, )8. 
12 heo, /8. 



'3 heo, /8. ; he, 7. 

^■^ coles, Cx. 

^^ to'] om. Cx. 

^^ say, Cx. 

^7 Ovidius, Cx. 

^^ Pelignis, 7. ; Pelgius, Cx. 

^^ avoket, y. ; advocate, Cx. 

20 ever, Cx. 

21 Terencia, Cx. 

22 dyvers tyme] lyvorse, /8. and 
Cx. ; deuors, 7. 

23 reprove, Cx. 
-'* playes, Cx. 



230 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

teram Latinis litteris adjecit, ut inter c. ^ et q. aliquale 
soni discrimen faceret. Qua littera soli Latini utuntur. 
Petrus, septimo decimo.^ Be Regihus Judece.^ Defi- 
ciente Judaeorum principatu, Herodes Ascalonita,* Anti- 
patris Idumei et matris Arabicse filius, regnavit super 
Judaeos annis triginta sex.^ Cum enim Hyrcanus 
frater Aristoboli,^ et hujus Herodis pater Antipater, 
diu fuissent amici, et in conspectu Julii Csesaris, sicut 
prius ^ in conspectu Pompeii, gratiam promeruissent, 
confirmatus est Hyrcanus in regno Judseorum, tamen 
ne rex vocaretur. Antipater vero Idumeus, cum de 
infidelitate coram ^ Julio accusaretur, vulnerum cica- 
trices quae pro Julio apud iEgyptum susceperat palam 
ostendit, unde et a Julio procurator Judaese est decretus. 
Inde filium suum^ secundum ^^^ natu^^ heredem,^^ qui 
postmodum Ascalonita ab Ascalone reparata^^ dictus 
est, praefecit Galileae ; sed Antipatro per venenum Malici 



2 The reference is Hist. Divers, 
cap. xvii. 

■^ A.B. omit title. 

** Ascolonita, A.B. 

5 Petrus, libro 17°, added in CD. 

^ Aristotili, B. 



' prius'] om. B. 
^ corami om. B. 
^ suu7n'] om. B. 
^" secundoy A. 
^^ natum, B. 
*- heredem'] om. B. 
^"* reperta, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 231 

]>G Lat3m lettres for to have som diversite of soun bytwene Trevisa. 
c and q. Onliche ^ Latyn men use]? 2 j^e ^ lettre k. Pe- 
tr us, 10°.^ pe principal te^ of lewes faillede, and Herodes 
Ascalanita ^ regnede in J^e lewery ^ sixe and j^ritty Jere ; 
his fader was Anticipater^ of Idumea, and his moder was 
of Arabia. Whan Hircanus Aristobolus his brojjer, and Anti- 
cipater^ J?is Herodes [fader],^ hadde be frendes and hadde 
gi'ace of luHus Cesar, as J>ey hadde i-hadde ^^ to fore honde ^^ 
of Pompeus, Hircanus was conformed in fe kyngdom of 
lewes, but so pat he schulde not be i-cleped ^2 kyng. And 
Anticipator ^^ of Idumea was accused to lulius of greet fals- 
heedji* \>o ^^ he schewede opounliche pe wemmes of the sore ^^ 
woundes pat he hadde i-fonge ^^ in Egipt ; perfore lulius 
made hym procuratour of the lewerye. Afterward his secounde 
sone Herodes, pat was afterward i-cleped Ascolonita,^^ for he 
repayraled^^ pe citee Ascolon,2o he was i-made procurator 
of Galilea.21 Whan Anticipator ^ was i-slawe 22 by malys ^3 of 



Ab urbe. this letter K, makenge in manor a distincion in sownde betwene MS. Harl. 
C and K, whiche letter oonly men of Latyn vse. Petrus, 17°. 2261. 

The principate of pe lewes faylenge, Herodes Ascolonita, son 

of Antipater Idumeus, reignede amonge the lewes xxxvj. yere. grS^!" 
Hircanus the son of Aristobolus, and Antipater fader of 
Herode aforeseide, were frendes, and hade grace schewede to 
peim in the tyme of lulius, as thei hade of Pompeius. Hir- 
canus was made by lulius gouernour of lerusalem, so that he 
scholde not be calledde kynge. Antipater accusede of in- 
fideiite afore lulius, schewede hym the woundes whom he 
hade suffrede for hym at Egipte, wherefore he was made the 
proctor of the lewery. After that he made Herodes Asco- 
lonita, pe secunde son to hym, namede Ascolonita for therepara- f. 190. b. 
cion of a cite callede Ascalon, gouernoure of Galilee; but 
Antipater dedde this Herode hade suche fauor of Antonius, 



1 Only, Cx. 

2 usen, Cx. 

3 bS i8. and y. ; \>{s, Cx. 

^ decimo septimo, fi. and Cx. 
5 principate, y. and Cx. 
^ Ascolonita, Cx. 

7 Jewry, Cx., et infra. 

8 Antipater, $., 7., and Cx. 

9 From fi. and Cx. , 
^^ i-hadde] om. Cx. 
^1 hifore, Cx. 

*^ callyd, Cx. 



'3 Antipater, /8. and Cx. 
^^falsed, y. 
^5 j)an, /8. and Cx. 
^^ four, Cx. 

^' i-fonge'] fang, j3. ; om. Cx. ; ' 
adds^br Julius after yfonge. 
^^ Ascalonyta, y. 
^^ reparaylde, y. ; repay red, Cx. 

20 Ascalon, y. and Cx. 

21 Galilee, Cx. 

22 i-slawe] slayn, /8. and Cx. 

23 malyce, Cx. 



232 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



extincto, Herodes iste gratiam Antonii in tantum pro- 
meruit quod ipse et fratres sui ex procuratoribus 
tetrarchee fierent. Petrus, vicesimo quarto} Tandem 
Herodes iste subsequens Antonium usque Romam ope 
ejus rex Judese declaratus est, et coronatus in Capitolio 
coram Augusto. Inde Herodes iste remissus est cum 
duobus ducibus,'^ qui eum in regno collocarent. Sed 
Antigonus, qui ope Parthorum regnum Judaese interim 
occupaverat, unum de ducibus Romanis ita muneribus 
corruperat ut usque in^ quartum annum Herodes 
regnare non poterat ; sed tandem auxilio Antonii, qui 
tunc Athenas fuerat, obsessa Jerusalem quinque mensi- 
bus et vix capta, Herodes in regno collocatur quarto 
coronationis suae anno. Inde est quod quandoque 
plures quandoque pauciores^ anni Herodis leguntur. 
Petrus, vicesimo primo.^ Iste Herodes major novem 



* Hist. Div. cap. xx. 

- Romanis, added in A.B. 

3 ad, B. 



■* The adjectives are transposed 
inB. 
^ Hist. Div. xix. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



233 



venym, pis Herodes hadde so grete grace of Antonius ]?at of Trevisa. 

procuratoures he made hym and his brej^eren foure princes, 

Petrus^ 24°.^ At ]>e laste ]?is Herodes folowede ^ Antonius 
to Rome, and by help of hym he was declared kyng of [J)e] ^ 
lewerie, and i-crowned in fe Capitoyle in presens^ of \q 
emperour Augustus, panne Jjis Herodes hadde so grete grace 
pat he 5 was i-sent wij) tweie dukes of Rome pat schulde putte^ 
hym in hys kyngdom. But Antigonus, pat occupiede pe 
kyngdom of pe lewerye in the mene tyme by helpe of pe ^ 
Parthes,^ he woundede so pe ^ oon of pe dukes of Rome pat 
Herodes my^t nou^t regne to fore ^^ pe fourpe ^^ 5^re. But 
at pe 12 laste by help of Antonius, pat was poo ^^ at Athene, ^^ 
whanne lerusalem was byseged ^^ fyve ^^ monpes and unnepc 
i-take, Herodes was i-broujte in his kyngdom pe fourpe J ere of 
his crownynge ; and perfore it is pat somtyme [mo yeres and 
somtyme] ^^ lasse ^^ Jeres ^^ bep i-radde ^o of Herodes. Petrus?^ 



Ab urbe. that he and his breper were made tetrarches, as hauenge MS. Harl. 
the iiijt^® parte of a realm, from proctors. Petrus, capiticlo 2261. 
vicesimo 4*''. At the laste, this Herode folowenge Antonius . t^l^^JJ^i, 
to Rome was made kynge of the lewery, thro his helpe, and gracione. 
crownede in the Capitoly afore Augustus. After that this 
Herode was sonde ageyn to the lewery with ij. noble men of 
Rome, whiche scholde putte hym in to that realme by the 
auctorite JiiFen to theyme. But a prince callede Antigonus, 
whiche occupiede the realme of pe lewery thro helpe of men 
of Parthia, corrupte oon of the Romanes, in so moche that 
Herode myjhte not reigne vn to the iiij*^® yere foloenge. 
But Herode thro the helpe of Antonius, beenge that tyme 
at Athenes, segenge the cite of lerusalem v. monethes, and 
takenge hit, was made kynge the iiij*'^^ yere of his corona- 
cion. Petrus, capitulo 2 P. This Herode hade ix. wifes. 



' Here is added in the margin : 
" Thys ys good to knowe." 
2 volwede, y. 
^ From /3. and Cx. 



presence, Cx 



5 hadde 
Cx. 

^ put, Cx. 

<■ jje] om. 7- 

^ Perches, Cx. 

'■* J)e] om. )8. and Cx 

^0 by/ore, Cx. 

" bifore \>e fer\>e, /8. 

12 >e] om. /8. 



he'] om. )8,, 7., and 



^3 \>anne, /8. and Cx. 
1"* Athenes, Cx. 
15 besieged, Cx. 

'^' From /8. and 7. 

1^ lees, 7. 

1'^ yeres] om. 7. 

20 be redde, Cx. 

21 Here is added in the margin : 
" Take hede of herodes ys chyl."] 
The last word evidently for children, 
having had its termination clipped 
off in the binding. 



234 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Labuit uxores, quibus abjectis superduxit Mariamnem,^ 
neptem ^ Hircani, cujus amore circumcidit se et factus 
est proselytus ; ex qua progenuit AlexaDdrum et Aristo- 
bulum.^ Ex Doride * genuit Antipatrum,^ ex Mal- 
thace ^ Archelaum, ex Cleopatra Philippum et Herodem 
Antipam,^ qui post tetrarcha fuit. Sed iste Aristo- 
bolus, filius Herodis Ascalonitse,^ ex Beronica filia 
Salomse amitse suae genuit Agrippam majorem, Aris- 
tobulum, et Herodem, qui in Actibus Apostolorum legitur 
ab angelo^ percussus. Genuit etiam ex ilia Beronica 
prsedicta duas filias, Mariamnem ^^ et Herodiadem, quae 
postquam nupserat Philippo avunculo suo ; illo tamen 
adhuc vivente transivit-*^ in conjugium fratris sui 
Herodis.^^ Petrus, septimo-decimo}^ Orta tamen ^* 
dissensione inter Mariamnem ^ uxorem majoris Herodis 
et Salomam Herodis sororem, Herodes consilio sororis 



1 Mariagineniy B. 

2 nepotem, MS. 

3 Aristobolum, in MSS., semper. 

'* Doside, A. ; Deside, B. ; Do- 
cide, MS. 

5 Antipatrem, B. 

6 Matheca, A.B. ; Mathetha,MS. 
' Antipas, B.J 



^ AscaloiiitcB] om. A.B. 
' angelio, B. 
'" Mariammem, A.B. 
^^ transmisity B. 
'2 Herodis] om. B. 
^' vicesimo septimo, A.B. Hist. 
Div. xxiii. is the full reference. 
" tandem, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. Ill, 



235 



pis more Herodes hadde nyne wifes, and putte hem away, trevisa. 

and wedded oon Maryamnes,^ |)at was Hircanus his neece,^ 

and circumsided hir^ self for here love, and tornede to ]?e 
secte * of pe lewes, and gat ^ on hire Alisaundre and Aristo- 
bolus, and oon Dosydes he gat Antipater. Oon Methata^ 
he gat Archelaus ; on Cleopatra he gat Phelip and Herodes 
Antipas, ]>a,t was afterward [called] ^ tretraarcha,® oon of pe 
foure princes. But fis Aristobolus, fat was Herodes his sone 
i-gete ^ on Beronka ^^ the dowjter of his [owne] ^^ aunte 
pat het Salonia,i2 h© gat ]>e grete Agrippa, Aristobolus, and 
Herodes pat was i-smyte of pe aungel as it is i-rad^^ in 
Actibus Apostolorum. Also on^* pe forsaide Beronica he gat ^^ 
tweie dou^tres, Mariamnes ^ and Herodias, pat was afterwarde 
Phelip ^^ his wif, pat was Aristobolus his eme and unkel,^^ 
nopeles lyvynge pis Phelip Herodias [bicam pis Herodes] ^^ his 
wif pat was pis ^^ Phelip his broper. At pe laste pere fil i^ strif 
bytwene Mariamnes pe more Herodes his [wyf] ^o and Sa- 
lonia Herodes his suster ; 21 and Herodes by counsaile of his 



Ab urbe. whiche refusenge theyme, maryede a noble woman callede MS. Haul. 
Mariamnes, for lufFe of whom Herode circumcidede hym 2261. 
selfe, of whom he gate ii sonnes, Alexander and Aristobolus. . , . 
Also he gate of Diosides Antipater ; of Matheta Archelaus, gracione. 
of Cleopatra Philippus and Herode Antipas. But Aristobo- 
lus, the son of Herode, gate of Beronica, the dothter off 
Salome his frende, Agrippa and Herode, whiche is redde to 
be smyte with an angelle in the Actes of thapostles. Also he 
gate of the same Beronica ij. dojhters, Mariamne and 
Herodiades, whiche was mariede afterwarde to Philippe 
her uncle ; and after that, he beenge in lyfe, sche was mariede 
to Herode, brother to the same Philippe. At the laste a dis- 
cencion movede betwene Mariamnes, wife of the more Herode 
or firste, and Solama his suster, Herode, folowenge the cown- 



1 Mariammes, Cx, 

2 necey Cx. 

3 hym, j8. and 7. 
^ cite, y. 

5 hygate, Cx., et infra. 

6 Matheta, 7. ; On Metheta, Cx. 

7 From Cx. 

^ tetrarcha, Cx. 

^ bygoten on Beronica, Cx. 

^" Beronica, fi. 

" From $., 7., and Cx. 



^2 called Saloma, Cx., et infra. 
^3 redde, Cx. 
^^ in, 7. 

15 gate, Cx. 

16 Philippes, Cx. 

1' eame and uncle, Cx. 
1^ \>is'] om. Cx. 
^^fylle, Cx. 
20 From )3. and Cx. 
"1 sister, Cx., et infra. 



236 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



occidit primo Hyrcanum pontificem, secundo Jonathan 
fratrem Mariamnis, quern contra legem Dei ^ in septimo- 
decimo eetatis anno pontificem fecerat j et ^ tertio ipsam 
Mariamnem uxorem ^ suam, una cum viro sororis suae 
Salomse interfecit, quos ipsa Saloma concubuisse afl&r- 
mabat. Postmodum cum Herodes ob mortem Mari- 
amnse crebro tanquam lunaticus in amentiam verteretur, 
revocavit Doridem * cum filio suo Antipatro, Alex- 
andrum vero et Aristobulum, filios Mariamnis,^ trans- 
misit Romse erudiendos, quos tamen postmodum occidit. 
Multa quoque egregia industrise suse opera Herodes 
reliquit ; nam templum decora vit, Samariam reparavit, 
quam Sebasten in honorem Ca3saris nominavit ; templum 
circa fontem Jordanis construxit; Csesaream Palestinse 
in honorem Csesaris ® consummavit ; posuit ^ et aquilam 
auream immensi ponderis super portam templi spe- 



1 DeQ om. B. 

2 eQ om. B. 

3 sororem, B. 

^ Dosidem, A.B. ; Docidem, MS. 



^ Mariaginis, B. 
^ Casarii, B. 
7 posuitque, B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 



237 



suster slowj first Hircanus fc bisshop, and afterward he slowj Trevisa. 

lonathas ]?e brofer of Mariamnes, J^at he hadde i-made bisshop 

ajenst Goddes lawe, in his sevente]?e ^ ^ere of his elde.^ 
And J;an he slow J his wif Maryamnes, and ]?e housbonde^ 
of his suster Salonia, and bare hem on ^ honde j?at 'pej hadde 
i-Ieie ^ by his [suster] ^ Salonia. But afterward Herodes 
for ])e deth of Mariamnes fil into woodnesse/ as a man J^at 
was ofte lunaticus,^ ]?at is mad in certayne tymes of ])e mone, 
and cleped ajen^ his wyf Dosides, and here^^ sone Anti- 
pater, and sende ^^ Alisaundre and Aristobolus, J)e sones of 
Mariamnes, to Romeforto lerne,i^ but he slow^ hem afterward. 
Also Herodes lefte after hym meny of his [wyse] ^^ workes, 
for he hi^te ^^ J>e temple and reparaylede ^^ Samaria, and 
cleped hit^^ Sebasten in worschip^^ of Cesar. He bulde a 
temple and bou^t ^^ ])e welle of Jordan. He fulfilled ^^ j)e 
buldynge of Cesaria in Palestina, in worschippe ^^ of Cesar. 
He sette an egel ^^ of gold pat was grete and hevy uppon J^e 



Ab urbe. selle of his sustyr, did sle firste Hircanus the bischop, after j^at MS. Haul. 
lonathas the broker of Mariamnes, whom he hade made 2261. 
bischoppe in the xvij. yere of his age, ageyn the lawe of God. ^ transmi- 
After that he did sle Mariamnes his wife, with the howse- gracione. 
bonde of Salome sustyr to hym, whom Saloma seide to luffe 
togedre inordinately. This Herode, as lunatyke for the dethe f. 191. a. 
of Mariamnes his wife, callede ageyn to him Dosides with her 
son Antipater, sendenge Aristobolus and Alexander, the sonnes 
of Mariamnes, to be instructe at Rome, whom he did sle after- 
warde. This Herod did mony noble thynges in his lyfe ; for 
he onornede the temple, and repaired Samaria, whom he callede 
Sebasten in the honoure of themperour, and made a temple 
nye to the welle of Jordan, and finischede a cite in Palestina, 
callenge hit Cesarea in the worschippe of themperoure. Also 
he putte an egle of golde of a grete weijhte at the Jate of the 



^ xvii., $. ; seventen^ Cx. 
of age, Cx. 

hosbond, y. ; husbande, Cx. 
^ an, /3. 

'^ i-leie'] leyn, )3. ; layne, Cx. 
^ From )8. and Cx. 
7 wodnes, y. ; fell into wodenesse, 
Cx. 
^ lunatick^ $. ; lunatik, Cx. 
'•* toke agayne, Cx. 
1" hir, Cx. 



^* sent, )8. ; senie, y. 

^" leorne, y. 

^3 From )8,, y., and Cx. 

^^ honoured, Cx. 

^^ reparayled, Cx. 

^*" called it, Cx. 

^7 worship, Cx. 

^^ and bou-i^f] about, j8. and Cx. 

^'^ fulfulde, y. 

20 egle, fi. and Cx. 



238 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

ciosam, ad honorem Bomanorum, Judseis tamen id^ 
segre ferentibus.^ 

Cap. XLIV. 

[Dg Morte Antonii, de Virgilio, et qucedam cle parenti- 
bus Christi et Johannis Baptistce.] 

Aburbe. Antonius repudiata sorore Caesaris quam duxerat, 

720. 

gracione. Cleopatram reginam Mgypti superduxit, ciii et Arabiam 



560. 



dedit. At cum^ ipsa cupiditate muliebri regnare 
affectaret in urbe Roma, Antonius ejus hortatu* civile 
bellum commovens^ contra Octavianum, victus est 
apud Actium^ in Graecia. '^ Petrus, vicesimo tertio.^ 
Cui^ bello non interfuit Herodes, quia tunc temporis 
missus fuerat ab Antonio contra regem Arabum ad 
petitionem Cleopatrse, ita quidem ut quocumque eorum^^ 
victo ipsa regnum victi obtineret. Eutropius, libro 
septimoP Sed victus Antonius apud Actium fugit in 
iEgyptum, ubi rebus desperatis Antonius seipsum in- 



' id'] om. B. 

- This chapter is much varied in 
CD. 
^ dunif A.B. 
* exhortationey B. 
^ movens, B. 
^ Aetum, B. 



' Petrus 28°, A.B. ; CD. omit 
reference. 

^ Hist. Div., xxiv. 

' Cmi, from A. ; Cum, B. ; Qui, 
MS. 

^" eoruni] om. B. 

" Cap. vii. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 239 

J ate of ]>e temple pat heet ^ speciosa in worschippe of J>e Trevisa. 
Romayns, but fe lewes bare pat ful hevy, and took it at ^ ^— 
evel^ 



Capitulum quadragesimum quartam, 

Antonius putte from hym his wif Cleopatra, Cesar his sus- 
ter, and wedded pe quene of Egipt, and ^af hire Arabia. By 
covetise |?at wommen have]? * sche ^ desirede to regno in Rome, 
and by hir counsaile and confort Antonius meovede a civile 
bataille a^enst Octovianus, and was overcome at Actium ^ in 
Grecia.^ \_Petrus^ vicesimo octavo.^ ^ Herodes was noujt 
at pe ^ batayle, for pat tyme Antonius hadde i-sent hym a^en 
pe kyng of Arabia of pe ^^ prayenge ^^ of Cleopatra, so pat 
sche ^2 schulde have his kyngdom pat were overcome, wheper 
it evere were. Eutropius, libro 7^. Antonius whan he was 
overcome at Actium, he fligh ^^ into Egipt ; pere he slouj hym 



Aburbe.' temple of Jerusalem callede speciosa, for the honoure off the MS. Haul. 
Romanes, the lewes hauenge grete indignacion perof. 2261. 



A tlfansmi» 
gracione. 



Capitulum quadragesimum quartum, 

Antonius puttenge from hym his wife and suster to the 
emperour, mai'iede Cleopatra the qwene of Egipte, to whom 
he Jafe Araby. Whiche hauenge grete affeccion to reigne at 
the cite of Rome, movede here howsebonde to ^iffe batelle to 
Octouian. This Antony, mouenge a ciuile batelle ageyne 
Octouian, was ouercommen in the londe of Grece, Petrus, 
28*' capitulo. Herodes was not at that batelle, for he was 
sente ageyne the kynge of Araby thro raeane of Cleopatra, 
that sche myjhte be exaltede if eny of theym hade victory. 
Eutropius, libro septimo. This Antonius losenge the victory 
and fleenge in to Egipte, did sle hym selfe, and Cleopatra 



^ was callyd, Cx. 

^ an, p. ; in, Cx. 

^ evylf Cx. 

^ habbe]?, y. ; have she, Cx. 

5 heo, $. 

^ Actia, Cx. 

' Grece, /8. and Cx. 



^ From )8., -y., and Cx. 
9 )>at, /8., 7., and Cx. 
1" t)e] om. fi. 
^^ atte prayer y Cx. 
'- heo, )8. ; hcy Cx. 
^^fledde, Cx. 



240 



POLYCFRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



teremit. Cleopatra vero exornata Augusto in sequent! 

occurrit, ut eum si posset ad libidinem inflecteret ; sed 

minime prsevalens custodise demandatur ; de qua latenter 

elapsa, juxta Antonium [virum] ^ suum in sepulcro se 

ponens, aspidem admisit, cujus veneno extincta est. Inde 

-^gyptus Romano cessit imperio. Fetrus, '^Ixxviii.^ 

Post^ hoc^ Augustus ainpliavit regnum Herodis, eo 

quod sibi apud ^Egyptum tendenti prudenter ^ ne- 
cessaria prseparasset. Banulphus. Quapropter non- 

nulli ab hoc loco primum annum monarchise Augusti 
supputant, eo quod ipse extunc solus regnaverit,^ quod 
Beda super Danielem videtur confirmare.^ Eo tem- 
pore Marcus Terencius Varro nonagenarius moritur/*^ 
Virgilius Maro poeta Mantuanus apud Brundusium 
moritur, anno getatis circiter quinquagesimo ; Neapoli 



^ virum] from B. 

2 17°, B. 

^ Hist. Div. xxiv. 

4 Post] om. B. 

•^ hoec, B. 

•> prudenter] om. A.B. 

7 gnaverat, B. 



^ CD. add : " Censu Romac agi- 
" tato inventa sunt civium Roman- 
" orum nonagesies (sic) 392000." 

5 CD. also add : " Pilades Cilex 
" pantomimus primus Romae chorum 
" et fistulas prajcinere fecit." 



f 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB, III. 



241 



self, for he hadde noon hope of help no])er ^ of socour. Trevisa. 

Cleopatra mad here ^ gay, and mette wi]? Augustis ^ ^if sche "* 

my^te ^ meve hym^ to leccherye, but sche^ iiiyjte noujt spede, 
and was i-putte in warde, and scapede ^ awey, and leyde hir 
self in a^ grave by here housbonde Antonius, and deyde by 
]?e venym of an addre ^^ J)at sche ^ took wi]? here.^^ After- 
ward Egipt fil ^2 into ]>e empere of Rome. Petrus, 7, 8^.^^ 
After pis Augustus echede ^^ Herodes his kyngdom, for he 
hadde wyseliche arayed ^^ for hym what hym ncdede ^^ while 
he was toward Egipt. [1^.] ^^ Som acounte]? ^^ ]>e firste 
^ere of Augustus his hole kyngdom from pis place forp,!^ 
afterward he regned a loou.^o Beda super Dauielem sei]) so as 
it semep. pat tyme Marcus Toreutius ^i Farro^^ deyde, pat was 
foure score ^ere olde and ten. Virgilius Narro,^^ pe poete of 
Mantua, deyde at Brundusium whan he was aboute an ^^ fifty 
winter olde, and was i-buried at ^5 Naples wip suche a writynge 



Ab urbe. 



folowedc themperour Octouian, that sche myjhte inclyne his MS. Harl. 
herte to fuUefille the pleasure of the flesche with her. Whiche 2261. 

preuaylenge not, was commaunded to kepenge, and brekenge . 

from hit comme to the beryalle of Antonius here howsebonde, grSicfS!' 
where sche, receyvenge a serpente, diede thro the venom of hit ; 
after that Egipte longede to thempire of Rome. Petrus, 
capitulo 18°. After that, Augustus did ampliate to Herode 
his realme, in that he made perviaunce for meytes and drynkes 
and oper thynges necessary to themperour goenge vn to the 191. b. 
londe of Egipte. ^. Wherefore mony men say the firste 
yere of the monarchye of Octouian to begynne in that yeie, 
that he reignede allon, whiche sayenge Bede on Daniel 



in 



semethe to conferme. Marcus Terencius Varro, of xc. yere in 
age, diede this tyme in Rome. Virgilius Maro, the poette 
Mantuan, diede at Brundusius, the 1*^ yere of his age, beryede 



^ ne, Cx. 

2 hiry Cx. 

^ Augustus, Cx. 

■* heo, )8. 

^ meoue, y. 

^ entendynge to meove him, Cx. 

^ heo, )3. and y. 

^ ascaped, /3. ; escaped, Cx. 

^ K', y. ; the, Cx, 

•'' a naddre, Cx. 

^* heore, y. 

''fulto,y.;feU,Cx. 

^3 78°, /8. and Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



1^ enlarged, Cx. 

^° un/tli/ provided, Cx. 

^'' neodede, y. 

17 From /3. and Cx. 

'^ acompte, Cx. 

^^ fore, $. ; for, y. and Cx. 

"" Ion, y. 

■-' Terentius, fi., y., and Cx. 

'- Varro, /8., y., and Cx. 

-3 Marro, /3,, y., and Cx. 

2'* an'] om. Cx. 

25 in, Cx. 



242 POLYCHHONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

sepultus est cum tali titulo, quern ^ ipse moriens expo- 
suit,^ veP Ovidius postmodum superscripsit, ut quidam 
dixerunt. Versus. Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, 
tenet nunc ^ Parthenope : ^ cecini pascua, rura, duces. 
Ranulphus.^ Hie fuit naturali philosophia prseditus, 
et etiam in multis' usus est nigromancia. Unde et 
mira de eo narrat Alexander de naturis rerum, ubi 
dicit sic : Cum Neapolis letali peste sanguisugarum ^ 
vexaretur, prqjecit Virgilius in fundum cujusdam putei 
auream sanguisugam,^ qua iterum evolutis annorum 
curriculis ^^ extracta, replevit infinitus numerus sangui- 
sugarum ^ urbem illam, donee sanguisuga " iterum 
reponeretur. Narratur etiam ibidem quod Marcellus 
Neapolitanus carnes illaesas a corruptione diu servare 
non potuit, sed banc incommoditatem prudentia Virgilii 
compescuit ; qui reclusit carnem/^ nescio qua vi her- 
barum conditam, quae quingentis annis recens et boni 
saporis inventa est.^^ Ibi etiam dicitur quod Virgilius 



* quem] from A.B. ; gwam, MS. 

2 composuit, A.B, 

3 et, B. 

^ hunc, B. 

^ id est Neapolis, added in A. 
^ Hanulphns . . , jRoma] om. CD. 
7 aliiSf B. 



^ sanguissugarum, A.B. 

'•^ sanguissuganif A.B. 

^" circulis, B. 

^* sayiguissuga, A.B. 

^'- carnes, B. 

^^ inventi sunt, B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. III. 



243 



on ^ his tombc, ))at he made whan he deyde, ojjer ^ Ovidius Trevisa. 
afterward, as som men ^ wol mene.* "Mantua broujt me forth; — ■ 
" Calabres ravesched ^ me ; holde)> now Pertinope.^ I made 
" lese fildes ^ and lederes." $1. pis was wys at ])e comynge ^ of 
philosofie and used noujt ^ nygromancye. perfore Alisaundre 
de naturis rerum telle)? wonderliche of hym, and sei]> j?at 
Naples was greved wi\> a pestilence by blood ^^ soukers, and 
Virgin 11 prewe a goldene blood soukere in to fe botme ^^ of 
a pitte. And many J ere after Tpis goldene blood soukere was 
i-take up oute of fe pytte, and J)us sone ^^ J^e citee were ^* ful 
of blood soukers wi]> oute remedye or ^^ pe goldene blood 
soukere was i-doo in ^^ ]?e pytte a^en.^^ Hit is also i-tolde ^^ 
and i-seide j^ere )?at oon Marcellus of Naples my^t noujt 
kepe flesche longe wij? oute apeyringe.^^ But Virgil by his 
witte ordeyned remedye ajenst ]7at meschief, and closed flesche 
i-savered ^ i-not by what vertu of herbes, so ]?at fyve hondred 
Jere pe flesche was i-founde fi'esche and of good savour. Also 



Abiirbe. at the cite callede Neapolis. 1^. This Virgille, instructe inMS. Harl. 
naturalle philosophy, vsede muche nigromancy. Of whom 2261. 
Alexander de Naturis rerum rehersethe mony meruellous ^ . 

thynges, rehersenge in this wise : When that Neapolis was gracione. 
vexede with a dedely pestilence of water leches, Virgilius 
caste in to a depe pitte a water leche of gold, whiche destroyede 
mony of ))eim. After that, the water leche of golde taken 
aweye, the waterleches didde replete the cite of Neapolis 
with a multitude infinite, vn til pat the water leche made by f. 184. b. 
Virgilius was caste in to the pytte ageyne. Also hit is rehersed 
per that Marcellus, the biscop of Neapolis, laborenge for to 
kepe flesche incorrupte by a longe season, kowthe not fynde 
that crafte, whom Virgille takenge causede that flesche to 
remayne incorrupte and fresche and of a goode sauoure by the 
space of v.*'. yere : y knowe not the name of the yerbe. Also 



^ uppon, /3, ; upon, Cx. 
2 owther, Cx. 
^ wie7t] om. 7. 
^ say, Cx. 

5 rauesede, 7. ; ravessed^ Cx. 
^ Pa-cinope, Cx. 
" made leesejeldes, Cx. 
^ at J)e comynge'] and kunnyng, 
/3. ; and connynge, Cx. 

9 ofte, i8. and Cx. 

10 Mode, Cx. 



^^ Virgyl, Cx. 

^2 bottom, Cx. 

^^ \>issoone, 7. ; anone, Cx. 

^* wcrjf, 7. ; was, Cx. 

^5 er, fi. ; ar, 7. ; til, Cx. 

i** into, j8. ; put into, Cx. 

^" \>e put age, 7. 

^' i-tolde and] om. Cx. 

1^ appayryng, Cx. 

20 savered, Cx. 

Q 2 



244 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



hortum ^ suum aere consolidate vicem muri obtinente 
munivit et ambivit ; et pontem aereum construxit, cujus 
beneficio loca destinata pro arbitrio voluntatis adire 
consuevit. Ibidem etiam dicitur quod nobile illud pala- 
tium Romse construxit in quo imagines provinciarum 
orbis ^ ponebantur. Id ^ idem dicit Hugutius, et su- 
peraddit de colosseo, de quibus vide supra, libro primo, 
capitulo de Roma.* Policratica, libro primo.^ Fertur 
vates Mantuanus interrogasse Marcellum Neapolitan um 
nepotem [Augusti] ^ cum depopulationi avium vehemen- 
tius^ institisset,^ an mallet avem instrui in capturam 
avium an muscam informari ^ in exterminium muscarum. 
Cum autem^^ ille^^ qusestionem retulisset ad avunculum 
suum Augustum, consilio ejus prseelegit ut fieret musca 
quae a Neapoli muscas abigeret. Unde liquet prseferen- 
dam multorum utilitatem cujusvis-^^ privatse utilitati.^'^ 



' ortum, MS. 

2 urbis, B. 

3 Et, B. 

^ See above, note ^, p. 242. 

^ Cap. !▼. 

^ Augusti, added from A.B. 

7 vehementer, B. 

^ insisteret, B. 

^ injbrmari'\ om. B, 

^" Cumque, B. 

" ilk'] om. A. 



'2 cujusvis] cuivis, A.B. 
13 C.D. add: " Ysidorus, libro de- 
cimo. ]ste Virgilius vates Mau- 
tuanus cum de crimine accu- 
saretur, compilatorque veterum 
diceretur ab ajmulis, eo quod 
quosdam versus Homerianos suis 
carminibus immiscuisset, ille re- 
spondit magistrarum esse virium 
clavam de manu Herculis ex- 
torquere." 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 245 

)?ere it is i-seide ]jat Virgil closed his orcherd^ [^^] ^ aboute Trevisa. 

wip ayer ^ instede of a wal ; and he made also a brugge* of 

ayer,^ and used to goo over fat brugge ^ whan and whyder 
hym likcde. pere it is i-seide also |?at he bulde |>at noble 
paleys at Rome in J)e whiche were i-sette all ]>e ymages of 
provinces and of londes. Hugucio ^ seip j^e same, and puttej? 
more ])erto of Colloseus/ ]?at ymage of fe sonno o];er^ 
of Rome. Loke more perof^ in pe firstc book, in pc chapitre 
of Rome. \^Policratica, libro primo.~\ ^^ Me seij? ]?at J»e poete 
of Mantua, ])at is Virgil,ii axede of Marcellus of Naples, ])e 
nevew of Augustus, for ^^ he slow^ meny bryddes, [and] ^^ 
where ^* hym were leverc be i-schape ^^ to a brydde forto ^^ 
make ^^" briddes i-take ^^ oj^er to a flyje^'-^ forto take and slee 
flyjes. He tolde ])is to his grauntsire Augustus, and by coun- 
saile 20 of hym he chees ^i forto 22 be made a flije, fat he my^te 
dryve al J?e fly^es oute of Naples. Hereby it semej> fat fe 
comoun profijt ^3 schulde be putte bifore eny 2^ singuler per- 



Aburbe. hit is seide that Virgilius hade a gardyn whom he begged e MS. Harl. 
abowte with the aier, makenge to hit also a brygge of the aier, 2261. 
fro whom he wolde goe to of er place. Also hit is seide that ^ transmi- 
he made that place at Rome wherein the ymages of all places gracioue. 
and provinces were sette and putte. Hugo Pisanus aifer- 
methe this to be of the makenge of Virgille, and the Collosee 
also, of whom hit is expressede afore, libro primo, capitulo 
Roma. Policronicon, libro primo. Hit is seide Virgil, the 
poete Mantuau, to haue inquirede Marcellus Neapolitanus, 
son of the do^hter of Octouian, whether he hade leuer haue a 
bridde instructe and made to take other bryddes or elles a flee 
that scholde destrye of er flees. This Marcellus askede cown- 
selle of Octouian, which Jafe to him cownselle that he scholde 
chose a flee whiche scholde dryve other flees aweye from the ^* 192. a. 
cite of Neapolis, seyenge the commune vtilite to be preferrede 



' orchard, y. 


^3 From Cx., not 7. 


2 From i3., 7., and Cx. 


" whe\>er, )8., 7., and Cx. 


3 aer, 7. 


^^ shapen, Cx. 


^ brygge, Cx. 


^^for] om. Cx. (bis.) 


5 hrydge, Cx. 


17 take, /8., 7., and Cx. 


6 Hugo, Cx. 


^3 i-take] om. /8., 7., and Cx. 


7 collosens, Cx. 


^^Jlyt', 7. and Cx. 


s owther, Cx. 


20 counseijlle, Cx. 


9 hero/, Cx. 


"^ chcssc, Cx. 


^" From /3. and 7. 


'^'^for'] om. Cx. 


11 Vyrgyl, Cx. 


23 profyt, Cx. 


^2 wher/ore, Cx. 


2"* every werk, Cx. 



246 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Varius et Tucca,, contubernales Virgilii, jubente Augusto 

iEneidos Virgilii emendarunt. ^ Be patre beatce Ma^ 

rice.^ Hoc anno beata Maria mater Christi nascitur, 

^^m-be. ex patre Joachim de tribu Juda et ex matre Anna 

739, 
A transmi- 

^^79^^' -^^^^ Isakar* de tribu Levi. Ranulphus.^ Hie nota 
secundum Jeronimum quod Anna et Emeria fuerunt 
sorores. De Emeria nata est Elizabeth ^ mater Johan- 
nis Baptistse. Anna quoque primo nupsit Joachim [de 
quo] ^ suscepit Mariam matrem Christi ; secundo nupsit 
Cleophse, de quo suscepit^ Mariam Cleophe, quae nupsit 
Alpheo ; de quibus processerunt Jacobus minor qui dici- 
tur Alpheus,^ et Simon Chananeus/^ Judas Thaddeus^i 
et Josephus ^^ qui dicitur Barsabas. Tertio Anna 



1 Varrus et Tutta, MS. 

2 CD. add : " Augustus Gaium 
" Agrippam adoptavit in filium. 
'* Emilias Veronensis poeta in Asia 
" moritur." 

^ A.B. omit title. 

^ Isacar, A. ; Ysacar, B. 

^ CD. omit reference. 



" Elizahehty B. 

" de quo, added from B. 

^* sumpsit, B. 

^ Jacobus Alphei, B. 

^" Cayianeus, A. 

^^ Thadeus, A. 

^' Joseph, A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



247 



sones profijt. Varrus and Tucta, Virgil his felowes, by heste ^ Trevisa. 

of Augustus amendede Virgil his book Eneydos, nof eles uppon 

suche a condicioun fat fey schulde putte no ping more ferto. pis 
Jere Seynte Marye ^ Cristes ^ moder is i-bore : here ^ fader 
was loachym of fe lynage ^ of luda ; and hir moder was Anna, 
Isachar his doubter, of pe lynago of Levi. [5©.] ^ Here take 
hede, as lerom scif, fat Anna and Emeria'^ weren^ tweie 
sustres. Of Emeria come ^ Elizabeth, lohn ^^ Baptist his 
moder. Also Anna was first i-wedded to loachym, and hadde 
by hym Mare ^^ Cristes moder ; and sche ^^ was afterward 
i-wedded to Cleophas, and hadde by hym Marie Cleophe, fat 
was i-wedded to Alpheus, and of hem come lacobus Mynor, f e 
lasse lames, fat heet ^^ Alpheus also,^'* [and] ^^ Symon Cananeus, 
ludas Taddeus,^^ and loseph fat hatte ^^ Barsabas. But in 
Historia Ecclesiastica, Eusebius, libro 2% capitulo 2°, self 
fat lacobus minor, f e lasse lames, was i-cleped oure Lordes 



Ab urbe. to the priuate vtilite. Varrus and Cucta, felawes to Virgilius, MS. Haul. 
were commaundede to emende the bokes of Virgille callede 2261. 
Eneydos, on that condicion that thei scholde not adde eny^, ._ 
thynge to theyme. Blessede Mary, the moder off Criste, was gracione. 
borne this tyme ; the name of her fader was loachim^ of the 
tribe of luda ; and of her moders name, hit is openly declared in 
mouy scriptures, Seynte Anne, the do^hter of Ysachar of the 
tribe of Leui. Jo. Hit is to be attendede that Anna and 
Emeria were ij. sustyrs, after the sayenge of Seynte lerom. 
Elizabeth, moder of Seynte lohn Baptiste, was the dojhter of 
Emeria. Seynte Anne was wedede firste to loachim, of whom 
he gate Mary the moder of Criste. After that sche was 
mariede to Cleophas, by whom sche hade Mary Cleophe, 
whiche was mariede to Alpheus, of whom came lames the lesse, 
whiche is callede Alpheus, Symon Cananeus, ludas, and Tad- 
deus, and loseph of erwise callede Barsabas. Neuerthelesse 
Eusebius in his story ecclesiasticalle, hbro 2°, capitulo 2% 
rehersethe and seithe that lacobus Minor or lames the lesse 



^ felawes by commaundement^ Cx. 

2 Mari, 7. 

3 Crystys, Cx. 
"* hiVi Cx. 

s lygnage, Cx., et infra. 

^ From 7. and Cx, 

7 Emerea, Cx. 

"^ were, )8. and Cx. ; wer, 7. 

^ cam» Cx. 



11' lohan, Cx. 

" Marie, ^. and 7. ; Marye, Cx. 
1- heo, jS. ; she, Cx. 
13 was called, Cx. 
1^ also'] om. Cx. ; 7. has Alpheus 
also of ham com Symon Chananeus. 
15 From )8, 
1*5 Thaddeus, Cx. 
17 otherwise callyd, Cx. 



248 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



nupsit Salome, de quo suscepit Mariam ^ Salome, quse 
nubens Zebedeo produxit Jacobum majorem et Jo- 
hannem Evangelistam. Porro prima Maria, quae fuit 
mater Christi, nupsit Josephum ^ fratri Cleophse ^ 
prsedicti. Gaufridus} 
Aburbe. Kymbelinus ^ filius^ Tenuancii regnavit apud Bri- 

744. 
A transmi- 

gracione. tanuos/ et geuuit duos filios, Guyderium^ et Arvi- 
ragum.^ Horatius Flaecus poeta et satiricus, anno setatis 
quinquagesimo septimo Romse moritur, anno scilicet 
xxxvi. Augusti.^^ Marianus,^^ libro ii. Anno Au- 
gusti xK^^ Marcus Fortius Latro,^^ Latinus declamator 
ac ^^ consodalis Senecse philosophi, tsedio duplicis quar- 
tanse seipsum interemit.^^ 

Aburbe. JDe conceptione Johannis Baptistce}^ Johannes 

750. 

gracione. Baptista concipitur feria quinta, luna undecima, mense 



* Miriam, B. 

2 Joseph, A.B. 

3 Cleophi, B. 

4 Lib. iv. cap. 12. 

5 Kimhelinus, A. 
^ fraier, B. 

7 Britanniam, A.B. 
^ Guidericum, A.B. 
^ et, added in A. 

^" The scribe in B. has confused 
these dates. A. has " 36'' anno 



" Augusti et xl*' anno Augusti 
'' Marcus Fortius, &c." 

'^ Marianus . . . interemiQ om. 
CD. 

^2 Latro'] om. B. 

'3 et, B. 

^^ A. transposes the reference to 
Marianus above, and adds Elperi- 
cius ; B. omits title, and has only 
Espicius. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



249 



bro|)er for he was [the] ^ sone of losep ]>e spouse of Marye. Trevisa. 

But Ipat is noujt comounliche i-holde.^ Also Anna was 

i-wedded to Salome, and hadde by hym Marye Salome, ])at 
was i-wedded to Zebedeus, and hadde by hym ))e more lames 
and lohn ^ pe ^ Evaungeliste. pe firste Marye, J?at was Cristes 
moder, was i-wedded to loseph ])e forsaide Cleophas his broker. 
Gmifridus et Alfridus. Kynbelinus, Tenuancius ^ his sone, 
regnede in Bretayne, and gat tweic sones, Gwyderius ^ and 
Ai'veragus.'' Oracius Flaccus,^ poet and ^ satiricus, sevene and 
fifty Jere olde, deye]> ^^ at Rome j^e sixe ^^ and |?ritty ^ere of 
]7e [emperour Augustus. And the xiii.^^ yere of] ^^ empere ^* 
Augustus, Marcus Porcius Latro ^^ Latinus, J7at was decla- 
mator, a grete ditour,i^ and Seneca ]^e philosofre his felowe, 
slow^ hym self for noye ^'' and sorwe of a double quarteyn.^^ 
Martius,^^ lihro 2°. In ]>q oon and fourty^erc of Augustus, in 
))e sevenjje mon]?e,2^ fat is Septembre, in j^e enlevenjie day of 



Ab urbe. was the brother of Criste, son to loseph the howsebonde of MS. Hael. 
oure lady Seynte Mary, whiche seyenge is not holden com- 2261. 
munely. Anna, the moder of Mary, was mariede in the thridde ^ transmi- 
tyme to Salome, by whom sche hade Mary Salome, whiche gracione. 
was mariede to Zebedeus, by whom sche hade lames J)e moore 
and Seynte lohn Evangeliste. But trewly the firste Mary 
moder of Criste, was mariede to loseph, brother to the fore* 
seide Cleophas. Gaufridus et Alfridus. Kymbelinus, pe son 
of Tenuantius, reignede amonge the Briteynes, whiche gate ij. 
sonnes, Guiderius and Aruiragus. Oracius the poete diede 
abowte this tyme at Rome, beeuge Ivij*^^ yere of age, in the 
xxxvj. yere of Octouiau and in the xl" yere of Augustus. 
Marcus Porcius Catou, felawe of Seneca the philosophre, 
vexede with the fever quarteyn, did sle hym selfe. Marianus, f. 192. b. 
libro 2^. Seynte lohn Baptiste was conceyved in the xli. yere 
of the reigne of Octouian, ^e vij*^® monethe, in September, the 



^ From Cx. and 7., which latter 
omits he was. 

^ comynly holden^ Cx. 
^ lohan, Cx. 
'* >e] om. Cx. 
^ Tenancius, Cx. 
c Guiderius, Cx. 
7 Arvyraytis, Cx. 
^ Flactus, Cx. 
3 poet and]^ om. Cx. 
10 dyed, Cx. 



^^ sixte, 7. 

^^ fourti\)C, 7. 

13 From fi., 7., and Cx. 

1* empere'] om )8., 7., and Cx. 

1» Cato, Cx. 

IS doctor, Cx. 



17 



nuy, 7. 



1^ of a double quarteyn] bis in 
MS. ' 

15 Marianus, &., 7., and Cx. 
20 moneth, Cx. 




250 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



septimo Septembris ^ octavo kalendas Octobris ; habens 
in utero materno, ab illa^ feria quinta qua conceptus 
est usque in feriam sextam qua natus est, ducentos 
septuaginta^ dies, qui reddunt novem menses lunares* 
qui gravidatis foeminis deputantur, ita quod quilibet 
mensis sit triginta dierum, quamvis^ non omnes gra- 
vidae mulieres ad hunc numerum perveniant, secundum 
Augustinum de Trinitate, libro quarto, capitulo quinto.^ 
Et sic Johannes prsecessit Christum in conceptu, in 
ortu, prsedicando, baptizando, moriendo ; quem tamen 
oportuit^ minui, Christum vero augeri. Quod patet 
per hoc quod Johannes duos dies^ minus habuit in 
utero quam Christus ; et quia Johannes cum decre- 
mento ^ lucis natus est, Christus cum incremento. 
Item Johannes sine capite sepultus est. In Christo 
vero nullum os fuit comminutura.^ 

Explicit Liber Tertius. 



* Septembris^ om. A.B. 

2 ista, B. 

3 quinquey added in A.B. 

"* et quinque dies, added in A.B. 
^ quamvis . . . quinto^ om. A.B. 
^ oportet, A. 
7 unum diem, A.B. 
^ decrementOy from B. ; detrimmto, 
MS. 



'-• This chapter is much transposed 
and varied in C.D., such portions as 
are omitted have been akeady 
noticed. B. has in large letters this 
colophon : " Et sic finitur Liber 
" Tertius Et in proximo folio in- 
" cipit Liber Quartus. Amen." 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. III. 



251 



the mon])e ^ J^e foure and twenty day of Septembre, in 2 a Trevisa. 

porsday, lohn ^ })e ^ Baptiste was conceyved ; and J^ere after 

two hondred dayes pre score and fiftene, in ^ a Fryday, he was 
i-bore; and so he went, to fore ^ Crist in his conceyvynge, in his 
bur)7e, in his fiillynge,^ in his prechynge, and in his doynge ; ^ 
but he moste wanye ^ and Criste moste wexe ^ and encrese : 
fFor a womman goo]? wif> childe from f>e concepcioun to pe 
burpe 1^ two hondred dayes ]>Ye score and fiftene,^^ so meny dayes 
Crist hadde in his moder wombe, ]>Qj} nou^t ^^ alle wommen 
goo so longe wij> childe, as Seynt Austyn wole mene,!^ de 
Civitate [Dei],^^ libro 4% capitulo 5«; but lohn^ hadde tweie 
dayes lasse ^^ in his moder wombe.^^ Also lohn was i-bore 
whan fe day bygan to wanye,!^ and Crist whan fe day bygan to 
wexe [long].!^ Also lohn was i-buried wi|) oute heed, and in 
Crist was no boon ^^ i-broke.^^ 

Explicit TAher Tcrtius. 



Ab urbe. xj^^^e moone, the viij. kalendes of October the v^^^ fery, whiche MS. Haul. 



was borne after that ij.^. and Ixxv. dayes y-paste, in the vj^^ 
fery, and so he was afore Criste in byrthe, in prechenge, in 
baptizenge, and in dienge ; whom hit behovede to be made lesse, 
and Criste to be encreasedde. For sithethat cclxxvij. daies be 
deputede to women beenge with childe from the concevenge 
un to the childenge, whom Criste hade complete in the blessede 
wombe of his moder, than J he alle women with childe atteyne 
not to that tyme. For after Seynte Austyn de Civitate Dei, 
libro quarto, capitulo sexto, Seynte lohn Baptiste hade ij. daies 
lesse in the wombe of his moder. Also Seynte lohn Baptiste 
was borne with decreasenge of lighte, and Criste with en- 
creasenge and multiplicacion ]?eroff. Also Seynte lohn Baptiste 
was beryede withowte his hedde, and Criste was beryede with- 
owte diminucion off eny membre of his precious body. 

Explicit Liber Tertius» 



2261. 

A transmi- 
gracione. 



^ mone, Cx. 

2 on, Cx. 

^ Tohan, Cx., et infra. 

'* )je] om. )8. and Cx. 

5 hyfore, Cx. 

•^ folly ng, 7. ; baptisinge, Cx. 

7 dyi/nge, 0. ; dyeng, Cx. 

s must wane, Cx. 

^ must waxe, Cx. 

^^byrth,Cx. 

^^ sixtene, )8., 7., and Cx. 



'■^ 7lOty Cx. 

^^ meaneth, Cx. 

» From Cx. 

^5 lees, 7. 

^6 }peyy nouyt alle, is inserted here 
again in MS. by a slip of the copy- 
ist. 

17 shorten or wane, Cx. 

^^ bon, 7. 

^^ broken, Cx. 



252 polychronicon ranulphi higden 

Incipit Liber Quartus. 

Cap. I. 

Sexta cetas sceculi Ah incarnatione Domini} 

In principio igitur quadragesimi secundi anni Octa- 
viani August! qui coepit regnare in Martio,^ Herodis 
vero anno tricesimo primo, Olympiad is centesimse 
nonagesimse tertire anno tertio, ab urbe condita anno 
septingentesimo quinquagesimo primo, a conceptione Jo- 
hannis Baptistae mense sexto, octavo kalendas Aprilis, 
feria sexta, luna decima/ Indictione duodecima apud 
Nazareth Galilese de virgine Maria nuper Josepho* 



^ A.B. omit title. I ^ luna decima'] om. A. 

2 Augusto, CD. I ■* Josepho] om. A. 



I 




MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB, IV. 



253 



Incipit Liber Quartus. — Capitulum primum. 

OcTOViANUS 1 Augustus gaii 2 to regne in Marche in \q Trevisa. 

bygynnynge of his two and fourty Jere, [in the Jere] ^ of 

Herodes oon and ])ritty, [in the thrydde] ^ J ere of [j)e] ^ 
Olympias nyne score and ten, after jje buldynge of the citee of 
Rome sevene hondred Jere and fyve, after |?e concepcioun of 
lohn * Baptiste pe sixte^ monj^e,^ )?e fyve^ and twenty day 
of Marche, in a Friday, |>e tenpe ^ day of the mone, fe twelf|)e ^ 
Inductioun, at Nazareth in Galilee, Crist is ^^ i-conceyved of 
])e virgine Marie, Joseph his spouse. Trevisa. The Grees ^^ 
usede somtyme tornementes ^^ and dedes of myjt and of streng|?e 
at J^e ^^ foot of pe hil [mens] ^^ Olympus, ones in fyve ^ere, and 
clepede ^^ suche dedes and pleyes Olympias ; and also ]?e firste 
fyve Jere of suche pleies ^^ ]?ey cleped })e firste Olympias, and 
])e secounde fyve ^^ J ere of suche dedes and pleyes ]?e secounde 
Olympias, and J)e ]?ridde [five ^ere J?e J?ridde] ^ Olympias, and 
so for]) of alle ^e ^^ ojjere. And for Crist was conceyved in the 
twelf}}e ^^ Inductioun [j?at is to menyng in j)e xii. ^ere of the 
Indiction].^ perfore take hede J)at the Inductioun '^ is pe tyme 
of fyftene J ere. For whan pe Romayns hadde i-wonne meny 



Incipit liber quartus, 
Capitulum primum. 

Ab urbe. OuRE Saviour Criste Ihesu was concey vede of his moste jy^g^ Hael 
blessede moder Mary, mariede late to Joseph, in the cite of 2261. 
Nazareth of Galilee, the xlij" yere of Octouian themperour, 
the xxxj. yere of Herode, the thridde yere of the cxc. and 
the thridde Olimpias, the vij<^. and Ij. yere from the edificacion 
of the cite of Rome, in the vj. monethe from the con- 
cepcion of Seynte lohn Baptiste, the viij^^^ kalendes off. 193. a. 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



^ Octavianus, Cx. ut semper. 
■^ bigan, )8. ; hygan, Cx. 
^ From )3., 7., and Cx. 
"* lohan, Cx. 
® six\}e^ om. y. 
^ vio7ieth, Cx. 

^ teo\>e, y. 

'^ twelthe, y. ; twelve, Cx. 

^^ was. Cx. 



^1 Grekis, &. ; Grekes, Cx. 

^- turnamentes, 0. and Cx. 

'^ l>e] om. /8. 

1' From &. and Cx. 

^^ named, Cx., et infra. 

^*^ playes, )8. and Cx., et infra. 

^^ J)e] om. Cx. 
^'■' twelthe, y. 
2" Indichon, Cx. 



254 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHl HIGDEN 

desponsata conceptus est Christus. Petrus ^ tricesimo? 
Plenus homo in anima et carne, ita quidem quod 
liniamenta corporis et membrorum^ visibus humanis 
discerni non possent. EanulphusJ^ Et sic quinta 
mundi setas quasi senilis et crebris malis quassata, a 
transmigratione Judseorum usque ad Christum, hoc est 
a Martio ante combustionem templi in Autumno 
factam, usque ad Martium in anno quadragesimo 
secundo Augusti, sub generationibus quatuordecim, 
habet annos secundum Bedam quingentos xli. ; secun- 
dum Isidorum ^ quingentos quadraginta quinque ; 
secundum Elpericum quingentos octoginta ^ novem ; 
secundum verissimam traditionem quingentos cxi. 



1 capitulo 38, added in B. ; 31, C. * CD. omit Ranulphus. 

2 Hist. Evangel, cap. ii. '' A space left for Isidorum^ B. 
2 distinctione, A. ^ quadragintUf B. 



I 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



255 



provinces and londes pey hadde of every ^ lond pat \>ey hadde Trevisa. 

i-wonne pre manere tribute in fiftene J ere, and cleped J>e fiftenc 

J ere Indictioun ; and pe firste fyve J ere of pe Indictioun ]m 
Romayns hadde brasse to tribute forto make armure ^ ; in ^ 
]>G secounde fyve Jere ]?ey hadde silver for to paye knyjtes and 
soudeours ; ^ and pe pridde and [the] ^ laste fyve Jere of In- 
dictioun pey hadde golde to the tresorie ^ of Rome. Petrus. 
Crist was conceyved ful man in soule and in flesche/ so pat 
pe schap of his lemes ^ and [of] ^ his body myjte nou^t be 
seie 1^ in ^^ manis qj^qP And so [endep] ^^ pe fifte age of 
pe worlde, as it were pe elde,^^ ofte i-greved wip care ^^ and wip 
woo, from pe transmigracioun of lewes anon ^^ to Criste, pat 
is from Marche tofore ^^ pe brennynge of pe temple, pat was 
i-doo ^^ in hervest^^ anon to ^^ Marche in pe two and fourty Jere 
of Augustus, under fourtene generaciouns, and contejTiep fife 
hondred ^ere and oon and fourty [so seip Bede ; Isidre seip 
fyve hundrid Jere and fyve and fourty ;] ^^ Elporicius seip 
fyve honcked _Jere ^^ foure score and nyne ^^ : but pe faireste ^ 
acountes of all seip fyve hondred J ere foure score and 



Ab urbe. Aprile, the vj*^^® fgiy^ the x<^^® moone, and the xii^^^ indiccion. MS. Haul. 

2261. 

A transmi- 
gracione. 



Petrus. Fulle man in body and sawle, so that the liniamentes 
of his body and membres cowthe not be discernede by the 
sijhte of man. ^, And the v*^® age of the worlde, as afflict'e 
with moche tediousenesse, from the transmigracion of the lewes 
un to Criste, is terminate. That is to say, from Marche afore 
the brennenge of the temple, made in herveste, un to Marche 
in the xlij. yere of Auguste, under xiiij. generaciones, havenge 
after Bede v.<^. yere xlj., and after Isidor v.^. xlv., and after 
Elpericus v.^.lxxxix ; but after the trewe calculacion v.^'.xcj. ; 



' everychcy Cx. 
2 armour^ Cx. 
'^ and, Cx. 

* and soudeoursli cm. Cx. ; 
dyours, y. 
^ From Cx. 
^ tresery, y. 
^ Jlesshe, Cx. 
^ Lymes f y. ; lymmes, Cx. 
^ From y. and Cx. 
^^ seen, 0. and Cx. ; seye, y, 
^^ wi^y )8., 7., and Cx. 



SOM- 



12 



2/e, 7. ; agey Cx. 



^^ From )8. and Cx.,not 7. 

^^ age, Cx. 

^^ kare, y. 

^^ unto, Cx. 

^7 hifore, $. and Cx. 

1^ i-doo'] doon, )8. ; don, Cx. 

1^ harvost, 7. 

2*^ harvest unto, Cx. 

21 From j8., y., and Cx. 

^ yere'] om. &, and Cx. 



23 



mjyne, 7. 
2* verreyestf 
veryest, Cx. 



/3. ; verreystey 7. 



256 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Nam Isidorus in chronica sui quinti^ libri Etymo- 
logiarum inter Ptolomeum Epiphanem et Ptolomeum 
Euergetem secundum omittit Ptolomeum Philome- 
torem, et iterum omittit Ptolomeum Soterum in 
secundo ordine regiminis sui, qui regnavit post ma- 
trem suam occisam octo annis, Et sic a Christo 
inchoata est sexta seculi setas quse nulla generation um 
aut aetatum serie certa, sed velut decrepita totius 
sseculi morte erit finienda.^ Hanc autem sextam 
eetatem volunt quidam inclioari ab incarnations Christi, 
qua visitavit nos oriens ex alto. Alii autem a 
Nativitate Christi,^ secundum illud apostoli, "Cum 
'' venerit plenitudo temporis misit Deus," etc. Alii* 
a baptismo Christi, propter vim regenerativam aquis 
datam, circumcisione jam terminata. Alii quoque a 
passione,^ quia tunc aperta est porta Paradisi. Anni 



^ quinti] om. B. 

' Slightly varied in C.D. 

^ Christi] om. B. 



^ autem, added in A.B. 
^ Christi, added in A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



257 



«enlevene. For Isodorus ^ in J>e ^ cronike of his fifte ^ book 
Ethymologiarum '* overlepej? ^ Ptholomeus Philometor,^ by- 
twene Ptholomeus ^ Epiphanes and Ptholomeus "^ Euer- 
getes J)e secouude, and eft^ he overlepej? Ptholomeus Sother 
in J)e secounde ordre of his regnynge, ]?at regnede, after \2X 
his moder was i-slawe^ eyjte Jere, and bygynne]> ]?e sixte age 
of pe worlde from Crist.^^ pe [wliuch] ii age is noujt certeyne 
ofgeneraciouns no}>er^2 of ^eres, but it schal be ended as it 
were by deth, J?e laste elde ^^ of al J)e worlde. Som wil ^^ mene 
j?at pis ^^ sixte age of the worlde bygan at ])e Incarnacioun 
of Crist, by \q whiche Incarnacioun Crist visited us and 
come ^^ doun from hevene. Somme acounte]? ^'' ])e sixte ^^ age 
of ]?e worlde from \q bur]?e ^^ of Criste, and for |?at auctorite of 
]7e apostel, '• Whan plente of tyme come ^^ God sent ^^ his sone 
'' i-bore ^^ of a womman." Som acounte}) ^^ from fe fuUynge ^* 
of Crist, for ]>e vertue Jjat was i-Jeve^^ to^^ the water to 
brynge for]; children gostliche ^^ whanne pe circumsicioun 
gan 28 to cese.^^ Som acountej) ^^ from Cristes passioun, for 



Tkevisa. 



Ab urbe. for Ysidor in the cronike of his v*^® boke of Ethimologies MS. Haul. 
levethe aweye Ptholomeus Philometor and Ptholomeus Sother, 2261. 

whiche reio-nede after his moder sleyne viii. yere. And so ., . 

the vj. age of the Avorlde begynnethe from Criste, whiche is gracione. 
not finischede by eny ordre of generacions, to endure un to 
the ende of the worlde as pe laste age. Somme men wille 
the vj*^® age of the worlde to begynne from the incarnacion of 
Criste; somme men say hit to begynne at the natiuite of 
Criste, after the seyenge of thapostle, " When the plenitude of 
" tyme schalle comrae." Somme men say from the baptyme 
of Criste, for the stren^hte regeneratiue JifFen to waters, the 
circumcision finischede and terminate. Somme men say the 
^jthe age to begynne from the passion of Criste, thro whom 



^ Isidre, Cx. 

- \>e] om. Cx, 

^ vyfte, y. 

■* Ethymologiarum] om. Cx. 

^ hath overe leped, Cx. 

^ filometor, Cx. 

^ Tholomeus, Cx., bis. 

^ ofte, Cx. 

^ i-slawe'] slayn, )8. ; slayne, Cx. 

'^ Slightly transposed in yS.andCx. 

" From y. 

'■^ notvther, Cx. 

^'' aye, Cx. 

^* wole, )8. ; wol, Cx. 

^■'' K', Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



^^ cam, /3. and Cx. 
^^ acounten, Cx. 
^^ sixth, Cx. 
19 byrthe, Cx. 
'0 come];), y. 

-1 sende, j8. and Cx. ; send, y. 
2- j-6o?-e] born, fi. and Cx. 
^^ acounte, Cx. 

^^ f ram the follynq,y.', cristnynq^ 
Cx. 

-^ i-yeve] ^even, fi. ; yeven Cx. 

26 unto, Cx. 

-'' goostly, Cx. 

-^ bigan, fi. and Cx. 

-9 cease, Cx. 

R 



258 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



igitur ab origine mundi, id est a quintodecimo 
kalendas Aprilis quo mundus incepit, usque ad Gbris- 
tum incarnatum, secundum Orosium sunt quinque 
milia ducenti, sed secundum communiorem calcula- 
tionem sunt quinque milia centum nonaginta sex, 
secundum Martinum quinque milia centum nona- 
ginta novem} Eadem igitur feria sexta qua primus 
Adam peccavit post nonagintos^ triginta ^ obiit. 
Et in consimili feria sexta secundus Adam, id est 
Christus, carnem induit, jejunium suum terminavit, et 
mortem subiit. Et qua hora ferise sextae Adam ejectus 
est, tali hora latro in Paradisum introductus est* 
MarianuSj libro secundo.^ Nee obstat quod juxta 
dies solares teneat ecclesia primum Adam decimo 
kalendas Aprilis de terra plasmatum, et Christum viii. 



• u™. xcix., B. 

2 nongentos, A.B. 

3 annos, added in A.B. 

^ Slightly varied and transposed 



in C.D. ; the last few words trans- 
posed in B. 

^ C.D. omit reference. In full it 
is Lib. ii. aetas vi. anno Tib. 18. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



259 



|)0^ was i-opened fe ^ate of Paradys. pan J^e Jeres from ]>e Trevisa. 

bygynnynge of ]>e world, J^at was J?e fourtenpe day to fore ^ 

Averel, in ]>g whiche day J?e world bygan, anon to ^ ]?e in- 
carnacioun of Crist, were fyve j^owsand Jere and two hondred 
[yere],^ so sei]? Orosius. But ]>e more ^ comoun ^ calculynge 
sei}> fyve ]?owsand an ^ hondred [Jere] ^ foure score and six- 
tene. Marcius sei]? a^ ))Owsand ^ere and^^ an hondred ^ere 
foure score ^^ and nyne. pe firste Adam synned in a Friday, 
and deyde in ye same Friday after nyne hondred J ere and fifty .^^ 
And in suche a Friday ]>e secounde Adam, jjat is Crist, toke 
flesche and blood and endede his fastynge, and suffrede de]? for 
mankynde ^^ ; and [in] ■* ]>e same houre of ])e Friday Jjat Adam 
was i-putte out of Paradys ri^t in suche an houre Ipe j^eef^* 
was brou^t into ^^ Paradys. Marianus, libro 2°. [It] ^ is nou^t 
a^enst pis Jjat Holy Cherche ^^ holdej) ))at })e firste Adam was i- 
made of eorpe ^^ [in] ^ ]7e nynpe ^^ day tofore Averil/^ and Crist 



Ab ixrbe. *^® ?^*® ^^ heuynly Paradise was made open. After Orosius, MS. Hakl. 
from the begynnenge of the worlde, that is to say, from j)e 2261. 

XV. kalendes of Aprile, in whom the worlde began, un to Criste . 

incarnate be v. m^ and cc. yere. But after the moore commune gracion'e. 

calculacion there be v. mt. yere xcvj., and after Marcius v. mt 

xcix. And lyke as Adam diede in the vj*^® fery after ix.''. 

and xxx*i yere y-paste, soe in lyke wise the secunde Adam 

Criste was induede with the nature of man, endede his faste, 

in the same fery. Also the thefe was broujhte in to Paradise 

in that howre of the vj*^® fery in whom Adam was ejecte from 

Paradise. Marianus, libro 2°. And hit repugnethe not that 

the chirche holdethe after, other nye, the dales of the sonne f. 193. b. 

Adam to haue be made of therthe the x kalendes of Aprile, 

and Criste to haue be incarnate the viij. kalendes of Aprile, 



^ \>anne, )8. and Cx. 

2 hi fore, )8. ; of Cx. 

3 hegav unto, Cx. 

4 From Cx. 

* more] om, Cx. 
" comyn, Cx. 
7 and, Cx. 
^ From )8. and Cx. 
9 v., 0. ; fyve, Cx. 
^° and] om. Cx. 



^ foure score] om. Cx. 

2 \>ritty, /8. and y. ; xxx. 

3 mankuynde, y. 
^ )>eof y. 

^ in, Cx. 

^ chirche, Cx. 

' erthe, Cx. 

8 ny]>e, y. 

' ^yfore Apryl, Cx. 

R 2 



Cx. 



260 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHl HIGDEN 

kalendas Aprilis incarnatum quia ilia nox diei decimi 
kalendarum Aprilium, qu8e tunc sequebatur diem qua 
Adam factus est, facta est nunc per passionem Christi 
nox diei noni kalendarum ApriHum prsecedens diem. 
Quia ergo nonus dies kalendarum Aprilium ex sua parte 
prima factus est dies decimus kalendarum Aprilium, ex 
sua parte posteriori, id est nocturna, qua tentus et illusus^ 
est Christus, factus est dies octavus kalendarum Apri- 
lium ; liquet quod decimo die kalendarum Aprilium, et 
nono die, ac etiam octavo die kalendarum Aprilium 
passus sit Christus. Idem etiam patet alia ratione ; nam 
cum quolibet anno feria mutetur a littera ad litteram in 
kalendario propter abundantiam unius litterse ultra 
quinquaginta hebdomodas ^ duas excrescentis, non est 
mirum si feria sexta, quae in primordio mundi cadebat 
in decimo kalendarum Aprilium quando Adam plas- 
matus est, si post tot annorum curricula cadat in octavo 
kalendarum Aprilium quando Christus passus est ; quod 

* ilhisusque, B. | " Hi ebdomadas, A.B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. IV. 



261 



i-conceyved ]>e sevenpe day tofore Averil;^ ffor ]>e ny^t of pe Trevisa. 

nyn J7e ^ day to fore ^ ]>& firste day of Averil, |?at come after pe 

day ]?at Adam was i-made ynne, is now i-made by Cristes 
passioun pe nyjte of ]>e eyjt]7e* day of Averel. and goo]> to 
fore pG day. For ]>& ey^t|>e day to fore Averel of his firste 
partye is i-made ]?e nyn|?e day to fore Averel, and of his laste 
partye, ])at is })e nyjt in [the] ^ whiche Crist was i-holde,^ i- ^ 
buffeted,^ and i-scorned, is i-made ]>e seven])e day tofore^ 
Averel ; []7anne it folewip J^at Crist sufFride ]>e ix. day, ]>e 
viii. day, and ])e vii. day tofore Averil] .^^ pat may be schewed 
by ano^er resoun ; for everiche ^ere J?e lettre of ^e day chaun- 
ge)) in to ^1 ])e kalender, fibr ]?ere is oo ^^ lettre mo ^^ pan two 
and fifty wokes,^^ hit is no wonder ]?ey ^^ the Friday, ])at was 
in pe bygynnynge of pe worlde ]>e nyn])e ^^ day to fore Averil,^ 
whan Adam was i-made, falle ^^ after so meny Jeres ]?e seven]}e 
day to fore Averel,^ whan Crist suffrede deth : ]?at holdej) and 



rraciorie. 



Ab uvbe. for the nyjhte of the x. day of ]>e x. kalendes of Aprile, ^IS. Harl. 
folowede the day in whom Adam was made.i^ And now hit is 2261. 
made by the passion of Criste the nyjhte of the ix. kalendes ,^ trammi- 
of Aprile ; for the ix*^® day of the kalendes of Aprile of his 
firste parte is made the x*^® day of the kalendes of Aprile, 
of the laste parte, that is of the nyjhte in whom Criste 
was bownde and skornede, that was the viij. kalendes of 
Aprile. Wherefore hit may be concluded ])at Criste suffi-ede 
passion the x. kalendes of Aprile, and the ix*^® (j^y and the 
viij. day of the kalendes of Aprile. Also hit may be schewede 
by an other reason for sithe that the fery is chaungede euery 
yere from letter to letter in the kalendary, then hit is noo 
mervayle if the vj^i^® fery, whiche felle in the begynnenge of 
the worlde in the x*^® kalendes of Aprile when Adam was 
made, be no we after so mony yeres in the viij*^® kalendes 
of Aprile when Criste suffredde passion ; whiche seyenge the 



^ Apryl, Cx., et infra, 

2 iiy\)e, 7., et infra. 

3 byfore, Cx., et infra. 
"* eyyte\>e, 7., et infra. 
^ From 7. and Cx. 

6 i-holde] holden, )8. and Cx. 

7 and, /8. and Cx. 

8 yboffeted, 7. 

^ afore Apryll, Cx., et infra. 
'0 From k, 7., and Cx. 



" to] pm. fi., 7,, and Cx. 
^2 one, Cx. 
^3 more, Cx. 
^^ wekys, Cx. 
^^ though, Cx. 
^^ ni/nethe, Cx. 
''fylle,Cx. _ 

^° create is written in the text, and 
then erased and made written above. 



262 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

tenet et approbat traditio majorum, auctoritas ecclesise, 
et certa investigatio calculatorum. Sed secundum Au- 
gustinum ubi supra, contra rationem^ nemo sobrius, 
contra scripturam nemo Christianus, contra ecclesiam 
nemo pacificus ^ sentit. Hie etiam nota,^ secundum 
Augustinum, quod per synecdochen* dicitur Christus 
fuisse in corde terrse tribus diebus et tribus noctibus, 
cum tamen non quieverit ^ in sepulcro nisi per quad- 
raginta horas ; ^ ita ut prima dies sumatur secun- 
dum sui partem posteriorem cum nocte prsecedente, 
secunda dies secundum se totam, tertia secundum par- 
tem sui primam ; et sic secundum Augustinum quilibet 
illorum dierum habuit suam noctem praecedentem. 
Per hoc videtur quod magister in historiis non sit 
sequendus ubi dicit quod nox ilia media inter sanc- 
tum ^ Sabbatum et Dominicam resurrectionis sit com- 



^ ubi . . . rationem] ova. B. 
' catholicus, A.B. 
* Nota ergo hie, A. ; Nota igitur 
hie, B. 



* sinodochen, A,B. ; sinotochen, 
MS. 

^ quievit, B. 

^ tantum, added in A.B. 

" dictum, B. 



MDXACHI CESTBEXSIS, LIB. IV. 263 

aprevej) ^ lore of greet men, auctorite of holy chirche, and TBEntA. 

ceneyn assay of calculers.^ Bat aa Seynt Austyn seip above, 

a^eiLSt reaoan no sober man deme)) ; no Cristen man deme]> 
aZensi holy writte ; no pesible ^ man deme}? ajenst holy chirche. 
Also here take hede )>at Seint AuiJtyn seip j>at Crist lay in be 
herte of )>e er^ ^re dayes and )>re nyjt^ [bat nonjt al ml 
and hool pre dajes and jjre nyjt ;] ^ for Crist lay in his grave 
bot foorty hours : so )«it he lay in his grave in the laste ende 
of pe firste day, forto aconnte \>e firste day of foare and twenty 
hovires wij» )>e nyght fat was to J>e Friday pat Crist deyde 
yime ; and Crist lay in his grave holiche ^ slpe secoande day, 
and in pe firste partie of })e Jjridde day; and so [Seynt] " 
Anstyn sei|» )»at ereriche * of }>ese yre dayes hadde his ny^t 
so* ^t }e nyjt paasede tofore^** fe day : ))erby it seme J) fat 
}« maister in^ stories schnlde noujt be folowed ^ ))ere he seif 
yai ]« nyjt |>at was bytwene )>e Saturday ^^ and fe Sonday of the 
resurrectioim ^* was oomyn ^* bofe to fe Satnr«lay and eke ^^ to 



Ab «rbe. aoctorite of the chirche and )>e certeyne investigation of MS. Hjuu. 
calcnlers dothe holde and approbate. For after the seyenge 2261. 
of Seynte Anstyn, "Xoo sobre man anderstondethe afireyne ~ . 
•* reason neither scriptnre, and noo trewe Cnsten man ageyne znaavA. 
** the chirche." Also hit is to be attendede that Criste was 
seide to be in the body or herte of therthe thre daies and 
iij. nyjhtes by a fignre callede sinodoches, after Seynte 
Aostyn, sythe Criste reste not in his sepalcre bat by xl** 
howres. So that the firste day be taken after his parte 
posterialle with the ny^hte goenge afore, the sectmde day 
holly, the thridde day after the firste parte of hit. Ajid after 
Seynte Anstyn, eiche of these daies hade the nyjhte goenge 
afore longenge to theym. Wherefore hit semethe the maister 
of storyes is not to be folowede, whiche seythe that the 
myddelle ny^hte betwene the Setarday and the Sonday of 
thie resurreccion of onre Lord was commtine to the Setnrday 



^ ceriayme eaaofe of ealealerSy -'^ afore ^ Cx. 

Cx. i " of $. ; of the, Cx. 

^pofsyhU, 7. ; possible, Cx. 

* jqigktet^ Cx., et infra. 

* From ^. and 7. 

* hofyek, 7. ; koofy, Cx. 
'FromCx. 

* aat^ tkat ifdu, Cx. 



^fokwyde, Cx. 
" Sattrdcttff Cx 

^ ttMUttXUMj 7* 

»dbo,Cx. 



264, 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



munis Sabbato et Dominicse.^ Lucas, capitulo primo. 
Exsurgens igitur Maria ^ postquam conceperat venit 
ad civitatem Zakarise,^ (Dionysius,) quarto scilicet 
miliario ab Jerusalem, ubi mansit tribus mensibu& 
ministrando cognatse suae Elizabeth donee peperisset, 
et * tunc rediit in domum suam Nazareth. Matihceua. 
Quam reverfcentem noluit Joseph sponsus suus tra- 
ducere in conjugem, quia inventa fuit gravida, donee 
per angelum moneretur in somnis ^ eam accipere.* 
Lucas. In diebus illis ^ exiit edictum a Csesare 
Augusto ut describeretur universus orbis. Petrus 
tricesimo tertio? Vol ens Csesar scire numerum regio- 
num in orbe quae Romanse suberant ditioni, numerum 
etiam ^ civitatum in qualibet regione, numerum quoque 



' Much varied and abbreviated 
in CD. 

2 Maria] om. A. 

2 "iacarice, A. 

^ et . . . accipere] om. CD. 



^ in somnis] om. B. 
^ suis, B. 

' Hist. Evang. cap. iv^ 
^ etiani] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



265 



fe Sonday. Trevisa. Hitnede}?^ noujt to wij) seie^ ])emaisler Trevisa. 

of stories in j>is place wi|) oute o]?er evydens, while nyjtes and 

dayes mowe be acounted in meny manere wise.^ Beda and 
Lncas.^ panne Marie aroos after ])at sclie ^ haddei-conceyved, 
and com to ^ Zakarie his citee, foure myle out of lerusalem, and 
was ])ere |)re monies, and servede hir cosyn Elizabeth forto^ 
])at sche ^ haddc [a] ^ childe, and ]>oo ^^ Marie went ajen in to 
hir owne hous into Nazareth. Lucas, panne wolde nou^t 
here spouse Joseph take here sikerliche ^^ to his wif, for sche ^ 
was i-founde wi]? childe, or ^^ ])e aungel charged hym in his 
slepe ])at he schulde fonge ^^ hir wi})Oute drede. Lucas, pat 
tyme come oute a maundement from J?e emperour^^ Cesar 
Augustus forto descry ve al J^e worlde. Petrus. Cesar wolde 
wete ^^ ))e noumbre of londes of J^e worlde })at were sugette ^^ 
to Rome, and also pe nombre of ^^ \q citees of everiche londe, 
and \e nombre of polles ^^ of everiche citee, and heet^^ fat 
oute of suburbes, of stretes ^o of smal townes and grete, and 



Ab urbe. and to the Sonneday. Lucas ; Beda. Mary arysenge after MS. Harl. 

f. 194 a. that sche hade conceyvede, comme to the cite of Zachary, 2261. 

iiij. myles from lerusalem, where sche tariede iij. monethes in . 

ministrenge to Elisabeth her cosyn, un til that sche was gracione." 
delyuerede, then sche returnede un to her place at Nazarethe. 
Lucas. Whom returnenge, Joseph wolde not take un to his 
wife, in that sche was with childe, un tille that he was mone- 
schede in his slepe by an angelle to take her unto hym. Lucas. 
That tyme a commaundemente was sende from Octouian, 
emperour of Rome, that alle ]?e worlde scholde be describede. 
Petrus. Octouian the emperour, wyllenge to knowe the 
nowmbre of regiones in the worlde subiecte to the empire of 
Rome, and the nowmbre of cites in euery region, and the 
nowmbre of men and women in the cites, commaundede 
that euery man of subarbes, stretes, villages, townes, and of 



* neode\>, y. 
wy\>segge, y. 



wise] om. )S. and 



3 Trevisa 
Cx. 

^ Transposed in /8., y., and Cx. 
5 sche'] heo, )8. ; she, Cx. 
^ into, $. and Cx. 

7 tyl, Cx. 

8 heo, )8. 

9 From Cx. 

^° \>anne, )8. ; than, Cx. 



Cx. 



^^ sekerly, Cx. 

^- er, j8. ; ar, y. ; til, Cx. 

^^fange, fi. ; take, Cx. 

^■^ \>e emperour] om. P., y., and 



^^ wi/te, y. 

1^ subget, Cx. 

^*" \>e nombre of] om. Cx. 

^^ pollys, Cx. 

19 bade, /3. ; bad, Cx. 

20 subarbes of citees, Cx. 



26Q POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

capitum in qualibet civitate prsecepit ut de suburbiis, 
vicis, oppidis, pagis quilibet ad suam conflueret civi- 
tatem unde traliebat originem, et quique-^ denarium 
argenteum, pretii decern nummorum usualium/a quo et 
denarius dictus est, prsesidi provincise tradens, se sub- 
ditum Komano profiteretur imperio.^ Unde et Josephus 
ascendit a Nazareth in Bethlehem ^ civitate sua, cum 
Maria prsegnante ut ibi prsestiteretur.* Ibi quoque Maria 
peperit. Dionysius. In fine igitur quadragesimi se- 
cundi anni Augusti nocte sancti Sabbati, quse tunc 
sequebatur diem, anno setatis beatae Marise quartode- 
cimo, octavo kalendas Januarii, apud Bethlehem ^ natus 
est Christus. Post hoc die octavo, in kalendis Januarii, 
Dominico,^ circumcisus ;^ die autem tertiodecimo post 
nativitatem, in Epiphania, feria sexta, viii. idus Januarii, 
a Magis adoratus est ; et post hoc, quadragesimo die a 
nativitate, feria quinta, quarto nonas Februarii, in 



* quilibet, B. 

" Lucas, added in A.B.C.D. 
^ Beethleem, A. ; Betheleem, B. ; 
Bedlem, MS. 

'^profiteretur, A.B. 



» Beethleem, A. ; Bethleem, B. ; 

Bedlem, MS. 

^ die, added in A. 
^ est, added in A. 



MONACHI CESTEENSIS, LIB. TV. 



267 



oute of everiche con tray and ki]>J>e,^ everiche man schulde Trevisa, 

wende ^ homo to his owne citee j^at he com of and hadde of 

his bur))e.^ And every man schulde take a peny * of silver of 
the value ^ of ten pans,^ l>at were po i-used, to ]>e steward ^ 
of fe province, and knowleche hym self su^et ^ to J>e empere ^ 
of Rome. Lucas, perfore loseph wente out of Nazareth 
into Bethlem,^^ ]?at was his citee, wij? his wif Marie ]?at was 
wip childe forto knowleche j^ere, and j^ere Marye hadde [a] ^^ 
childe. Petrus. pan in fe ende of pe sevene and fourty^^.^ere 
of Augustus, ]7e Saturday [at] ^^ ny^t ]?at [panne] ^"^ folwede J^e 
day, ]>e fourtenj^e ^ere of ])e ^* age of Marye, pe sevenj^e day to 
fore lanyver,^^ Criste was i-bore at Bethleem,^^ and |?anne 
the eytej>e day afterward he was circumcided in a Sonday. 
pe twelfj7e day after J^e bur]?e ^^ was the Epiphanye, and fel 
in a Friday, ]?e sixte day of lanyver ; ]70 ^^ come ]>e kynges in 
worschippynge of ^^ Crist. And after []^at] ^^ fourty dayes of ^^ 
1)6 nativite, in a porsday, \q secounde day of Feverer,^^ Criste 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. cites scholde comme to the place of his byrthe, and offre MS. Harl. 
a peny in valoure of oure x. d. usualle, and take hit to the 2261. 
presidente of the prouince, knowlenge ^'^ hym subiecte to the 
empyre of Rome. Lucas. Wherefore loseph wente from 
Nazareth to Bethleem, the cite where he was borne, with 
Mary his wife, beenge with childe, that he myjte offre, where 
Mary his wife was delyuerede of oure Savioure. Petrus, 
Therefore oure Savioure Criste was borne in the ende of the 
xlij. yere of Augustus, in the nyjhte of the holy Sabotte, 
whiche folowede the day then, in the xiiij^'iQ yere of the age 
of oure blessede lady, the viij^^^ kalendes of lanuare, at 
Bethleem. And after that he was circumcisede on Sunday, 
in the kalendes of lanuare; he was worschippede of thre 
kynges in the xiij***^ day after, in the viij*^^ idus off lanuare, and 



^ ky\>the^ y. ; kyth, Cx. 

2 departe, Cx. 

3 bi/rth, Cx. 
^ penny, Cx. 
^ valuwe, y. 

^ panes, y. ; valewe of the ten 
pens, Cx. 

7 styward, y. and Cx. 

^ subget, Cx. 

^ emperour, $. and Cx. ; Emper, 

7- 

^^ Bethleem, y. ; Bethlehem, Cx. 
" From Cx. 



^2 xUL, $. and Cx. ; secunde and 
fourty, y. 

13 From )8. and Cx. ; \>o, y. 

1^ t>e] om. Cx. 

15 Januarie, ^. ; Janivere, Cx. 

1^ Bethlem, (Jx. 

17 byrth, Cx. 

1^ )>ara, /3. and Cx. 

15 a7id worschiped, $., y., and Cx. 

20 From ^8., y., and Cx. 

21 after, &., y., and Cx. 

22 Februarie, 0. ; Feverere, Cx. 

23 Sic in MS. 



268 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

templo est prsesentatus ; et post hoc, juxta monitionem 
angeli in somnis, fugit in JEgyptum. cum matre sua et 
Joseph, per^ sex annos ibi manens usque ad obitum 
Herodis. Herodes autem excogitaverat omnes pueros 
extinguere propter Christum, ut sic Christum inter alios 
involveret. Christo autem ingrediente -^gyptum cor- 
ruerunt idola. Ranulphus} Igitur ab octavo ka- 
lendas Aprilis, feria sexta, qua conceptus est Christus, 
usque ad noctem Dominicse diei qua natus est Christus, 
fluxerunt dies ducenti Ixxvi., qui numerus complet 
novem lunares menses et sex dies, ita quidem quod 
juxta antiquorum observationem cuilibet mensi triginta 
dies assignentur. Hi autem novem menses et sex 
dies tanquam decem menses parturientibus feminis 
deputantur, quamvis non omnes feminse ad ilium sex- 
tum diem pertingant, sicut ^ patuit de * Johanne 
Baptista et de^ beata Maria, qui unum diem minus 



post, B. 



2 Abbreviated in C.D., Ranulphiis 
being omitted. 



3 sic, B. 

'* beato, added iu B. 

^ t/e] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 2G9 . 

was presented^ in pe temple; in mynde ferof is ]>e feste of ^ Tkevisa. 
Candelmasse day. After pat by warnynge of pe aungel, ))at 
warned Joseph [in] ^ his sleep, he flije ^ in to Egipt wi]? 
his moder and Joseph, and^ was J^ere sixe ^ere anone to 
Herodes his ^ detli. Herodes caste forto slee al ]>e children by 
cause of Crist, for he wolde be siker [of hym] '^ among o]?ere. 
Whan Crist entrede into Egipt, ]>e mawmettes over])rewe and 
fil ^ doun. I^. panne from ^ the seven]?e day to fore Averil,^^ 
))at was the Friday in Ipe whiche Crist was conceyved, in ^^ 
]?e nyjt of ])e Sonday in whiche Crist was i-bore, were two^ 
hondred dayes ]>re score and sixtene, pe whiche nombre of 
dayes raakej) nyne monj?es ^^ of Tpe mone and sixe dayes, so pat 
everiche monpe ^^ be of pritty dayes, as men accounted in olde 
tyme. pese ^^ nyne monies and sixe dayes beep ^^ assigned to 
wommen ^^ pat goop with childe, as it were ten monpes, peyj '^'^ 
nou^t alle wommen goop^^ wip childe to pis sixte day, as it ^^ 
was soop of lohn ^^ Baptiste and of Seynte Marie, pat hadde 



Ab urbe. in the xl^^ day from the Natiuite he was presentede in the MS. Harl. 
temple. And after that she fledde in to Egipte with Joseph 2261. 

here howsebonde, takenge Criste oure Savioure with theyme, 

after the monicion of the angel made to Joseph, taryenge per ' graSneV 
by vj. yore un to the dethe of Herode. For the seide IJerode 
thoujhte to extincte and slee alle childer of tender age within 
the Jewery, be cause of Criste, that he myjhte sle hym amonge 
other childer. The ydoles of Egipte felle downe when that f- 194. b. 
Criste entrede in to the londe of Egipte. Wherefore there 
were cc. dales Ixxvj., whiche nowmbre dothe complete ix. 
monethes of the moone and vj. dayes, so that xxx*^ dales be 
assignede to every monethe, after the obsueracion of olde tyme, 
from the viij^^® kalendes of Aprile, the sexte fery, in whom 
Criste was conceyvede, un to the nyjhte of the Sonneday in 



* presentet, y. 

2 \>e/este of] ova. Cx. 

3 From Cx. 
^Jledde, Cx. 

^ and] om. y. and Cx. 

^ his] om. Cx. 

7 From )8., 7., and Cx. 

^M r ; fille, Cx. 

9 to, Cx. 

^° afore Apryll, Cx. 



1 to, $. and Cx. 

- monethes, Cx., et infra. 

3 every moneth, Cx. 

\>eos, y. 
' ben, Cx. 

^ wymmen, y., et infra. 
' \>ouy, j8. ; though, Cx. 

8 go, fi. ; goo, Cx. 

9 yet, Cx. 

"•^ lohan, Cx. 



270 POLYCHEONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 

habuerunt in utero materno quam Christus,^ At quia 
ex concurrentia annorum Christi et regum, quorum 
principia et fines frequenter sunt incerti, ambiguitas 
emergit plerumque in calculando, necnon et circa ipsos 
annos Domini quoto anno baptizatus quotove anno 
passus sit Christus varia loquuntur auctores ; idcirco 
ad onmem ambiguitatis scrupulum submovendum, ad- 
vertendum est secundum Bedam, libro de temporibus, 
quod Komani ante^ Numam Pompilium annum in 
Martio, sicut Hebrsei, incipiebant ; sed a ^ tempore 
Numse, qui duos menses Januarium et Februariiim ad 
annum addidit, annum a Bruma, id est a principio 
Januarii incipiunt ; quos etiam ecclesia occidentalis in 
kalendario communi et anno usuali sequitur. Grseci 
vero, qui Olympiades invenerunt, a solsticio brumali in- 



^ Banulphus, added in CD. 
^ ad, A. 



2 in, A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



271 



oon day lasse j^at ^ Crist in ])e moder womb. [I^.] ^ And for the 
comynge to gideres ^ of Jeres of Criste and of ]?e ^ kynges, of 
]>e whiche Jeres of kynges ^ j^e bygynnynges ^ and the endes 
bee])^ uncertayn, and ful ofte falle})^ grete doutes in a 
countynge ^ of J ores, and also of ]>e Jeres of oure Lord, what 
5ere he was i-fulled,^^ what ^ere Crist suffrede de]), auctoures 
speke|> dyversliche.^^ perfore forto putte away al manere 
doute, take hede by Beda his lore,!^ Hbro de temporibus, ])at 
the Romayns to fore ^^ Numa Pompilius his tyme bygonne ^* 
ye tere in Marche, as J?e Hebrewes doo]) ^^ ; but from Numa 
his tyme/^ I>at putte tweie monj)es ^^ to pe ^ere, lanyver and 
Feverer/^ J)e Romayns bygynnej? ^^ ]>e Jere in ]?e bygynnynge 
of lanyver ; holy chirche in fe weste londes folwe^ ^^ hem 
in ]?e comoun ^^ kalender, and in pe J ere J^at is most i-used. 
But fe Grees,22 j^at brou jt up Olympias, bygynne]? ^3 pe ^ere 



Trevisa, 



Aburbe. whom Criste was borne. ^. And for cause that a do wte may 
be movede in the concurrente of the yeres of Criste and of 
kynges, the begynnenges and endynges off whom be incerteyne 
oftetymes in calculacion, and also abowte the yeres of oure 
Lorde God, in what yere he was baptizate, or in what yere he 
suffrede bitter passion for the redempcion of man, that alle 
ambiguites and dowtes may be removede, hit is to be aduer- 
tisede that after Bede, libro de temporibus, that the Romanes 
afore the tymes of Numa Pompilius began the yere in the 
monethe of Marche, like as men of Hebrewe did. But thei 
began the yere at lanuare after the time that Numa Pompilius 
hade caste to the yere lanuare and Februare ; whom men of the 
weste partes of the worlde folowe in theire kalendary and 
usualle yere. Men of the londe of Grece, that founde dis- 
portes Ohmpicalle, other a numeracion of yeres callede Olimpias, 



MS. Harl. 
2261. 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ofdi- 
uerse be- 
gynnenges 
of the yere 
[after dy- 
verse naci- 
ones.] 24 



1 \>an, )8., y., and Cx. 

2 From )8., y., and Cx. 

3 togyders, Cx. 
•* )>e] om. Cx. 

^ of \>e whiche yeres of kynges"] 
om, Cx. 

^ hegynnyngys, Cx. 
7 ben, Cx. 

^fallen, fi. ; falle, Cx. 
^ acountyng, )3. and Cx. 

10 i-fulled] foUed, /8. ; yfoUed, y. ; 
baptysed, Cx. 

11 auctors speken dyversly, Cx. 
1=^ loore, Cx. 

13 byfore, Cx. 



i"* bygan, Cx. 
1^ don, Cx. 
1^ Numaes tyme, Cx. 
1' two monethes, Cx. 
1^ lanuarie and Februarie, fi. ; 
lanyvere and Feveryere, Cx. 
1^ byaynne, Cx. 
^^folowith, Cx. 

21 comyn, Cx. 

22 Grekis, /3. ; Gres, y. ; GrekeSy 
Cx. 

2-^ begynnen, Cx., et infra. 
24 The words in brackets are by 
a later hand. 



272 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



cipiunt annum ; Hebrsei vero ^ ab equinoctio vernali, 
quando mundus incepit. -^gyptii vero annum incipiunt 
ab auctumno. ^ Orientales vero, ut ^ Arabes et Chal- 
dei,^ post collectionem ^ frugum et torcularium decimis 
in templo allatis, in principio Octobris, quod ^ est prope 
equinoctium auctumnale, annum inclioant, sicut patet 
in visione Ezechielis, ubi agitur de mense quarto, quinta 
die mensis ; apud quos October erat primus mensis, 
et Januarius quartus. "^ Cseterum prseter variam aniii 
inceptionem, ut preedictum est, est annus emergens a 
quovis rei eventu, et in^ quovis tempore anni usualis 
incipiens, qualis incipere solet in primordiis regum, ad 
hoc annos Domini duobus modis numeramus, aut se- 
cundum nativitatem ejus, aut secundum setatem. Itaque 
cum Cliristus natus sit in fine anni nostri usualis 



^ vero] om. A. 

2 Dionisius, added in CD. 

^ aut, B 

4 Caldei, MSS. 



^ collectiones , A. 

^ eo quod, B. 

"^ BanulphuSj added in A.B.C.D. 

8a,B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



273 



from jje schortest day of [the] ^ wynter; ))ut j^e Hebrewes Trevisa. 

bygynne]) j^e ^ere in Marche, whan |?e day and ]?e nyjte 

bee]> 2 i-liche longe, for ]>SLi tyme fe worlds was firste i-made. 
But the Egipcians bygynne}) '^ pe Jere from herveste.'* Men 
of ])e Est 5 londes, as Arabes and Caldeys, bygynne}) pe ^ere 
after pe gaderynge of wyn, of corn, and of fruyt, whanne J?e 
te]?ynges bee J» i-broujt ^ in to pe temple, in pe bygynnynge 
of Octobre, whan pe day and pe ny^t bee]? nyh^ i-liche^ 
longe, in hervest tyme, as it ^ seme]? by ^^ Ezechiel his visioun, 
pere he speke]? of pe four})e ^^ mone})e and of ^^ pe firste ^^ day 
of pe mon]?e ;^^ among hem Octobre was pe firste mon]?e, and 
lanyver^^ pe fevpe.^^ 1^. Hit is i-seide J?at dyvers men 
have]? 1^ dyvers bygynnynge of ^eres, and ^it over ])at come]? 
dyverse Jeres by som happe ]?at ]?ere falle ^^ and bygynne]? in 
dyverse tymes of ]?e ^ere ])at we most use]?,i^ as it^ is of 
^eres of kynges ]?at bygynne]? ^^ to regne in dyverse tyme of ]?e 
Jere ]?at we most use^ ^^ ; Jet we acounte]? ^^ pe Jeres of oure 
Lorde in tweie manere v^ryse, o]?er by his bur]?e, o]?er ^^ by his 
age. And so ^^ while Crist was i-bore in l)e ende of pe J ere 



Aburbe. began the yere from the solstice of wynter. Men of Hebrewe MS. Harl, 
began the yere from pe equinoccialle of ver when the worlde 2261. 
was made. Men of Egipte besran the yere from herveste. . . 

Men of the Este, as ofi" Calde and of Araby, beganne the yere gracione. 
from October, after that thei hade gete in theire cornes and 
frutes, and ofii'ede the tithes in the temple, as hit is schewede 
in the vision of Daniel, where hit is rehersede of the iiij*^^ 
monethe, whiche was lanuare. ^,. Also per is a yere callede 
emergente, excepte the diuerse incepcion of the yere schewede 
afore, by chaunce of a thynge begynnenge in euery tyme of 
the usualle yere, as is usede to be in the begynnenges of kynges. f. 195. g. 
Also we may nowmbre the yeres of oure Lorde in ij. maneres, 
other after his natiuite, other after his age. Sithe that Criste 



^ From 7. and Cx. 

2 ben iyke, Cx. 

•* bygynnen, Cx. 

^ harvost, 7. et infra. 

^ eeste, Cx. 

^ tethenges ben brought^ Cx. 

7 uyK] om )8. and Cx. ; ny^, 7. 

^ ben ylyke, Cx. 

^ yet, Cx. 

^0 by-] om. Cx. 

^i/er>e, 7. 

^2 of] om. Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



^'^fij\>e, ^. andCx. 

^"* moneth, Cx., et infra. 

^^ lanuaiie, fi. ; lanyvere^ Cx. 

'^^ fourth, Cx. 

^' have, Cx. 

^^falli\>, fi. ; falleth, 7. and Cx. 

^^ moost use, Cx. 

*^ begynneti, Cx. 

^^ use, Cx., et infra. 

-2 acounte, Cx. 

^•^ byrthe or, Cx, 

^•* a/so, Cx. 

S 



274 POLYCHRONICON RA.NULPHI HIGDEN 

secundum solem, de primo anno nativitatis non habuit 
nisi tantum ^ septem dies ; sed primus annus setatis suae 
duodecim mensium solarium, scilicet a vicesimo quinto 
die Decembris usque ad eundem diem anno revoluto, 
completur in secundo anno nativitatis ; et ita duos 
annos nativitatis secundum solem poene in primo 
anno setatis^ consummavit. Et secundus annus na- 
tivitatis est ille qui et primus getatis. Unde fit 
quod anni nativitatis Dominicse secundum cursum 
solarem^ sunt^ triginta quatuor et poene dimidius,^ 
anni ^ vero setatis ejus ^ sunt triginta tres et poene 
dimidius ; in quorum xxx. secundum ^ setatem, vel 
tricesimo primo ^ secundum nativitatem/^ baptizatus 
est. Quo anno computato cum ultimo poene di- 
midio verum est Christum prsedicasse quatuor annis, 
vel saltem, secundum Evangelium Johannis, tribus 
annis et dimidio. Et sic in tricesimo tertio setatis, 
vel tricesimo quarto nativitatis suae passus est. Dio- 



^ tantuin] ODi. B. 
2 nativitatis, B. 
** lunarem, A. 
'* sunt'\ om. A. 
'' dimidia, B. 
^ anno, B. 



7 ejusi om. B. 

^ naiivitatem vel secundum^ added 
inB. 

'•^ /jnwjo] om. A. 

^^ vel . . . 7iativitateni] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTEENSIS, LIB. IV. 



275 



]>Sit we use}) by ]?e cours of ^ pe sonne, he hadde of ]>e firste Trevisa. 

^ere of his burfe but sevene dayes^ from fe nativite to Jeres- 

day. But ]>e firste Jere of his age of twelve mon])es by ]?e ^ 
cours of J>e sonne,* from J^e fyve and twenty day of Decembre 
to ]?e same day at ^ twelfmonjje,^ is fulfilled in ^ ])e secounde 
J ere of his burj^e. And so in pe firste J ere of his age [he 
fulfilled almost ^ two ^ere of his burj?e. And ])e secunde ^ere 
of his burj>e is ]?e first Jere of his age].^ perfore ^^ it is ]?at 
|?e Jeres of ]>e bur]?e of oure Lorde by f e course of ]>e sonne 
bee^ 1^ nyh foure and ]?ritty Jere and an half, and the ^eres 
of his age ny^ ^^ fre and fritty ^ere and an half; and he was 
i-fuUed 1^ in his pritty Jere of [age, in |7e xxi.^* Jere of his] ^ 
bur]?e, for to acounte |?at J ere wij? fe laste partie fat was al- 
most 15 half ^ere. Hit is soo]? ^^ j)at Crist prechede ^^ foure 
Jere, and specialliche ]>re Jere and an half, and ^^ by 'pe gospel 
of Seint lohn ; ^^ and so Crist suffrede dee]; in pe ])re and 
])Yittj ^ere of his age, [and in ]>q xxxiiii. J ere of his bur])e].^ 



Ab urbe. 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



was borne in the ende of oure usualle yere, after the sonne, he MS. Harl 

hade but oonly vii. dales of the firste yere of his natiuite. But 2261. 

the firste yere of his age of xij. monethes of the son, that is to 

say, from the xxv. day of December, is complete and finischede 

un to that tyme the yere revolute, and so he finischede the 

secunde yere of his natiuite, after the son^ in the firste yere of 

his age allemoste. Wherefore the yeres of oure Lorde God, 

after the cowrse of the son, be xxxiiij. and allemoste halfe a 

yere. And the yeres of his age be xxxiij. and allemoste a halfe. 

In the xxx^i yere of whom after age, or xxxj. after natiuite, 

Criste was baptizede, whiche yere acomptede with the laste halfe 

yere, hit is trewe that Criste prechede iiij. yere, or elles after 

the gospelle of Seynte lohn iij. yere and a halfe, and so Criste 

suffi'ede passion in the xxxiij. yere of his age, and xxxiiij*^ yere 



* \>e cours of] om. Cx. 
^ seve dawes, y. 

^ his, Cx. 

* of the sonne] om. Cx. 
^ at] om. Cx. 

^ twelve monethes, Cx. 

7 in] om. Cx. 

^ almest, y. 

^ From )8., 7., and Cx. 

10 yet, Cx. 



^^ bu\> ni/y, y. ; be nygh, Cx. 
^2 nyghe, Cx. 

^3 yfollcd, y. ; haptysed, Cx. 
^■^ hys on and thrytty yer, 
xxxi., Cx. 

^5 almoost an, Cx. 
1*5 sothe, Cx. 
'^'^ prechid, Cx. 
^^ and] om. Cx. 
19 lohan, Cx. 



S 2 



276 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



nysius. Annus igitur Octaviani quadragesimus se- 
cundus, in quo Christus natus est, sicut a Martio incepit, 
ita et^ desinit, ideoque initium suuin in anno tertio 
centesimse nonagesimse quartse Olympiadis, juxta Euse- 
bium, sumit/ et finem ejus in anno quarto ejusdem 
Olympiadis mense Martio concludit, Et quia divina 
sapientia ibi providit suam nativitatem ubi Grseci 
annum cum Olympiade incipiunt, idcirco anni Domini 
cum Olympiadibus incipiunt et desinunt. Anni vero 
regum et imperatorum, quorum raro initium aut finis 
certe reperitur difiiculter cum Olympiadibus aut cum 
annis Domini,^ computantur, eo quod initium priori 
anno et finem in altero anno Olympiadum frequenter* 
habent. Cum ergo regnum Augusti numeretur a Martio, 
et Christus in fine quadragesimi secundi anni Augusti 
incipit primum annum nativitatis, annus xliii^^ j\^u. 



1 et} om. B. 

2 sumify from A.B. ; sumitur, MS. 



^ cum . . . Domini'] cum annis 
Domini Olimpidibus, B. 
'* frequetite7\\ om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



277 



[]^.] 1 pan in^ ])e secounde Jere of fourty^ of Octovianus, Trevisa. 

in po whiche ^ere Crist was i-bore, bygan in Marche [and 

endede^ in Marcli].^ And^ })erefor J^at ^ere bygan in pe 
jiridde [ Jere] ^ of ]>e '' Olympias nyne score and fourtene, [and 
ended in J>e ferpe] ^ ^ere of pe same Olympias in ]?e monpe of 
Marche ; and for ]?e wisdom of oure Lorde ordeyned his burj?e 
[pere] ® J?e Grees bygynnep |)e ^ere wi]? [pe] ^ Olympias, 
periore pe ^eres of oure Lorde bygynne]? and endep ^ wij) pe 
Olympias. But pe ^eres of kynges and of emperours by- 
gynne]> and endej? ^^ certenliche ^^ but ri^t seelde/^ perfore it 
is harde to acounte hem wij> pe Olimpias oper ^^ wiJ? pe ^eres 
of oure Lorde, fFor pej bygynnep ^^ ofte in oon ^^ ^ere of 
pe Olympias and endej? ^^ in anoper. panne pe kyngdom of 
Augustus is acounted in Marche, and Crist bygynne]? his 
firste tere of his burpe ^^ in pe ende of Augustus his two and 
fourty tere. panne pe pre and fourty^^ ^ere of Augustus 
bygynnej? in pe firste J ere of pe age of Criste, and pe foure 



Ab urbe. of his natiuite after the cowrse of the sonne. 
pe xlij. yere of Octouian, in whom Criste 



^. Therefore MS. ILirl. 



was borne, dothe 
ende in Marche like as hit began in Marche, perfore, he takethe 
begynnenge in the cxc. and iiij*'^® Olimpias, after Eusebius, 
and concludethe the ende of hit in the iiij*^® yere of the same 
Olimpias in the monethe of Marche. And for cause diuine 
sapience providede his natiuite where men of Grece begynne 
the yere with the Olimpias, perefore the yeres of oure Lord 
God begynne with thOlimpias, and do ende with theym. 
But the yeres of kynges and of emperoures be acomptede but 
selde with the Olimpias, or with the yeres of oure Lorde God, 
sithe the begynnenge or ende of the yeres of theyme is not 
founde in certeynte, in that thei haue the begynnenge of the 
firste yere and ende ^^ in diuerse yeres of the Olimpias. Then 
sithe the reigne of Augustus is nowmbrede from Marche, and 
Criste began the firste yere of his Natiuite in the ende of the 



2261. 

A transmi- 
gracione. 



1 From Cx. 

2 in] om. y. 

3 xlii. yere, )8. ; secunde yer and 
fourty^ 7. ; two and fourty yere^ Cx. 

^ endeth, Cx. 

5 From )8., 7., and Cx. 

^ And^ om. fi. and Cx. 

7 )je] om. $. and Cx. 

^ From iS. and Cx. ; \>ar, 7. 

^ hygynne and ende, Cx. 

^° begynne and ende, Cx. 



^^ certatjnly, Cx. 
^2 selde, Cx. 
^3 owther, Cx. 
^'^ begijnne, Cx. 
^5 one, Cx. 
1^ ende, Cx. 
^' byrthe, Cx. 
^^ xlii., Cx. 

19 Between ende and in there is a 
space left in the MS. 



278 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



gusti incipit in primo anno aetatis Christi^ et xliiii^ 
August! in ii° setatis Christi, et quadragesimus quintus 
in tertio, etc.^ EutropiVyS.^ 

Cap. II. 

[De Her ode Magna et filiis ejus.] 

Gratise. NATO Domino fons olei^' trans Tiberim de Taberna 
1. 

42. * Emeritoria per totum diem effluxit, et circulus circa 
solem apparuit. Martinus. Et statua aurea corruit 
quam in Romuleo palatio Romulus posuerat dicens, '' Non 
'* cadet hsec donee virgo pariat."^ Item templum pacis 
corruit in Roma, et secundum Jeronimum super illud, 
Lux orta est, omnes Sodomitse per totum mundum 
extincti sunt. Petrus.^ Cum^ Herodes de nece pue- 



^ anno, B. 

2 et sic deinceps, B. 

2 The whole chapter is slightly 
varied in the usual manner in CD. 
The reference given is wrong, the 
passage is not from Eutropius. 



* oleil om. B. 

^ pareat, A. 

^ Histor. Evang. cap. xi. 

"^ Dum, A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



279 



and fourty ^ ^ere of Augustus bygynne]) ^ in ]?e secounde Trevisa. 
Jere of ]?e age of Crist, and his ^ fyve * and fourty ^ ^ere in 
J)e friddOj and so for]>. 

Capitulum secundum. 

Whan oure Lorde was i-bore a welle of oyle sprang by- 
Jonde Tybre oute of ]>e tavarn^ Emeritoria, and ran'' al day; 
and a cercle was i-seie ^ aboute Jje sonne. Trevisa» Knyjtes 
of Rome after sixty Jere lefte dedes of armes, and were 
i-cleped^ kny^tes of J^e chyvalrie^^ emeritoria, and spende 
what J)ey hadde in a taverue ^^ by^onde Tybre, and j^erfore ]7at 
tavarn ^^ was i-cleped Taberna emeritoria. Martins}^ pe 
ymage of golde fil ^* doun pat Romulus hadde i-sette in his 
paleys, and seide hit schal nou^t faille ^^ or^^ a mayde here a 
cliylde. Also ];e temple of pees fil ^^ doun in Rome; and lerom 
uppon })at worde, " Li^t is arise to \q ri^tful," seith J^at alle 
the sodomytes in alle ])Q worlde were destroyed.!^ Petrus. 



Abiirbe. xlij. yere of Augustus, then fe thre and xl*i yere of Augustus MS. Harl, 
begynnethe in the firste yere of the age of Criste, and the 2261. 
iiijthe 19 jQYQ Qf Augustus in the secunde yere of Criste. 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



[^Capitulum secu7idunu'\ ^o 

In the natiuite of Criste a welle of oyle flowede ouer Tiber 
from the tauerne emeritory by alle the day, and a cercle 
apperede abowte the sonne. Martinus. And an ymage 
of golde felle downe, whom Romulus sette in his palice, 
seyenge that ymage scholde not falle un til that a pure 
virgyne hade a childe. Also the temple of peace felle, and 
after the exposicion of Seynte lerom on this texte, " Lux orta 
*' est," alle sodomites thro alle the worlde were extincte in his 
natiuite. Petrus, Herode intendenge the dethe of inno- 



^ xliii.i Cx. 

2 hygynne)>'\ om. )8., 7., and Cx. 

3 is, Cx. 

5 xliiii., Cx. 
^ taveme, Cx. 
7 ranne, Cx. 
^ seen, Cx. 

9 callyd, Cx., et infra. 

10 chevalrye, Cx. 
^1 tavarn, 7. 



1'' taveme, Cx. 
^"^ Marcus, Cx. 
^^ felle, Cx. 
'^^ falle, Cx. 

*^ cr, j8.; ar, y.; til, Cx. 
^'^fylle, Cx. 

^^ distried, j8. ; destruyed, 7. 
19 Sic in MS. 

^^ A space is left in the MS. here, 
but no numbering of the chapter. 



280 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Gratije. Torum disponeret, citatus est per epistolam Csesaris 

2. 

"I3! ^' Homam venire, accusationibus filiorum suorum Alex- 
andri et Aristobuli responsurus. Cum ^ tres fuerunt 
Herodes ob facta infamia nominati et famosi, primus 
dictus est Ascalonita, ab urbe Ascalone quam sedifi- 
cavit ; et sub isto natus est Christus et pueri trucidati. 
Secundus dictus est Antipas, filius primi Herodis, sub 
quo Johannes ^ est decollatus et Christus passus. Ter- 
tius dictus est Agrippa, filius Aristobuli, filii Herodis 
primi ; qui Jacobum occidit et Petrum incarceravit : 
unde extant^ versus. Ascalonita necat pueros, An- 
tipa Johannem, Agrippa Jacohum, claiidens in car- 
cere Petrum. Primus igitur Herodes cum videret 
filios suos * Alexandrum et Aristobulum prsetextu 
litteraturse suae licentius de successione regni cum 
patre disceptare, indignatus ex hoc, Antipatrum primo- 



^ ergo, A.B. I ^ extant'] om. A. 

2 Baptista, B. I ^ suds'] om. A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



281 



While Herodes arayej) ^ for ]je childrcu 2 dee]?, he was i-somp- Trevisa. 

ned ^ by a maundement of Cesar for to come to Rome for to 

answere * to ]>e poyntes pat his owne sones putte uppon hym, 
Alisauiidre and Aristobolus. For ]?ere were pre Herodes of 
greet name for here evel ^ dedes. Take hede pat pe firste 
[heet] ^ Herodes Ascalonia/ and hadde pat name of the citee 
Ascolon,^ ffor he ful bulde ^ pat citee ; and in pis Herodes his 
tyme Crist was i-bore, and pe children ^ were i-slawe.^^ pe se- 
counde heet Herodes Antipas, and was pe firste Herodes his sone; 
in his tyme lohn ^^ Baptiste Avas i-heded,i2 ^nd Criste suffrede 
dep. pe pridde heet Herodes Agrippa, [Aristobolus sone ;] ^'^ 
Aristobolus was the firste Herodes his sone. pis Herodes 
Agrippa slow^ ^^ lames and prisoned Peter, perfore beep vers 
i-made :^^ Ascolonita sleep ^^ children, Antipa pe Bap. lohn ;i^ 
Agrippa slou^ ^^ lames and prisoned Peter, pe firste Herodes, 
whan he sigh ^^ pat his sones Alisaundre and Aristobolus 
stryve pe boldloker ^^ Avip here fader of pe heritage ^i of pe 
kyngdom by cause of hire lettrure, he hadde indignacioun 



A transmi- 
gracioue. 



Ab urbe. centes, was citede by an epistole to comme to Rome to them- MS. Harl. 
perour, to the accusacion of Alexander and of Aristobolus 2261. 
his sonnes. Then sithe per were iij. of that name Herode, 
the firste Herode was callede Ascolonita, of Ascalon, a cite 
whome he causede to be edifiede, under whom oure Savioure 
Criste w^as borne and the innocentes sleyne. The secunde was 
callede Herodes Antipa, son of the firste Herode, in the tyme 
of whom Seynte lohn Baptiste was heded, and Criste suffrede 
passion. The thridde was callede Herodes Agrippa, son of 
Aristobolus, son of the firste Herode, wliiche did sle Seynte 
lames and imprisonede Seynte Petyr. The firste Herode 
Ascolonite, percey venge Alexander and Aristobolus his sonnes 
to stryve with hym of the succession of his realme, hade indig- 



* arayede, /3. ; arayde, Cx. 

- childern, 7. et infra. 

3 sompned, Cx. 

"* answhere, 7. 

^ her evyl, Cx. 

^ From 7. Cx. inserts was. 

7 Ascalonita, ^8., 7., and Cx. 

^ Ascalon, Cx. 

9 bylte, Cx. 

^0 slayn, )8. ; slayne, Cx. 

^' lohan, Cx. 

12 biheded, /8. ; byheded, 7. and Cx. 



^3 From /8. and Cx. 

^4 slowe, Cx, 

^5 ben versus made, Cx. 

16 sleth, Cx. 

1' \)e Bap. lohn"] Ion Bap., )8. ; 
Antipas Johan Baptist, Cx. 

^^ slow, Cx. 

i"-* sawe, Cx. 

^^ boldlyker, 7. ; stroof the bolder^ 
Cx. 

21 Enjtage, 7. 



282 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

genitum illis praeponere satagebat. Cumque illi de 
morte patris tractantes ab eo reject! fuissent, Caesarem 
adeunt de patris injuria conquesturi. Interea^ magi 
Jerosolimam venerunt, sed dum eadem via non redeunt 
ad Herodem, putavit Herodes eos tanquam deceptos 
redire erabuisse, ideoque^ ab inquisitione pueri ani- 
mum interim suspendit. Romam tamen tendens propter 
citationem Csesaris, dum per Tharsum^ iter faceret, 
naves eorum combussit eo quod magos transvexis- 
sent. Inde post annum et aliquot dies a nativitate 
Chris ti de Roma rediens, cum filiis jam pacificatus, 
et ex regni confirmatione audacior effectus, occidit 
omnes pueros Bethleemiticos * supra aetatem Christi, 
quem scivit tunc anniculum esse, usque ad bimos et 



* Interim^ B. 

2 Ideo, B. 

3 Tharsim, A. 



4 Beethleemiticos, from A. ; Beth- 
leemitaSf B. ; Bedlemiticos, MS. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



283 



])erof, and fondede ^ to putte his eldest sone Antipater to fore 2 Trevisa. 
hem bofe ; while ]>ey tretede of hire fader ^ deth Jjey were 
i-putte away, and wente to Cesar forto pleyne * of ]?e wrong 
pat hir fader hadde i-doo to ^ hem. pe mene ^ tyme J^e ])re 
kynges come to Jerusalem, and come nou^t a^en ^ to Herodes 
by ])e same wey ; Herodes trowede fat they were begiled,^ and 
torned^ a^en aschamed.^*^ perfore he wi])drowe his wille, and 
sou^t 1^ no^t 'pe childe forto doo hym ^^ to deth. But for pe 
citacioun of Cesar wente he ^^ to Rome, and come by Tharsis,^* 
and brende hir schippes ffor pe kynges come over see perynne. 
panne after a Jere and somwhat raore^^ of dayes after pe burpe^^ 
of Crist ^^ he come from Rome, and was acordede wij) his sones, 
and perfore he was pe boldere, and hilde ^^ hym^^ pe more 
siker of ^^pe kyngdom, and slow^^^ alle pe children ^^ of Bethlem 
above ^^ pe age of Crist, pat he woste ^^ was po twelve monpe 
olde, anon to ^* two ^ere olde and wip ynne ; pat is to menynge 



Ab urbe. nacion, wyllenge to ordeyne Antipater successor of that realme MS. Hael. 
afore peim. These childer entendenge the dethe of here fader 2261. 
were reiecte, and putte a wey from hym, whiche goenge 



to themperour made compleynte of iniury doen to theyme gracioue. 
by theire fader. The thre kynges commenge to lerusalem f. 196. a. 
and offrenge to oure Lorde Criste, returnede not by Herode 
after theire promyse, wherefore he supposede theyme to be 
illudede, and skornede of theire iowrney, perfore he returnede 
his purpose of the dethe of the childer. This Herode citede 
to appere at Rome by themperour, and goenge by Tharsum, 
brente theire schippes in that they cariede the iij. kynges. 
Whiche returnenge from Rome after a yere and certeyne dales 
from the natiuite of Criste, acordede with his ij. sonnes, made 
bolde thro the confirmacion of his Emperour and lorde, did sle 
alle the childer within the costes of Bethleem, from the age of 



* entendede, y. 

2 afore, Cx. 
^faderis, Cx. 
^ plaine, Cx. 
5 to'] oin. Cx. 
^ meane, Cx. 
7 ageine, Cx. 

^ had begiled hym, Cx. 

3 ytornd, y. 

'^^ ashamed, Cx. 

^^ slowe, Cx. 

^2 children for to doo hem, Cx. 

^3 he went, j8., 7., and Cx. 



14 Tharses, Cx. 

15 more] om. 7. 
1'' hir the, Cx. 

^7 after jpe bur\)e of Crist] om, 7. 
1^ huld, 7. ; helde, Cx. 
^^ hym] om. Cx. 

20 of] om. Cx. 

21 childern, 7. et infra. 
21 aboute, Cx. 

2=* wiste, &. ; a weste, 7. ; wyste, 
Cx. 
2"* unto, Cx. 



284 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

infra, id est ab infantibiis duorum annorum usque ad 
unius noctis pueros. Inter quos etiam unus de filiis 
suis/ qui ad nutriendum casu traditus fuerat, ex- 
tinctus est, secundum Meth odium ; sed et^ divino ju- 
dicio factum est, ut qui multos orbaverat filiis,^ ipse 
suis filiis privaretur. Nam et Aristobulus et Alex- 
ander iterum habiti sunt suspecti pro eo quod mu- 
nera promisissent patris barbitonsori ut eum tondendo 
jugularet, asserentes non esse ponendam spem in sene 
qui canos ^ capillos tingeret quo ^ magis juvenis ap- 
pareret. Ob hoc pater ofFensus ambos filios occidit. 
At quia Herodem Antipam filium suum in regnum^ 
instituere, necnon et Herodem Agrippam cum sorore 
sua Herodiade paterna dilectione fovere curabat ofFen- 
sus Antipater primogenitus ejus, quem pater prius ad 
regnum destinaverat, veneno patrem extinguere sata- 
gebat, quod Herodes^ prsesentiens eum incarceravit. 
Quod audiens Caesar Augustus dixisse fertur, *' Mallem 



^ ipsius Herodis, A.B. 
2 etiam, B. 

^filiis, from B. ; Jilios, MS. 
^ canes, A. ; tantos, B. 



5 ut, B. 
^ regno, B. 
" pater, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 285 

from J)e children of two J ere olde to ]>o children of oon Trevisa. 

ny^t olde, among ]?e whiche ^ oon of his owne children was 

i-slawe ^ ]?at was happeliche ^ i-take to norisshynge. But 
Methodius sei]> ]?at ]?at was i-doo ^ by Goddes owne dome and 
his ordinaunce,^ for he pat hadde byrefte ^ so meny men here 
children schulde be byi^efte of his owne children also. For his 
sones Aristobolus and Alisaundre were eft suspecte, fFor J>ey 
hadde byhote mede to hir fader harbour forto kutte ^ here 
fader ]?rote whan he were a scherynge,^ and seide ])at me 
schulde not truste in an olde man ]7at dyede ^ his hoor 
lokkes 1^ for he wolde seme Ipe more Jongeliche.^^ perfore 
]>e 1^ fader was wrooj;, and slowj boJ>e his owne sones. Also 
for he was aboute for to putte his sone Antipater ^^ in ])e 
kyngdom, and favorede ^* and lovede Herodes Agrippa and 
his suster Herodias as a fader schulde, his eldeste sone 
Antipater, pat he hadde to forehonde ^^ i-ordeyned to pe kyng- 
dom, was wrooj?, and fondede wij? venym forto sle his fader ; 
but Herodes was war ^^ perof, and put hym in prisoun.^^ Me 
seip ]>at Cesar herde perof, and seide, " Me were levere ^^ be 



Abiirbe. ij. yere un to the childer that hade but oon nyjhte in age. MS. Harl, 
Amonge whom oon chiide of kynge Herode was sleyne, 2261. 

whiche was taken to be norischede in those costes, after . 

the seyenge of Methodius the martir. The iuggemente of gJacione!" 
Godde wolde that he, destroyenge and sleenge mony childer, 
scholde lose his childer. For Alexander and Aristobolus, his 
sonnes, were hade suspecte of the dethe of theire fader, in that 
thei promisede grete Ziftes to his barbore to kytte his throte 
when he did schave hym, seyenge there was noo truste in 
that olde man that causede his hoore heeres to be kytte that 
he my^hte seme and appere yonge. Herode understondeng 
that, and movede soore ageynes his childer, did sle theyme 
bothe, and intendede that Antipa scholde succede hym in 
that realme, norischenge gretely Herodes Agrippa with his 
suster Herodias. Augustus Octouian, themperour of Rome, 
understondenge of the destruccion and dethe of the sonnes of 
Herode, seide in thys wise : *' Y hade leuer be the swyne of 



1 whoche, y. 

2 slayn, /8., and Cx. 

^ peraventure, /8. and Cx. 

^* doon, )8, and Cx. 

^ ordenaunce, Cx. 

« berefte, Cx. 

7 kytte, Cx. 

^ schavynye, /8. 

^ died, Cx. 



1" lioore tockes, Cx. 

1' J/ongly, Cx. 

12 his, Cx. 

1'^ Herodes Antipa, $., y., and Cx. 

^^ favered, Cx. 

'5 hiforhond, /3. ; byforehand, Cx. 

1'' ware, Cx. 

^'^ pry Sonne, Cx. 

1^ leaver, y. 



286 POLYCHRONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 

*' esse Herodis porcus quam filius/' Nam cum esset 
proselytus porcis parcebat, filios tamen occidebat; Cum 
ergo Herodes septuaginta annos setatis haberet, febre^ 
valida, jugi prurigine, pedum inflatione, vermescentibus 
testiculis, intolerabili foetore, crebro anhelitu,^ tussi vio- 
lenta, interruptis suspiriis torquebatur. Deinde a me- 
dicis in oleo balneatus quasi mortuus efFerebatur. 
Verum quia in usu habebat post omnem cibum pur- 
gare pomum et comedere, sustulit cultellum quo seip- 
sum interimeret, quod impediens quidam consobrinus 
suus tumultum suscitavit, quo rumor de regis morte 

^febri.B. I ^ aneUtu.MS. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



287 



" Herodes swyn pan his sone ;" ffor whan he was proselitus he Trevisa. 

spared swyn and slow^ ^ his owne sones. [ Trevisa,'] ^ Take 

hede ])at prosehtus is he fat tornep from oon lawe to anojjcr, and 
specialliche ^ he ])at torne]? to fe lawe of lewes from anoJ?er, 
and so ^ dede ^ Herodes, and so he was proselitus somtyme. 
pan it folowep in the storie : whan Herodes was ]7re score 
^ere olde and ten he fil^ into [a]^ siknesse of a strong 
fevere, and was i-tormented wi]> ycchynge ^ J>at cesed nou Jt,^ 
wip swellynge of feet, wip wormes pat welled ^^ pat ^^ sprang 
out of his prive harneys,'^ wip stenche ^^ pat my^t noujt be 
sufficed, wip stynkynge ^* and blowynge ^^ and greet hastynge 
of breep, wip a grevous and a ^^ strong koujhe,^^ wip ofte 
brekynge of sore sichinges.^^ panne phisicians bapede hym 
in oyle, and he ^^ was i-bore ^^ forp as pey^ ^^ he were deed. 
[But] 22 for he used to pare an appel and ete it after alle oper 
mete, he toke pe knyf and wolde have [y-] ^3 stiked hym self, 
but oon of his cosyns lette^^ hym, and arered ^5 a greet ^^ cry, 
by pe whiche cry sprang out tipynges ^7 and noyse of pe kynges 



Ab urbe. *' Herode then his sonne ; " for he sparede the dethe of swyne, mS. Harl, 
but not of his childer. Herode Ascalonite hauenge Ixx*^ yere 2261. 

in age was vexede with a soore fever, grete ycchenge, with , 

swellenge of his feete, with vermyn commenge from his secrete ^g^SorS!' 
membres, with a stynche intollerable, and with a violente 
tisike. Then Herode Ascalonite bathede in oyle by the cown- 
sailes of his leches, was taken from pe bathe beenge allemoste f. i96.b. 
dedde. Whiche usenge to eite an apple after alle other meites 
toke an knyfe in his honde, where with he hade intendede to 
haue sleyne hym selfe ; a cosyu to hym perceyvenge that made 
a grete rumor, that was spronge soone thro alle the place. Anti- 



^ slewe, Cx. 

2 From j8. and Cx. There is a 
blank space left in the MS. 

2 specially, Cx. 

^ and so] as, Cx. 

^ dude , y. 

^ful yn sykenes, y, ; felle, Cx. 

7 From Cx. 

^ ychckyngy y. 

^ ydchyng that sesed not, Cx. 

10 wellyd, Cx. 

1^ and, /8., 7., and Cx. 

12 pryvey stones, y. ; pryvey har- 
noys, Cx. 

^•* stynch, y. 

i** puffing, )8. and Cx. ; slynkyng, y. 



1^ bloweyng, Cx. 

'^ a] om. 7. and Cx. 

1' cow^, 13. ; kouywhe, 7. ; cogh, 
Cx. 

1^ sikinges, $. ; sychyngs, 7. ; 
sykyngys, Cx. 

i'-* Ae] om. 7. 

20 i-bore^ boren, )8. ; born, Cx. 

21 though, Cx. 

22 From )8. and Cx. ; bote, 7. 

23 From i3. and 7. 
-^ let, Cx. 

25 rered, 7. and Cx. 

26 greet] om. Cx. 

27 tydynges, Cx. 



288 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



crebresceret, quo audito Antipater in carcere plurimum 

exultavit. Qua de causa protenus est occisus. PetruSf 

GratisD. qitadragesimo quinto} Hoc anno Johannes Evan- 

5. 

^46.^ ^ gelista natus est. Herodes post occisionem filiorum 
suoruni, anno regni sui tricesimo septimo, morbo in- 
tercutis aquae, scatentibus ex putredine testiculorum 
vermibus, miserabiliter obiit. In rebus quidem domes- 
ticis infelicissimus, in aliis fortunatus. Et ut Judaeam 
etiam invitam in ^ morte sua plangere faceret, filios 
nobilium Judseorum in morte sua occidi jusserat. 
Eusehius, lihro primo, capitulo septimo.^ Et cum 
Hebrseorum genera tiones ac quorundam alien igena- 
rum origines in secretioribus archivis templi habe- 
rentur, Herodes hujusmodi libros jussit incendi, testi- 
mans per hoc se nobilem reputari, si ipse * advena 
et ignobili s nullis subscriptionum fascibus ^ urgeretur. 
Fuerunt tamen nonnulli qui hujusmodi conscriptiones ^ 
aut domi habebant aut memoriter tenebant/ a quibus 



* Hist. Evang. cap. xviii. 
- in] om. B. 

3 primoj B. The reference is to 
cap. viii. 



^ ipsi, A. 

^fascibus] om, B. 
*» super scripliones, B. 
7 retinubantj B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



289 



del?. P^^^ Atipater ^ in prisoun herde J^erof, and made grete Tee visa. 

ioye, and bycause J?erof he was anon i-slawe. Petrus, 45o.2 

pat Jere lolin -^ ]?e * Evauugelist was i-bore. Herodes, after 
])e sleynge of his sones, hadde the dropesie,^ wij> wormes 
welly nge out of ])e votynge of his prive^ stones, and deyde 
wrecchedliche ^ \q Jere of his kyngdom sevene and fritty. 
He was most ungracious in homeliche^ J>inges, and happy 
in oper |)inges ; and forto make Jje lewes make sorwe for his 
deth, whefer^ fey wolde o]?er noo, he heet^^ in his deyenge 
slee alle ^e noble men ^^ children of ]?e lewerie.^^ Euse- 
hius, libro 1°, capitulo 7^. pe genelegies ^^ of pe Hebrewes 
and rekenynge ^^ of kynrede ^^ of oper naciouns were i-write in 
bookes in ]iq privyest libraryes of Jje temple ; and Herodes 
heet 1^ brenne al suche bookes, and hoped ])erby to be i-holde ^^ 
a noble man and gentil, J if he J)at was an alien ^^ and noujt 
gentil man were conteyned in non suche bookes. Nofeles 
pere were meny men pat hadde at home ^^ suche bookes, 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. pater beenge in prison herenge J>ereof, enioyede moche in his ^^- Harl 

herte, wherefore he was sleyne by pe commaundemente of * 

Herode. Petrus, 45^ capitulo. lohn pe Evangeliste was borne 
abowte this tyme, and Herode, after the sleenge of his sonnes, 
diede in the xxxvij. yere of his reigne miserably, in the infir- 
mites rehersede afore, causenge the peple of the lewes to 
sorowe sore in his dethe, for cause he commaundede alle the 
childer of the noble men amonge the lewes to be sleyne in his 
dethe. Eusebius, libro pri7no, capitulo septimo. This Herode 
hade the generaciones of men of Hebrewe, and the begynnenges 
of other aliaunte^ in secrete places of the temple, causenge 
theym to be brente in the tyme off his dethe, supposenge by 
that he scholde be made a noble man, and that his originalle 
scholde not be knowen. Neuerpeles there were mony men 
that hade the same writenges at their places, other elles thei 



* Antipater, Cx. 

2 46", Cx. 

■^ lohan, Cx. 

^ Jjg] om. Cx. 

'' dropesy, y. ; droposye, Cx. 

^ pryvy, Cx. 

7 wrechidly, Cx. 

^ hondych, y. ; homly, Cx. 

^ wha\>er^ y. 

10 bade, /8. ; bad, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



^1 mennes, $. and Cx. 

12 of lewry, Cx. 

1^ genelogyes, y. and Cx. 
1^ rykenyng, y. 
1^ kynrad, j8. and y. 
It» bade, )8. ; bad, Cx. 
iJ" holden, )8. and Cx. 
18 alyen, y. ; alyon, Cx. 

13 hoome, Cx. 



290 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



generationum series ad nos pervenit. Petrus, quin- 
quagesimo pri/mo} Contendentibus ^ coram Csesare 
de regni successione primi Herodis filiis, Archelao 
scilicet^ et Herode, Caesar de consilio senatus me- 
diam partem Judsese et Idumeam tradidit Archelao sub 
nomine tetrarchise ; aliam quoque medietatem divisit 
in duo, Galileam tradens Herodi Antipse, Ituriam et 
Trachonitidem Philippo firatri suo. Sicque * Archelaus 
factus est diarchus, sed nusquam^ monarchus, nisi 
secundum vulgi opinionem et propriam jactantiam. 
Eoque anno reversus est Jesus de Mgyipto.^ Puer 
Jesus inventus est in templo sedens^ et interrogans 
doctores.^ Archelaus crebro accusatus est^ a Judseis, 



^ Hist. Evang. cap. xix. 
2 Concedentibus, B. 
^ scilicet^ om. B. 

^ Sicque, from A. ; Sic quod, B. ; 
Sedque, MS. 
^ nunquaniy B. 
^ CD. add : " Maxima fames 



" Roma fuit. Tyberius filius Li- 
" viae, et adoptivus filius Cajsaris 
" Augusti, Sarmathas et Dalmathas 
" in Romanam redegit potestatem." 

7 inter doctores, B. 

^ eos, B. 

^ esQ cm. A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 291 

ojjer suche genologies in mynde, and by hem come to us Trevisa. 
redy rekenynge of kynrede. Petrus 51°.^ pe firste Herodes 
his sones,2 Archelaus ^ and Herodes, stryve tofore ^ Cesar 
for pe heritage ^ of ]?e kyngdom. panne Cesar by counsaile ^ 
of j>e senatoures took to Archelaus, under Jje name of 
thetrarcha,^ half ]?e lewerye ^ and Idumea ; pe opere 
halvendel ^ of pe lewerye he deled atweyne, and took Galylee 
to Herodes Antipater/^ Ituria and Traconitidis ^^ to his 
broper Phelip ; and so Archelaus was i-made dyarchus, but 
nevere monarchus, but by pe ^^ comyn speche and by his 
owne boost. Trevisa. Dyarchus is he pat hap pe ^^ tweie 
deles oper pe halvendel ^^ of a kyngdom, and monarchus 
is he pat [hath] i* pe kyngdom is ^^ al hool, and tretarcha 
is he pat hap pe fourpe dele of a kyngdom. panne it folowep 
in the storie : pat [Jere Crist come a^en out of Egipt] ^^ 
pe childe lesus was i-founde^'^ in pe temple sittynge and 
apposynge pe ^^ doctours. • Archelaus was [ofte] ^^ accused 



Ab urbe. hade pem in mynde, from whom the ordre of the generacion MS. Harl. 
of theym comme un to us. Petrus, 5P capitulo. Arche- 2261. 
laus and Herode, sonnes of the Herode aforeseide, stryvenge . ."^J^.^ 
for the succession of the realme afore Augustus emperour of gracione. 
Rome. Wherefore Octouian themperour, by the cownselle 
of the senate, Jafe to Archelaus the halfe parte of the lewery, 
and Ydumea, in the name of a tetrarchye. And the emperoure 
diuided that other halfe of the lewery in to ij. partes takenge 
to Herodes Autipas Galilee, and to Philippe his broper Ituria 
and Traconi tides. And so Ai'chelaus occupiede not the 
monarchye of the lewes, but after the seyenge off commune 
peple, and of his awne boste. Oure Savioure Criste come 
this tyme from Egipte. That blessede childe Ihesu was 
founde in the temple sittenge, and inquirenge questiones off. 197. a. 
theyme. Archelaus accusede ofte tymes by the lewes, was 



1 61», Cx. 

^ Sonne, Cx. 

^ Archelaus] om. 7. 

^* bifore, )8. ; afore, Cx. 

^ Erytage, 7. 

^ counseyl, Cx. 

7 tetrarcha, Cx. 

^ lewry, Cx., et infra. 

^ halvendeel, 7. ; halfdele, Cx. 



1° Antipa, B. and Cx. 
^^ DyaconitidiSfCx. 
12 }>e] om. Cx. 
^^ owther the halfdele, Cx. 
^^ From 7. and Cx. 
'5 is] om. 7. and Cx. 
1*5 From fi., 7., and Cx. 
^"^ founden, /8. ; founde, Cx. 
'^ \>e~\ om. i8. and Cx. 

T 2 



292 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



relegatus est in Viennam Gallise. In cujus loco ad 
reprirnendam Judaic! regni insolentiam quatuor 
fiunt^ tetrarchiae. Eo anno Csesar Augustus, cum 
regnasset quinquaginta sex annis et semis, obiit in 
Campania mense^ Septembris, anno setatis septua- 
gesimo sexto, dolo Livise uxoris sua3 necatus, sen 
veneno extinctus ut quibusdam ^ placet ; totus tamen 
lxvii^s4 annus regno Octaviani Augusti deputatur. 
Eutropius. ^ 

Cap. III. 

[De Augusti Vita.] 

Hic Augustus tanto amore^ etiam apud barbaros 

fuit ut Scythae^ et Indi, quibus Romanorum nomen 

prius erat incognitum, munera et legates^ mitterent. 



^ sunt, A. 
2 mensis, B. 
•^ quibus, A, 

4 57, B. 

5 libro septimo, A.B, The refer- 



ence is lib. vii. cap. x. The whole 
chapter is verbally varied in CD. 

^ amore^ om. B. 

' ShitcE, B. ; Schitce, MS. 

^ ad eum, added in B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



293 



of ])e lewes, and [j-] ^ put out in to ^ Vyan, pat is [in ]?e Trevisa. 

reume ^ of] ^ PVaunce ; and in his stede, forto alegge fc out- 

rage of fe kyngdom of lewes, were i-madc foure kynges. and 

were i-clepe * Thetrarclia.^ pat ^ere Cesar Augustus deide 

in Campanea,^ in ]?e monj^e^ Septembre, wlianne he liaddc 

i-regned sixe and fifty ^ere and an half, "pe Zere of his age 

pre score and sixtene, and was i-slawe^ by tresoun^ of his' 

wif Limia, oper by venym, as som men wol ^^ men : nopeles 

al pe Jere sevene and fifty is acounted to pe kyngdom of 

Octovianus Augustus. Eutropius, libro 7°. 



Capitulum tertium. 

This Augustus was so i-loved Je ^^ among straunge naciouns, 
pat pe Schites ^^ and pe lndes,i^ pat knewe not to ^^ forehonde pe 
name of pe Romayns, sente hym messangers ^^ and Jiftes. And 



Aburbe. sende to Vienna in Fraunce. In the stedde of whom iiij. MS. Haul. 
tetrarches were institute, to depresse the insolence of the 2261. 
peple of the lewes. Cesar Augustus diede that yere at Cam- ^ transmi- 
pania, after that he hade reignede Ivj. yere and halfe, in the gracione. 
monethe of September, the Ixxvj. yere of his age, sleyne by 
treason of his wife Liuia, other poysonede as mony men reherse ; 
neuerthelesse the hoUe yere is deputede to the reigne of Octo- 
uian themperoure. Eutropius, libro scptimo. 



Capitulum tertium. 

Augustus themperoure of Rome was hade in so grete 
luffe and fauour with men of Barbre^ of Scichia, and of men of 
Ynde, to whom the name of emperours afore tyme was un- 
knoweu, sende ^^ to hym grete Jiftes by messyngeres. The 



^ From /8. and 7. 
2 to'] om. Cx. 
^ rent, y. 

"^ cleped, )8. ; callyd, Cx. 
5 tetrachcBj fi. and Cx. 
trarche, 7. 

^ Champania, 7. 

7 moneth of, Cx. 

^ slayn, /3. ; slayne, Cx. 



The- 



^ treason, Cx. 

10 wolde, Cx. 

11 )e] ^he, )8. ; ye, 7. ; om. Cx. 

12 Scites, Cx. 
'•^ luwes, Cx. 
!■* a, Cx. 

^' messagers, Cx. 
^^^ Sic in" MS. 



294 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Multi quoque reges in honorem ejus civitates conde- 
rent, quas Csesareas nominabant. Keges etiam ex regnis 
suis egredientes, habitu Komano togati, ad vehiculum 
seu equum currerent. Adeo denique bella et simul- 
tates execratus est, ut nisi justis de causis nunquam 
bellum cuiqnam indiceret, asserens jactantis et levis 
esse animi ob ardorem triumphandi et folia lauri 
infructuosa in discrimen^ civium securitatem prseci- 
pitare. Arma quoque ^ nisi majori emolumento nequa- 
quam movenda, ne compendio tenui gravis jactura 
mercata similis sit hamo aureo piscantium, cujus 
amissio nullo capturee lucro poterit compensari. De- 
nique ad cives^ clemens, in amicos fidus, ad reci- 
piendum amicitias rarus, ad retinendum illas constans ; 
in liberalibus studiis, prsesertim eloquentise, adeo in- 
cumbens, ut nullus nee in procinctu laberetur dies 



1 indiscrimine, B. | 3 omnesy added in B. 

2 quOy B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 295 

meny kynges bulde ^ citees in worschippe 2 of hym, and cleped Trevisa. 

])e citees Cesares.^ Also kynges wente oute of here owne 

londes, i-cloped as lordes of Rome, and wolde renne by his chaar. 
And at J?e laste he hated so werre and strif J>at he wolde nevere 
werre a^enst man wi]? oute ariZtful cause ; and heseide ^ pat it 
was ])e doynge of a proude^ bostere ^ and of a lijt wittecl man 
for to breke suerte/ in strif and disese ^ of ]?e peple, for cove- 
tise of worschippe and of laurial ^ leves wi]> oute eny fruyt. 
Also he seide fat none werre schulde be meoved ^^ wi)> oute 
cause and greet profijt,^^ leste grete boost i-wonne ^^ by litel 
profi^t 1^ fare]) ^^ as [a] ^* goldene fischhook,!^ J?e loosynge ^^ 
]7erof may be i-quytte ^^ by non wynnynge of taking of fische. 
He was also mylde to fe citeseyns ^^ and trewe to his frendes ; 
seelde ^^ he wolde fonge ^^ frendschippe, and to holde frend- • 
schippe he was trewe and stedfast;^! he was konnynge in arte 
and in 22 science, and specialliche in faire spekynge ; he was 
so besy ^3 pat no day schulde hym scape ^* pat he nolde ^^ rede, 



Ab urbe. kynges of whome made mony cites in the honoure namenge M^S. Harl. 
theym Cesarea. Also mony kynges levenge feire cuntre, and 2261. 
clothenge theyme after the use of the Romanes, wolde comme ^ transmi- 
to do hym honoure. This Augustus was off so grete pacience gracione. 
that he wolde not Jiffe batelle to eny peple but for a ry^hteuous 
cause seyenge that hit was but foly and a symple thynge to 
putte mony noble men and peple of his cite in perelle of dethe 
for a litelle glory and pride of victory, seyenge that batelle 
awe not to be made but for a ry^hteuous cause, leste that ])cr 
be grete losse for a litelle lucre; lyke to a man fischenge 
with a hoke of golde, whiche, losenge hit, can not be re- 
compensede by takenge of fische. This emperour Augustus 
was meke to the citesynnes, feithefulle to receyve frende- 
schippes, constante in studyes, liberalle, and specially Jiffenge 
laboure diligente to eloquency, in so moche that noo day scholde 



^ bj/lde, Cx. 

2 worship, Cx., et infra. 

3 Cesereas, y. and Cx. 
^ sayth, Cx. 

^ prout, y. 

^ booster, Cx. 

' surte, y. and Cx. 

^ disease, Cx. 

5 laural, y. ; laureal, Cx. 

'° rneved, Cx. 

" proft/t, Cx. bis. 

^- y-wonnen, fi. and Cx. 

^^fare, /8. ; /aire, Cx. 



14 From $. and Cx. 

^^Jisshoke, Cx. 

^^ leosyng, y. 

17 quyt, Cx. 

^^ cyteyeyns, Cx. 

1^ selde, Cx. 

2" receyve, Cx. 

21 stydfast, Cx. 

22 iri\ ova.. Cx. 

23 hisye, ^. ; besye, Cx. 

24 ascape, )8. ; escape, Cx. 

25 wolde, Cx. 



296 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



quin legeret, scriberet, aut declainaret.-^ Isidorus, lihro 
primo.^ Iste ^ adinvenit x. litteram, pro qua prius cs 
scribere solebant. Et congrue quidem, cum figura 
ejus reprsesentet crucem Christi, qui diebus ejus natus 
fuerat.^ Eutropius} Auxit urbem Roraam sedificiis 
iste, glorians dicto,^ JJrhem lateritiam rcperi, relin- 
quo nunc marmoream? Fuit quoque toto corpora 
pulcher, sed oculis magis ; nee tamen vir tantus vitiis 
caruit ; fuit namque impatiens, iracundus, occulte invidus, 
palam factiosus, dominandi cupidus, alese lusor studio- 
sus ; cumque esset cibi ac vini cupidus, tamen '^ somni 
abstinens serviebat libidini usque ad probrum vulgaris 
famse. Nam inter duodecim catamitos totidemque 
puellas accubare solitus erat ; abjecta quoque uxore sua 
Scribonia, Liviam quasi marito concedente superduxit. 



^ decUnaret, B. ; slightly varied 
in CD. 

2 Cap. iv. 

3 primo, B. 

^ This passage and the reference 
to Eutropius omitted by CD. 



^ The quotation is not from Eu- 
tropius, but from Suetonius, Aug. 
cap. 28. 

6 dixit, B. 

7 marmoream relinquoj B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



297 



write, ojjer declare rijtwisnesse. Ysidoriis, libro primo. He Trevisa. 
brou^t up first J)is lettre x. ; me wroot j^erfore^ to forehonde ^ 
c.r.s. ; 3 and he fonde it up skilfulliche,^ for ])g figure ]?erof is 
i-liche ]>e croys ^ of Crist, J^at was i-bore in his tyme. Eutro- 
pius. He echede ^ ])e citee of Rome wij? fayre buldes,''' and 
hadde ioye to seie,^ " I fonde a citee of brend ^ tyle, and noAV 
" I leve ^^ a citee of marbil." He was fayre in al his body, 
but his eyjen ^^ were fairest of al ; but so gret and so faire 
a man was noujt al wif) oute vices and synne, ffor he was angry 
and my^te noujt suffre, wre|?ful,i2 and priveliche envious 
and opounliche^^ disceyvable,^^ covey tous of lordschippe, and 
pleyere ^^ at fe dees ;^^ and J?eyJ he were a grete etere and 
drynkere of wyn, ^et he abstyned ^^ from hym ^^ slepe and 
usede leecherie, so pat name and fame was cou^ ^^ ];erof among 
}7e comoun ^^ peple. For he was i-woned ^i to lye ^^ bytwene 
twelve suche ])at wolde lyjtliche ^^ assente to synne, and 
bytwene twelve may dens also ; and he dede ^* awey his wif 
Scribonia^ and wedded oon Limia,^^ as it were by graunt and 



Aburbe. escape but he wolde other rede, wryte, other decleyme. /s2- MS. Harl. 
f. 197. b. dorus, libro primo. This Augustus founde firste ]?is letter x., for 2261. 

X. letter, whom men were wonte to use the letter c, and conuenientely, 

whiche letter representethe the crosse of Criste, whiche was ^ ^''^^^^i- 



borne in his dales. Eutropius. Augustus encreasede the 
cite of E-ome with noble edificacions, where in he hade grete 
glory, seyenge : " Y leve the cite edifiede and made stronge 
" with marbole, whom y founde di^hte with tile stones. This 
Augustus was a beawtuous man of body, not wontenge vices, 
for he was a grete player at the dise, impaciente, envious, 
interialle, whiche ^iffen oftetymes to surfettes in meytes and 
drynkes, Jafe the nyjhtes folowenge to the lustes of the flesche, 
that mony peple wolde speke fulle ylle of hym be cause of that 
vice. Whiche refusenge Scribonia his wife, and mariede a 



gracione. 



^ \>e7'for, y. 

^ to forehonde~\ om. Cx. 
3 Sic in MS. 

"* skylfolych^ y. ; skylfully, Cx. 
^ crosse, Cx. 
^ echid, Cx. 

7 holdes, $. ; boldyng, y. ; howses, 
Cx. 

^ saye, /3. and Cx. ; sey, y. 

^ barned tyyl, y. ; brande, Cx. 

^^ leeve, Cx. 

" eyen, Cx. 

^- wretheful, Cx. 

^3 openly, fi. and Cx. 



^■* disseyvable, Cx. 
^5 player, Cx. 
'•' dyces, /8. and Cx. 
^'^ absteyned, Cx. 
18 hym] om ^., y., and Cx. 
1^ counted, Cx. 
-^' comyn, Cx. 
-' wont, )8. ; wonte, Cx. 
" lygge, y. ; was i-woned to lye 
is written twice over in MS. 
23 lyghtly, Cx. 
'^ dide, Cx. 
25 Livia, $., y., and Cx. 



298 



POLYCHKONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Cujus filii erant Tiberius et Drusus. Et quamvis libi- 
dini^ serviret,^ ejus tamen erat^ severissimus ultor. 
Suetonius, Videntes Romani hunc esse tantse pulchri- 
tudinis, deificare voluerunt, qui renuens inducias postu- 
lavit,* Sibyllam Tiburtinam super hoc consuluit ; quae 
post trium dieram jejunium respondit in hunc modum. 
Versus BihyllinL^ Judicii signum tellus sudore 
madescet E ^ coelo Bex adveniet ^ per sceeula futurus. 
Augustinus, lihro octavo-decimo, capitulo xxiii. Quo- 
rum versuum capitales litterse hunc reddebant sensum 
Jesus Christus Dei filius ^ salvator, Martinus? Illico 
aperto ccelo vidit Caesar pulchram virginem stantem 
super altare, et tenere puerum in brachiis, audivitque 
banc vocem : Hoc ara filii Dei est Et statim Csesar 



1 lihidint] om. B. ; lihidine, MS. 

2 saviret, B. 

3 erat] om. A.B. 
■* petiit, B. 

5 A.B. omit title. 

^ From Augustine, and it must 



be so as the context shows. X>e, 
MS. 

7 advenit, B. 

^ filius Dei, B. 

•J Marci\ B. 



MONACHI CESTBENSIS, LIB. IV. 



299 



assent of here ^ houseboncle.^ His sones were Tyberius and Trevisa. 

Drusus ; and 'pej ^ he were a grete lecchoure,'* Jet he took 

greet ^ wrecche of leccherie.^ Seneca, pe Romayns si^ ^ 
^at he ^ was so faire, and wolde have made hym a god, [but] ^ 
he forsook hit, and wolde noujt assente, and axede first J?erof 
counsaille of Sibilla Tiburtina ; and after fe fastynge of pre 
dayes sche ^^ answerde hym in J)is manere : '' Token of doom 
" er]>e ^^ schal wexe weet by swoot ; ^^ out of hevene schal come 
" pe kyng ]?at lest ^^ evermore ;" ^^ and so for)? of meny o])er ^^ 
vers^^ })at bee]? not here i-write.^^ Augustinus, libro IS^', 
capitulo 24°. pe heed lettres of ]?e vers ^^ spele]?^^ ])is menynge : 
" lesus Crist, Goddes sone, Savyoure." ^^ Mar, Anon hevene 
openede, and Cesar sigh ^ a faire mayden ^^ stonde uppon an 
aujter 22 and holde a childe in here amies, and he herde ^^ f is 
voys: "pis is ])e aujter of Goddes sone:" and anon Cesar fiF^ doun 



Aburbe. woman callede Liuia, usenge to lye amonge xij. maydes and xij. MS. Harl. 

2261. 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



oj^er women corrupte, hauenge ij. sonnes, Tiberius and Drusus. 

And thaujhe Augustus was Jiffen gretely to the luste of the 

flesche, he punyschede and correcte soore other men for that 

synne. Suetonius. The Romanes seenge J?e beawte of Augustus, 

wolde haue namede and callede hym a god, whiche refusenge 

hit, asked respite; wherefore he inquirede cownselle of Sibille 

Tiburtyne of that matter. Whiche fastenge iij. dales, seide 

to hym in this wise : '^ ludicii signum tellus sudore madescet. 

'^ De coelo Rex adveniet per saecla fu turns." The capitalle 

letters of whom expresse this sentence, " Ihesu Criste the re- 

** demptor of man schalle be borne of a virgyne." Marianus. 

Then themperour see anoon, heuyn beynge open, a vu'gynne The vision 

of beawte excellente stondenge on the awter, holdenge a feire ^f Octa- 

childe in her armes, hereno;e a voice sevenge, '' This is the ^^' 



awter of the sonne of God." Themperour trowblede in 



^ heore, 7. 

2 husband, Cx. 

3 ))ouy, fi. ; though, Cx. 

^ lechour, y. ; lecherour, Cx. 

^ greefl om. 7. 

^ wrech of lechery, Cx. 

7 sawe, Cx. 

^ this, Cx. 

9 From Cx. 

10 heo, )8. ; she, Cx. 
^^ eor]>, 7. 

^2 wete hy swote, Cx. 
^3 leest^ 7. 



I'* lest evermore'] lest schal ever, j8. ; 
last shall ever, Cx. 
^■' o\>er~\ om. Cx. 
^'^ versus, j8. ; versis, Cx. 
^7 that be not here wreton, Cx. 
^^ versis, Cx. 
1^ speketh, Cx. 

20 Saueoxir, 7. ; Savyour^ Cx. 
2^ mayde, )3. ; made, Cx. 

22 aulter, Cx., et infra. 

23 hurde, 7. 

2Vy/e, Cx. 



800 



POLYCHKONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Ecciesia se projecit in terram camerse suse, ubi postmodum 

quae dicitur 

Romse!^^ facta est ecciesia SanctsG Marise qu8D dicta est in^ 
Ara Cseli.^ Valerius, libro tertio.^ Cum Tiberius 
intimaret Augusto quod multa mala dicerentur de eo, 
respondit : " Non indignamur si male de nobis lo- 
" quuntur.^' Sufficit nobis si male facei'e non possint." 
Policratica, libro Hi., capitulo xiii.^ Cum Antonius, 
maternam originem Augusti despiciens, eum Afrum 
genere et natura panificum diceret, hoc ridens protulit,^ 
et eundem Antonium sorori suae copulatum admisit. 
Item cum seme! a quodam exprobrante ob corporis bre- 
vitatem nanus vocaretur, " Calciamentis '' inquit, " gran- 
" diusculis uti oportet/' Macrobius in SaturnalibusJ 
Cum quidam transeuntem Augustum vocaret tyrannum, 
respondit, '' Si tyrannus essem non hoc diceres." Fuerat 
nempe observatum ut quotiens Augustus urbem ingre- 
deretur supplicium de nuUo sumeretur. Item intravit 



1 m] om. B. 

2 C.D. add : " ubi nunc sunt 
" Fratres Minores." 

3 Not in Valerius, but in Poli- 
cratica, lib. iii. 14, along with the 
extract which immediately follows. 



■* loquantur, B. 
5 14°, A.B rightly. 
^ pertulit, A. 

' Not in Macrobius, but in Poli- 
cratica, lib. iii. 14. 



MONACHI CESTRENSTS, LIB. IV. 



301 



to |)e eorfe uppon ))e flore ^ of his chambre ; pere was afterward Trevisa. 
i-bulde 2 a chirclie of oure lady pat is i-cleped ^ in Ara coeli, 
J)at is in \)e au^ter of hevene. Gal. 3°. Tyberius tolde to 
Augustus ])at me spak mocheH evel of^ hym al day ; and he 
answerede and seide, " We take]) ^ noon indignacioun pej ^ 
" men speke evel by ^ us, hit is i-now to us ]?at j^ey mowe ^ doo 
" us non harme." Policratica, libro 3^, capitulo 13°. Antonius 
despisede Augustus his kyn in pe moder side, and cleped hym 
bakere ^^ by kynde; and Augustus lou^,ii and lete fe same 
Antonius be i- wedded to his owne ^^ suster. Also ones for ]>e 
schortnesse of his body oon cleped hym dwelf -y^ " I moot," ^* 
quo]? he, " use wyde hosen and schon."^^ Macrobius in Satur- 
nalihus. Augustus passede by jje weie,^^ and oon cleped hym 
[a] ^'^ tyraunt : " And I were a tyraunt," quof> he, " J>ou woldest 
" not clepe ^^ me soo." It was i-seide in Rome ]>at no man 
schulde be doo to dejje noj^er to pyne ^^ as ofte as Augustus 
entrede in to })e citee. Also somtyme oon come in to ^^ Rome J^at 



Aburbe. mynde thro that sijhte felle downe to the grownde in his MS. Harl. 
chamber, where a chirche of oure lady was made afterwarde, 2261. 
callede in Ara Coeli. Valerius^ libro tertio. When Tiberius .. .. 
schewede to his fader Augustus that men spake wickidely gracione. 
of hym, he seide : " We haue noo indignacion in that thei 
*' speke ylle of us, hit is sufficiaunte to us that thei may not 
" hurte us." Policronicon, libro tertio, capitulo tertio decimo. 
When that Antonius despisede the originalle of Augustus, he f. 198. a. 
was not vexede, but mariede his sustyr un to hym. Macro- 
bius in Saturnalibus. A man seenge Augustus goe by the 
weye, callede hym a tyraunte. To whom Augustus seide : 
" If that y were a tiraunte thow durste not say so." Also 
the gouernoures of Rome observede this thynge in the 
honoure of Augustus, that noo man was putte to dethe 
or to penaunce in the day of commenge of themperour 
un to the cite. Hit happede that a yonge man comme 



^ floor e, Cx. 
■^ bylte^ Cx. 



'^ and is called, Cx. 

'* mt/che, )3. ; moc/i, Cx. 

" evr/l by, Cx. 

^ take, Cx. 

' though, Cx. 

^ evyl of, Cx. 

^ may, Cx. 

^" callyd hym bakar, Cx. 



^^ louwgh, Cx. 

12 owne'] om. Cx. 

1^ dworf, )8. and y. ; dwarf, Cx. 

I'* y mot, y. ; must, Cx. 

15 shoon, Cx. 

'" wye, Cx. 

J7 From Cx. 

^^ calle, Cx. 

1^ payne, Cx. 

-" in tol yn, /8. ; in, Cx, 




302 POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 

Romam aliquando^ quidam adolescens Augusto per 
omnia simillimus, quern ad se adductum sic interro- 
gavit ; " Die milii, juvenis, fuitne aliquando mater tua 
*' Romse." At ille, "Non, sed pater meus frequenter." 
Ex quo imperator non est indignatus, sed ditatum eum 
emisit. Seneca de dementia.^ Detecta Cinnse pro- 
ditione ^ noctem illam Csesar duxit insomnem ; quern 
uxor sua Livia sic alloquebatur : " Admitte consi- 
" Hum muliebre. Fac quod medici facere solent, qui 
" ubi usitata remedia non prosunt temptant contraria. 
" Ignosce ergo Cinnse ; deprehensus est ; jam ^ tibi 
" nocere non potest, prodesse famse tuse poterit." Ga- 
visus Caesar in crastino Cinnam conveniens sic ait: 
" Ego te, Cinna, in castris inimicum reperiens ad vitam 



^ aliunde, B. | though the former word had been 

2 Lib. i. cap. ix. J partly written over again. 



prodici is repeated in MS. as ! '' waw?, B. 



«■' 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



303 



was most liche ^ to Augustus in al manere poyntes, and was i- Trevisa. 

brou^t to fore ^ Augustus ; and Augustus areyned ^ hym, and 

seide, '' Sey me, Jonge man, was ])j moder ever in Rome ? " 
" Nay," quod he, " but my fader was ful ^ ofte." pe emperour 
was nou^t wroo]? ^ perfore, but made hym riche and sente hym 
SbXe.^ Seneca de Clementia. Whanne Cinna his tresoun was 
i-knowe Cesar wook ^ al [that] ^ nyjt. pan his wif Livia spak 
to hym in pis manere : " Take counsaile of a womman, and do 
" by a ^ womman counsaile, and do as phisicians use]? ^^ to doo ; 
" ]?ere comyn medicyns ^^ pat me use]? mowe ^^ not helpe, pey 
" assayej) ^^ medicyns pat beep contrarie.^* Cinna his tresoun is 
i-knowe now; he may not greve pe ; fforjeve hym pan pe 
trespas ; he may profi^te to [pi] ^^ loos and to py fame." 
Cesar was glad of hir ^^ counsaile and of pis reed, and heet ^^ 
bringe Cinna tofore hym amorwe ; he spak ^^ to hym in pis 
manere : " Cinna, I fonde pe myn ^^ enemy in pavylons ^ and 



a 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. to Rome like to Augustus, whiche brojhte to his pre- MS. Harl. 
sence Augustus inquirede of the yonge man wheper his 2261. 
moder hade bene in Rome. The yonge man seide his fader 
hade ben in Rome, but not his moder. Wherefore themperour 
rewardede the yonge man, and suffi-ede hym to departe. 
Seneca ad Clemcntem. The treason of a man callede Cynna 
detecte to the emperour, he was so vexede that he cowthe not 
slepe. To whom Liuia his wife seide, '' Do after the cown- Of the 
" seyle of a woman, and like to the cownselle of a leche, cownsaile 
*' for thei attempte the contraries when usede or usualle ^^ ^ 
'^ medicynes wille not profite ; perfore forjifie Cynna his '^^^°^'^°- 
" trespas, for now he may not hurte yow, hit is knowen so 
" openly ; he may profite youre honore afterwarde." Augustus 
made gladde thro the cownsayle of Liuia his wife, causede that 
noble man Cynna to be brou^hte to his presence, to whom he 
seide, " Cynna y haue founde the myne enemy, y haue kepede 



* ylych, y. ; moost lyke^ Cx. 
2 by/ore, Cx. 
^ aresoned, Cx. 
^ful^ wel, y. 
" not wroth, Cx. 



agayn, Cx. 
7 wakid. /8. ; wakede. 
Cx. 
^ From y. and Cx. 
^ a] om. Cx. 
^" use, Cx., et infra. 



wakyd, 



Cx 



^^ medycynes, Cx., et infra. 

^2 maye, $. ; may, Cx. 

^3 essay, Cx. 

^^ be contrary, Cx. 

'5 From /8., y., and Cx» 

16 |j25, fi. ; the, Cx. 

1' bade, )3. ; bad, Cx. 

1^ afore him at morow, and spake. 



'^ the, I the fonde myne, Cx, 
2° pauelons, y. 



304 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



" servavi, patrimonium concessi, familiarem te mihi 
" feci ; nunc autem vitam iterum ^ tibi do, prius hosti, 
'' nunc insidiatori ac parricidse. Ex hodierno [die] ^ 
'' amicitia inter nos incipiat.^ Contendamus ergo utrum 
" ego meliori fide tibi vitam dederim an tu mihi debeas." 
Post hoc contulit ei consulatum, fidum eum tenens 
amicum, heresque illi "^ postmodum Csesar efFectus est. 
Macrohius in Satumalibus.^ Veteranus quid am peri- 
clitans in judicio accessit ad Augustum rogans eum 
sibi adesse. At ille sine mora electum advocatum ei ^ 
deputavit ; tunc ^ veteranus exclamavit, " Non ego, 
'' Ciesar, te periclitante in Actiaco bello vicarium 
" qujBsivi, sed pro te ego ipse pugnavi ; " detexitque 
impressas cicatrices. Erubuit Caesar, et^ venit in ejus 



^ iteruni] ora. B. 

2 die, added from B. 

^ amicitia inter nos incipiajit, A. 

^ ei, A. 



^ Lib. ii. cap. iv. 
6 sibi, B. 
" cum, B. 
^ et'] om. A. 




MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



305 



*' tentes, and saved pe to lyve ;^ I gi-aunted to |?e rentes and 
" riclies,^ and made ]>e homeliche^ wi]> me. Now eft I ^eve 
" Jje^ lyf, raper^ to myn enemy, [and] ^ now to my^ treytour 
" and mansleere. From jjis day for])ward bytwene us^ schal 
" frendschippe bygynue. Now stryve we whej?er I have i-geve 
'' pe py lyf by a bettre fey ^ ))an ];ou owest me, o]?er pou owest 
'' me better fey ^^ ]?au |)y lyf is i-saved by." Afterward he 
made hym consul, and lielde liym his trusty frende ; and at ])e 
laste Cesar was made his heire.^^ Macrobius in Saturnalibus. 
An olde man that was in peril of doom ^^ come to Augustus 
and prayede hym of help forto stonde by hym,^^ and Augustus 
ordeyned hym anon a noble advokett.^* pan ]?e olde man 
cride ^^ and seide, " O Cesar, whenne ]>u were in peril in |?e 
" batayle of Actia, I sou^te no man to putte in my stede, but 
" my self ^^ I fau^t for ))e ;" and schewed hym ]7e woundes ]?at 
were sene ^^ in his bodye. panne Cesar was aschamed,^^ and 



Trevisa, 



Ab urbe. " thy lyfe, y haue ^iffen to the thyne enheritaunce, I haue made MS. Harl. 
" the famiher to me ; I JifFe to the nowe in this tyme grawnte 2261. 
" of thy life^ afore as myne enemy, and now entendenge my . 

" dethe ; lete lufFe and frendeschippe begynne betwene us too, gracione. 
" and lete us stryve in fidelite to be kepede amonge us." After 
that Augustus made hym a consul, provenge hym a feithefulle 
frende and eiere to hym afterwarde. Macrobius in Saturna- 
libus. A noble man stondenge in perelle as in iuggemente for 
hys lyvelode, wente to Augustus themperour, preyenge hym to 
Jiffe iuggemente for hym. Themperour commaunded an 
aduocate to here the causes and to Jiffe iuggemente. Then 
the noble man, Veteranus by name, seide, "O my lorde 
" emperour, y commaundede not an other man to suffre soore 
" woundes for the in the batelle Actiake, but y fau^hte in my 
" awne person, and suffi-ede soore woundes for thy lufFe ;" f. 198. b. 
schewenge ]?e woundes that he toke in that batelle afore 
themperour and other peple presente. The emperour 



1 thy lyf, Cx. 

2 richessis, j8. ; rychesses, Cx. 
^ homly, Cx. 

4 thy, Cx. 

^ first, Cx. 

^ From )8. and 7. 

7 my'] the, Cx. 

^ hytwejie us"] om. 7. 

^feyth, Cx. 

^''fayth, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



^1 heyr, 7. and Cx. 
^^ dome, 7. and Cx. 
'3 hem, Cx. 

^^ avocate, jS. ; avoket, 7. ; 
vacate, Cx. 
^5 cryed, Cx. 

^6 me sylfy, 7. ; / myself, Cx. 
^7 seen, Cx. 
^^ ashamed, Cx. 



U 



ad- 






30G 



POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 



advocationem, ne non solum superbus, sed ne ingratus 
videretur. Item revertenti Augusto ex^ Actiaca vic- 
toria occurrit quidam psittacum manu tenens quern in- 
stituerat ^ sic dicere : " Ave^ Caesar, victor, imperator/' 
Miratus Caesar officiosam avem, viginti millibus num- 
morum emit eam.^ Salutatus similiter a pica,^ eam 
emi jussit. Idem miratus et ^ in stumo, et eum 
redemit. Quod videns quidam pauper sutor satagebat 
ut monedulam^ institueret ad consimilem saluta- 
tionem. Qui impendio exhaustus saepe ad avem non 
respondentem dicere solebat. Periit opera et i/mpensa. 
Aliquando tamen coepit comicula dicere dictam ^ saluta- 
tionem, quam audiens [Caesar] ^ pertransiens respondit : 
" Satis domi habemus de talibus salutatoribus." ^^ Su- 
perfuit et corniculae memoria de verbis instructoris sui.^^ 



» ah, A.B. 

^ instruxeratf B. 

^ Auce, B. 

^ eam, from B. j eum, MS. 

* et eum (sic), A. ; et, B. 

•^ ef] est, B. 

^ monedelam, B. 



^ talem, B. 

^ Ccesar, from A.B. It is in- 
serted in MS. in a later hand, and 
below the line. 

^^ salutationibus, B. 

'^ suhjiLxit sui, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



307 



coom anone and pletede for hym, nou^t onliche ^ for he wolde 
noujt be holde^ [proude,^ but also for he wolde noujt be 
holden] * uukynde. Also Cesar com fro \>e victorie of Actia, 



and oon mette hym 
hadde^ i-taujt^ seie. 
pe emperour wondrede, and 
twenty powsand [of] * paas. 



wij> a papengay^ on his hond, ]?at he 
" Heil [Cesar,] ^ victor and emperour." 



boujte fat mery bridde^ for 
Also a pye gi^ette hym in fe 



same manere, and he wondrede and bou Jt hym also, and so he^^ 
dede a stare,^^ [and he wondrede and bou^te J^e stare]. ^^ panne 
a poore sowtere ^^ fondede ^* to teche a choujhe ^^ to speke and 
seie ]>e same salutacioun ; and whan he hadde spende what he 
hadde, and fe chou^he answerde nou^t, he used forto seie, 
" Alias, al is lost, bo]?e ^^ travaile and cost." But at ]?e laste pe 
choujhe bygan to speke, and seide pe same salutacioun, and 
Cesar passed by and seide ^^ hit ^^ and seide, " We have]),^^ [at 
'^ home] ^ suche salutaciouns i-nowe." *'Alas," quod pe choujhe, 



Trevisa. 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. seenge that come and was iugge, leste that hit scholde MS. Haul. 
haue ben seide that he hade not ben prowde oonly, but also 2261. 
unkynde. A man ^afe metenge to themperour Augustus 
commenge from the batelle Actiake, hauenge a popyngay in 
his honde, seyenge to hym by the doctrine of her maister, 
" Hayle emperour and noble victor." Themperour herenge 
that speche as of a bridde, bou^hte hit for xx*^ mt penyes ; 
whiche salutede in like wise of a pye, and of a sterlynge, 
causede theym to be bouthte. A poore sowter perceyvenge 
that, informede a dawe to speke in lykewise ; whiche was 
wounte to say to the bridde not willenge to speke, "Now 
'* ^che speche and attendaunce is pereschede." After that, 
the dawe perceyvenge themperoure to comme by the place of 
her maister, salutede hym in lykewise. Themperour herenge 
that salutacion seide, "We have ynoe of these at home." 



^ only, Cx. 
2 holden, &. and Cx. 
^ prout, y. 

* From k., y., and Cx. 
" popejay, y. ; popenjay, Cx. 
^ hadde] om. Cx. 
7 hadde ytauxt for to speke and 
segge Hayl, y. ; forto, )8. ; to, Cx. 
^ myri/ byrde, Cx. 
^ pans, h. ; panes, y. ; pens, Cx. 
^^ he'] om. j8., y., and Cx. 



11 staare, y. 

^2 From )8. and y. 

1"^ pore soutare six \>is doyng and 
fondede, y. 

1"* souter fonde, Cx. 

15 chouywhe, y., et infra ; chough, 
Cx., et infra. 

1*^ bo\>e'] om. y. and Cx. 

^' herde, Cx. 

1^ have, Cx. 

1» Whe hahbe\>, y. 

U 2 



308 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Unde et subnexuit, '' Nunc periit opera et impensa.' 
Ad quod Csesar ridens emi avem jussit pretio ampliori. 
Item quidam Groeculus ^ solebat aliquid epigramma 
famosum Csesari porrigere, quod cum ipse ssepius fa- 
ceret sine mercede, ipse Caesar consimile epigramma a 
se dictatum suo laudatori aliquando porrexit. Ille 
quoque legendo vultu et voce laudavit, insuper et 
aliquos denarios dare Csesari paravit, risu omnium 
subsecuto ; unde et Caesar suum dispensatorem multam 
refundere Groeculo pecuniam jussit. Eutropius, lihro 
septimo,^ Caesar tandem apud Nolam Campaniae 
mortuus est, omnibus sic acclamantibus : " Utinam 
" aut -non nasceretur aut non moreretur^ vir Deo si- 
" milis. * Nullus in bellis ^ felicior, in pace moderatior." 
Policratica, lihro sexto.^ Augustus dicebat idem 
consilium esse adversus [hostem] ^ et adversus aegri- 
tudinem, nam fame potius superantur quam ferro. 



^ Graculus, A. 

2 Eutropius says, Augustus died 
at Atella ; Suetonius at Nola. 

3 aut non moreretur'] om. B, 



^ quo, added in A.B. 

5 bello, B. 

^' Cap. iv. 

' hostein, added from A. 



I 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



309 



as it fel 1 in her ^ mynde,^ " al is lost, hope * travayle and Trevisa. 

cost." pan Cesar lowh,^ and bou^te ]>e choujhe derere^ ])an 

eny ^ of al ])e opere. Also a Greek ^ ])at was a grete makere usede 
to make noble ditees in preysinge of Cesar, and wroot and ^af 
hem to Cesar ; and wh'anne he hadde ofte i-do soo wij? oute eny 
mede, Cesar made suche enditynge of preysynge, and ^af to ]?e 
Greek j^at hadde i-preysed hym. pe Greek radde ])e ditee^ 
wi)? semblant and wi]? voys, and profrede ^^ to Jeve Cesar money, 
panne alle men lowgh and hadde good game, and Cesar heet ^^ 
his spenser Jeve J)e Greke his money a^en and a greet deel 
of more money.^^ Eiitropius, libro 7^. At ]>q^^ laste Cesar 
deyde at Nola in Champania;^^ and alle men cride ^^ and seide : 
"Wolde God that he hadde nevere be i-bore,^^ o]7er Jjat he 
" schulde nevere ^^ deye. pe man was liche God;i^ was no man 
" more gracious, nojjer ^^ more skilful in pees." Policratica, 
libro 6^. Augustus wolde seie,^^ " pe same counsaille is a^enst 
*' fe enemye pat is ajenst siknesse,^^ for jjey bee]? ^2 more over- 
'' come wi]? honger ]?an wij) J^urst. " ^3 Also he made his sones 



Aburbe. The bridde remembrenge the ofte seyenge of her 

seide to themperour, " Attendaunce of suche speche is pere- 
*' schede now." Themperour herenge that causede the bridde 
to be bou^hte. Eutropius, libro septimo. At the laste this 
noble emperour Augustus diede at Campany, alle men of 
thempire seyenge and cryenge, '^ Wolde that he hade neuer be 
" borne, or that he scholde not haue diede, a man lyke to a god, 
" happy in batelle and moderate in peace." Policronicon, libro 
suo sexto. This noble man and emperoure Augustus seide the 
same cownsayle to be occupiede ageyne an enemye as un to 
sekenesse, for thei be ouercommen raj^er with hungre then with 
armes or yrne. Also Augustus causede his sonnes to exercise 



maister, MS. Harl. 
2261. 

A transmi- 
gracione. 



1/m/, y. 

2 his, )8. ; the^ Cx. 

•* mui/7ide, y. 

^ bo]>e'\ om. /3., y., and Cx. 

5 lough, Cx. 

^ derrer, Cx. 



ony, 



Cx. 



^ Greke, Cx. 
9 and louy'\ added in y. 
^° profered, Cx. 
^^ bade, /3. ; hadde, Cx. 
^■•^ his . . . money'] a greet deel of 
money, fi., y., and Cx. 



^3 Jje] om. /8. 
^^ Campania, Cx. 
^5 cryede, Cx. 
'^^ horn, /8. and Cx. 
^"i never sc.huld, /8. and Cx. 
^^ good in hatail, fi. ; goodlyche 
in hatayl, y. ; god in hatayLe, Cx. 
1^ nowther, Cx. 

^^ saye, )8. and Cx. ; sygge, y. 
-^ sekenesse, Cx. 

22 ben, Cx. 

23 yren, j8. yre, y. ; iren, Cx. 



310 



POLYCHKONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Item filios suos exercitari fecit ad cursum, ad saltum, 
ad usum jactandi ; filias vero suas ad lanificium, ad 
colum, ad panificium, ut si indigerent per artem vi- 
verent.^ 

Cap. IV. 

[De Tiberii regno, de Pontio Pilato et de sectis 
JudceorumJ] 

Gratise. TiBERlus, AuGUSTi privignus et gener,^ mense^ 

16. 
Tiberii 

primo. Septembri quo obiit Augustus regnare coepit, et regnavit 
viginti tribus annis et aliquot diebus. Eutropius^ 
Hie primum cum magna modestia reipublicse praefuit, 
adeo ut quibusdam suadentibus ut tributa provinciis 
adaugeret,^ respondit, "Boni^ pastoris'' pecus tondere, 
" non deglutire." Hie primo satis prudens et fortunatus 



^ The whole chapter slightly 
varied in the usual manner in CD. 

- hoc est Livice uxoris Octoviani 
filius ex superiori matrimonio, eodem 
anno quo moritur Augustus, added 
in CD. 



3 quasi, CD. 

* Lib. vii. cap. xi. 

^ augeret, B. 

^ bonil at licitum lucrum, B. 

7 esse, added in A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 311 

use hem to renne,i to leepe,^ and to use of castyngc ; and he Tkevisa. 

made his dou^tres use hem to woUe craft, to spynne at the ^ 

distaf, and to make breed, ffor 'pey schulde ^if hem nedcde ^ 
lyve by pe ^ craft. 



Capitulum quartum. 

Tyberius was Augustus stepsone, and ^ wedded his doubter, 
and bygan to regne in })e monfe'' of Septembre, in fe 
whiche^ monpe Augustus was deed; and Tyberius regnede ]?re 
and twenty Jere and somwhat of dayes. Policratica, libro 3°.^ 
pese^^ firste governed pe empere^^ wi]? greet sobernesse, so ])at 
whanne som men counsaillede hym to take grettere ^^ tribute 
of provinces and londes, he answerede and seide : " It fallej) 
** for a good schipherde ^^ to schere his schepe, and nou^t 
" for to swolowe hem." pis was first wise and redy i-now,i^ 



Ab urbc. lepynge, rydenge, iustenge, and actes of cheuaUery ; and MS. Harl. 
his dojhters to spynne, to make clothe, that they mythte lyffe 2261. 
by that crafte if thei come to pouerte after his dethe. . , ._ 

gracione. 

[^Capitulum quartum.'] ^^ 

Tiberius, the son in lawe to Augustus, began to reigne f, 199. a. 
in the same monethe of September in whom Augustus 
themperour diede, whiche reignede xxiij*> yere and certeyne 
daies. Eutropius, Tiberius gouernede the peple with grete 
mekenesse in the begynnenge of his empire and domination, 
in so moche that he, movede by diuerse noble men to haue a 
tribute paiede of every province subiecte to hym, seide in thys 
maner : " The proprete of a goode scheparde is to clippe 
" aweye the fleece of woUe, and not to sle the schepe." In 
the begynnenge of his gouernayle he was fortunate in batelles. 



' eorne, 7. 

2 lepe, Cx. 

3 at the'] om. a. and Cx. 
* neodede, y. 

5 J)e] om. 7. 

6 and] bis in MS. 3 

7 mo7icth, Cx., et infra. 

8 whuchj 7. 



^ JSutropius, fi., 7., and Cx. 

10 \>is, fi. and Cx. 

11 empyre, Cx. 
^2 grete, Cx. 

^3 schephurde, 7. ; shepherde, Cx. 
^■* ynowy, )8. ; i/7iow, Cx. 
^^ A space is left, but no mark of 
the chapter. 



312 POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 

in armis. Cui scientia litterarum multa, sed eloquentia 
clarior ; ingenio pessimus et insidiosus, simulans se ilia 
velle qu86 nollet, his quasi offensus quos dilexit, quos 
oderat quasi benevolus apparens. Repentinis respon- 
sionibus seu consiliis melior quam prsemeditatis. Quos- 
dam reges ad se per blanditias evocatos ^ nunquam 
remisit. Hie cum communiter vocaretur Tiberius 
Nero,^ satis eleganter a joculatoribus dictus est Bi- 
berius Mero, ob vinolentiam cui indulsit. Hie etiam 
occasione quarumdam litterarum a Pilato sibi directarum 
voluit tanquam Deus honorari ; sed contradicente senatu 
plures proscripsit, viginti patricios viros sibi consiliarios 
delegit, quorum vix duos incolumes reliquit. Prudens 
in armis ante sumptum imperium,^ sed postmodum per 
legates bella gessit. Policratica, libro tertio, capitulo 
quarto.'^ Et cum in multis esset^ culpabilis, ad versus 
tamen convicia fuit firmus, dicens quod in civitate 



^ advocatos, B, 

2 vero, B. 

3 imperium] om. B. 



^* It should be quarto dccimo. 
^fuisset, A.B. 



I 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



313 



and gracious in armes ; a man of greet konnynge of lettrure,^ Trevisa. 
and of castynge, evere awaytenge and aspyenge; and what he 
nolde he made it as ]>QyX ^ he wolde, to hem fat he lovede he 
made hit as t'eyj he were wroo]?, and to hem pat he hated he 
semed goodliche. He wolde Jeve better answere and coun- 
saille sodenliche ^ and wif oute avisement [])an wi]> grete 
avisement].* He sente for som kynges, and made hem come to 
hym by flaterynge, and sente hem nevere a^en. pis was i-cleped 
Tyberius Nero, but menstralles cleped hym a faire name^ 
Tiberius Nero,^ for he was ofte wyn dronken.'' Also ])is by 
cause of som lettres J^at Pilate sente hym wolde have be wor- 
schipped as God Almyjti ; but ]?e senatoures seide nay, and 
periore he exilede [many of ))e] * aldermen,^ and chees hym 
counsaillours, and lefte unne]?e tweyne of hem in good heele. 
Or ^ he were emperour he was wise and redy in armes, but 
afterwarde he werrede ^^ by messangers.^^ Policratica^ libro 
Z^, capitulo 4^. He was greetly to blame [in] ^ meny of his 
deedes, but a^enst chidynge stedefastnesse,^^ and seide fat 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. and hauenge a schrewede wytte, fenynge hym to luiFe theym mS. Harl, 
that he hade in hate, moore scharpe and apte to an answere 2261. 
withowte deliberacion then with premeditacion. Whiche 
Tiberius sendenge for diuerse kynges to come to hym as for 
theire solace and recreacion, put theyme un to dethe. This 
Tiberius, callede Nero, was namede and callede of disporters 
Biberius Mero, for cause he Jafe hym to drynke superhabund- 
antely wyne, Avillenge to be honourede of peple as god, for 
cause of letters sende to hym from Pilate. But the senate 
seyenge contrary to hym, he condempnede xx*^ consulles, and 
putte theyme to exile, off whom he lefte not tweyne in lyfe. 
Whiche was a myjhty and prudente in armes afore that he 
was emperour, but after he ^afe batelle by other men sende 
from hym. Polichrojiicon, libro tertio, capitulo quarto. And 
thau^he he was culpable in mony thynges, he seide that the 



^ connynge of letture, Cx. 7. adds 
here, bote viore konnyng of fayr 
spekyng a wykked man of wytte. 

- though, Cx. 

^ counseyl sodenly, Cx. 

^ From )8., 7., and Cx. 

^ a faire name'] om. 7. ; mynstrals 
-allyd hym a faier name, Cx. 



6 Mero, B., 7.. and Cx. rightly. 
' drunke, j8 ; dronke, Cx. 
^ elder men, /3. and Cx. 

9 Er, B. ; Ar, 7. ; Eer, Cx. 

10 werryd, Cx. 

'^ messageris, )3. ; messagers, Cx. 
^'^ he was stidefast, )3. and Cx. ; 
a was studefast, 7. 



814 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



libera linguas hominum et mentes liberas^ esse debere. 
Joseplms.^ Hie in ^ omnibus suis agendis morosus fuit, 
ita ut procuratores quos per provincias semel statuerat 
vix unquam amovebat. Cujus rei causa dum ab eo 
qusereretur, respondit se in hoc parcere plebi. " Nam pro- 
" curatores/' inquit, " tanto dominantur gravius quanto 
" brevius." Et ostendit exemplum de quodam vulnerato 
in sole posito, qui cum multitudinem muscarum vulneri 
suo iusidentium amovere noluisset, superveniens quidam 
amicus ejus, putans hoc ex imbecillitate segroti* con- 
tingere, abegit muscas ; ad quem seger ait, " Male fecisti, 
" quia muscae quas abegisti jam saturatse erant, et minus 
" laedebant, modo vero muscsG supervenientes tanquam 
'* famelicse acrius infestabunt.^ Eodem modo officiales no- 
" viter instituti acrius desseviunt in subditos." Isidorus, 



^ liberas] om. B. 

2 Antiq. Jud., lib. xviii. cap. viii. 

^ in] om. B. 



^ cegroto, B. 

^ infestahunty from A. ; infesta- 



bant, MS. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



315 



men ^ tonges and hertes schulde be free ^ in J^e citee. losephus, Trevisa. 

pis was stedfast^ in al his nedes,^ ]?at so^ unne])e he wolde 

chaunge procuratours ])at he [had] ^ made ones in provinces 
and in londes ; me axede ^ why [that] ^ he dede soo ; he an- 
swerde and seide ]?at in fat doing he sparede fe peple ; 
" for evere ]?e lasse tyme," quod he, " procuratoures have]) ^ 
" lordschippe ^^ over \q peple ])ey bee]) ^^ pe more grevous." 
And he ^^ proved ^^ fat by ensaumple of oon fat was i-wounded, 
and i-sette in fe sonne, and wolde noujt doo awey fe flyjes 
fat seten^* on his woundes; fanne come oon of his frendes 
and droof ^^ away fe fly^^^ f^^ ^®*^ <^^ ^i^ woundes,^^ for he 
wende fat f e seek^^ man my^te nou^t [suffre] ^® for feble. " pow 
*' hast yvel i-doo " ^^ quod f e sike man, ^' for f e flyj^s fat f ou 
" hast i-dreve ^ away were ful, and f erfore fey ete wel f e lasse ; 
*' but now comef ^^ hongry fli jes, and wil ^2 bite ful sore ; " so 
newe officers grevef ^3 wors f e peple fat is under hem, Ysidorus, 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. langage or tunge and the myndes of citesynnes awe to ioye in MS. Haul. 
liber te. losephus. This Tiberius Nero was so slawthefulle 2261. 
that he wolde unnethe amove the proctors that he hade made 
oones in alle the tymes of his lyfe, seyenge that he sparede 
the peple f erby, usenge this reason : There was a man 
hauenge mony woundes syttenge in the sonne, whiche hauenge 
mony flees abowte his woundes and sowkenge f eim wolde not 
remove theyme. At the laste, a frend of his commenge to hym 
seenge the flees abowte his soores, amovede theyme. To 
whom the seke man seide, " Thow hase doen ylle to me, for 
" thow hase dryven aweye the flees that were replete and f« 199. b. 
" hurte but a litelle, and now hungre flees wille comme and do 
" moche more greuaunce to me." So in like wise newe officers 
use to do amonge the peple subiecte to theyme. Isidorus, 



^ mennes, /3. and Cx. ; men, y. 

^freo, y. 

3 stydfast, Cx. 

^ dedes, $., y., and Cx. 

5 so \)at, )3., y., andCx. 

^ From )8. and Cx. 

7 of hym] added in y, 

8 From Cx. 
^ habbe]>, y. 

^^ have lordship, Cx, 
" ben, Cx. 
^2 he'l om. Cx. 



^3 preonede, y. 

^■^ sate, )8. and Cx. ; sete, y. 

^5 drof, y. ; drove, Cx. 

16 \>at . . . woundes'] om. )8. and 
Cx. 

17 seke, Cx. 

18 From Cx. (not 7.) 

1^ done eye/,; /3. ; doone evil, Cx. 

20 dryve, Cx. 

21 comen, Cx. 

22 wole, Cx. 



23 



greven, Cx. 



316 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



lihro xmP. c». xv^} Ferunt sub Tiberio quendam artificem 
excogitasse vitri temperamentum ^ ut flexibile foret^ 
et ductile. Cujus opus cum a Csesare ^ confractum 
fuisset, artifex illud reparavit et complicavit, ac si 
stagneum fuisset.^ Cum^ Csesar didicisset ab illo 
nullum alium viventem illud temperamentum scire, 
jussit eum^ decollari, ne, dum illud artificium foret 
cognitum, aurum et quseque pretiosa metalla vilescerent. 
Ovidius. Ovidius Naso poeta apud Pontum insulam, juxta Sar- 

Gratiac. 

Tiberii ^^^^^ ^ ^^ Getas, quarto exilii sui anno obiit. Hie 

4. . . 

primo librum de arte amatoria componens, odium Ro- 
manorum in se excitavit, eo quod juvenes in amore 
matronarum nimium inflammasset.^ Unde et ipse in 

libris suis de Ponto^^ sic ait. Versus}'^ 

" Naso minus prudens artem dum tradit amandi, 
" Doctrince pretium ^^ triste magister hahet," 

Tandem ut fertur cum imperatrice concubuit'; idcirco 
exsiliatur.^^ Hoc anno Pilatus factus est praeses in 



1 It should be cap. xvi. 

2 de vitre temperato, B. 

3 esset, B. ; om. A. 

* ad terram projectum nee, added 
inB. 
5 artifex . . . /uissenQ om. B. 
^ Cumque, A.B. 
7 ilium, B. 



^ Samaritas, B. 

^ nee gratiam civium habere po- 
tuit donee lihellum de amoris remedio 
composuisset, added in CD. 

10 Ponie, A. 

" Versus"] om. A.B. 

^3 prcedictum, B. 

^3 exiliebatWj A. ; exulabatur, B. 




MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



317 



libro 6*^, capitulo \5^} Me sei|> ]?at in Tyberius his tyme a Trevisa. 

craftes man hadde i-founde ^ a craft of temperynge ^ of glas 

to make J?e glas tough i-now ^ to bende ^ and wende,^ and 
[to] ^ recche ® out wij> strokes of hameres. pe emperour brak 
som of his glas, and he amended it aje, and bende it, and bowd ^ 
it as it were tyn. panne ]?e emperour ^^ lernede of ]?ese ^^ craftes 
man fat fere was ^^ non ofer man on ly ve fat so coufe ^^ 
dry ve and ^^ tempre glas ; and heet ^^ smyte of f e craftes manis 
heed ; for J if fat craft were i-knowe,^^ golde and of ere precious 
stones ^'^ schulde be of no pris. Ovidius Naso f e f oete deyde 
in fe ilond Pontus, bysides fe Sarmates [and fe Gethes,^^ fe 
ferfe J ere of his exiling, pis made first a boke of fe crafte 
of love],'' and made fe Romayns wroof wif hym, for he made 
Jongelynges [to] ^^ love wifes to moche ; f erfore he seif ^^ in his 
book de Ponto, " Naso noujt wise i-now techef slif e ^i of love 
" craft ; wik pris 22 of loore f erfore fan hadde f e mayster." Me 
seif fat at f e laste Ovidius lay by f e emperesse,^^ and f erfore 
he was exiled, pat ^ere Pilatus was i-made [iuge] ^^ of f e 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. libro decimo septimo^ capitulo quinto deeimo. Somme men say MS. Harl 
that fer was a man in the tyme of this Tiberius that founde 2261. 
the arte to make glasse flexible and malleable, Themperour 
perceyvenge that, and knowenge by the man that fer was 
noon of er that knewe the same arte, commaundede hym to be 
sleyne, leste, that connynge made open and knowen, alle other 
precious veselles scholde be hade in contempte. Ouidius Naso, 
the poete, diede at Sarmatas in the iiij*^^ yere of his exile, 
whiche makenge a boke of the arte of luffenge, excitede the 
hate of men of Rome gretely ageynes him, in that he in- 
flammede the yonge men of the cite of Rome un to the luste 
of the flesche. But hit was seide that he did lye with 
thempresse, wherefore he was putte in to exile. Pilate was 



1 16°, Cx. 

- i-founde] founde up, /8. ; fonde 
up, Cx. 

** tempryng, y. and Cx. 

■* touy ynoiVy 7. ; tow ynoiVy Cx. 

5 beende, 7. 

^' wynde, )8., 7., and Cx. 

7 From )8., 7., and Cx. 

^ rechche, 7. 

^ bowyd, Cx. 

^^ emperour] om. 7. 

" \>is, )8. and Cx. 

'- no*, y. 



^"^ alyve that so coude, Cx. 

^^ dryve and] om. )8., 7., and Cx. 

^^ bade, /3. ; bad, Cx. 

^^ knowen, fi. and Cx. 

^-^ metal, 7. and Cx. 

18 Gothes, Cx. 

19 From Cx. 

20 sayd, Cx. 

21 sleiyjye, fi.; slyy,y.; sleighte,Cx, 
^ ylle pryse, Cx. 

23 emperice, $. ; emperys, 7. ; em- 
pryes, Cx. 

-^ From fi. and 7. ; jugge, Cx. 



318 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Gratise. Judsea, de cujus ortu et progressu mira leguntur. Nam 

27.^ 

^2."^ rex quidam nomine Tirus^ ex Pila filia cujusdam 

De origine 

Piiati. molendinarii Athus nomine genuit filium, qui ex nomine 
matris ^ et avi'^ composito vocabulo dicebatur Pi- 
latus. Hie quarto setatis suae anno ad patrem missus 
est, qui ex regina sua legitima filium Pilato cosetaneum 
nuper genuerat. Verumque * in omni genere certa- 
minis et ludi legitimus filius Pilato prsevaluerat, 
Pilatus livore stimulatusfratrem suumo ccidit. Qua- 
propter rex pater ipsum Pilatum pro tributo, quod 
Romanis annuatim debebat, obsidem misit. Quo in 
tempore erat Romse obses filius regis Francorum, quern 
etiam^ viribus et industria prsevalentem Pilatus oc- 
cidit. Idcirco Romani Pilatum, tanquam reipublicse 
utilem, ad domandum colla ferocium gentium emiserunt 



1 



Tyrus, B. 
2 P^7^■, added in B. 
2 Athus f added in B. 



* Verum quia, A.B. 
5 ety A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



319 



lewerie.i Of his bur})e and of his lyvinge me redej? meny Trevisa. 
wondres. For a kynj pat hijte Tyrus he ^ gat a sone on oon 
Pila, a milwardes doubter patheet^ Atus ; and ])e sonehadde a 
name i-made of fe name of his moder Pyla and of \>e name 
of his grauntsire Atus, and so he was i-cleped Pylatus. pis 
Pylatus^was i-sent to his fader in his four]?e Jere of elde.^ 
His fader hadde a sone by here ]?at was his rittful wif, fc 
whiche sone and Pilatus^ were of oon age. But |)is lawful 
Sonne hadde maistrie of Pilatus in every play^ and stryf. 
perfore ^ Pilatus was wroo]?,^ and slouj his owne broj^er ; 
j^erefore ]?e kyng ]?at was his fader sente Pilatus to Rome, to 
lye ^^ J)ere in ^^ plegge ffor tribute ])at he schulde every J ere 
paye to j^e Romayns. Also the same tyme J^e kynges sone of 
Fraunce leye ^^ in plegge at Rome, and Pilatus slowj ^^ hym, 
for he hadde ofte J^e ^^ maistrie in pleies ^^ and in strif. pere- 
fore ]>e Romayns demede pat Pilatus was ^^ profitable of ^'^ pe 
empere^^ to chaste ^^ froward men and sturne^o nien,2i and 



Ab urbe. made presidente in the lewery that yere, of the byrthe and ^^- H^i^i" 

dethe of whom meruellous thynges be redde. For a kynge, ' 

Tirus by name, gate hym of a woman callede Pila, dojhter to a transmi- 
a mylner callede Athus, callede Pilatus by the names of his gracione. 
moder and of his grawntefader. This Pilatus was sende to 
his fader in the iiij*^® yere of his age, whiche kynge, Tirus 
by name, hade geten a sunne by his wife egalle in age to 
Pilate. This childe lawefuUy geten by his wife, was more 
noble then Pilate in mony kyndes of armes, wherefore Pilate 
perceyvenge that, did sle his broker. Tirus the kynge, and 
fader to Pilate, understondenge pat, sende hym to Rome as 
plegge for a tribute that he scholde pay to the Romanes. In 
whiche tyme a sonne to pe kynge of Fraunce was a plegge 
at Rome also for a tribute to be paiede to theym. Whom 
Pilate did sle also, in that he was moore noble in mony kyndes 
of armes then he. Wherefore the Romanes sende this Pilate 



^ in the lewry, Cx. 

2 he'] om. Cx. 

3 hat, P. ; hete, Cx. 
^ Pylat, Cx. 

^ age, Cx. 
6 Pilat, Cx. 
-^ place, Cx. 
^ \)er, jf, 
3 wroth, Cx. 

11 to, Cx. 



12 Fraunse lay, Cx. 

13 slewe, Cx. 

1"* Ye] om. )8. and Cx. 

1' playes, Cx. 

1^ was] om. 7. 

^"^ for, )8. and 7. ; to, Ci. 

1^ empyre, Cx. 

13 chastye, fi. ; hastyse, Cx. 

^^ steorne, 7. 

21 men'] om. /8., 7., and Cx. 



320 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

judicem, scilicet in Pontum insulam, ad gentem quae 
nullum gratis judicem sustinet. Quam tamen gentem 
minis et promissis, supplicio et pretio, nequam ipse 
perdomuit. Unde et a Ponto insula ipse Pontius^ 
Pilatus dictus est. Herodes autem Antipas congaudens 
illius versutiis, muneribus et internunciis attractum, 
Pilatum principem sub eo super Judseam constituit. 
Pilatus tandem multa collecta pecunia, inscio Herode, 
Komam adiit, ut a Tiberio reciperet quod ab Herode 
jam tenebat. Hujuscemodi causa facti sunt inimici 
Herodes et Pilatus usque in^ tempus Dominicse pas- 
sionis, quando Pilatus ^ Jesum veste alba indutum 
misit ^ ad Herodem. Quo in tempore Tiberio Caesare 
gravi morbo correpto, nunciatum est quod Jerosolimis 
esset quidam medicus qui solo verbo ^ morbos curaret. 
Quamobrem misit Tiberius Volusianum quendam ad 



^ PonsiuSj A. 

2 ad, B. 

•^ Pilatus^ om. B. 



'^ transmiserat, A.B. 
^ verho'\ om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 321 

sente hym in to |)e ylond [of] ^ Pontus to be iuge, to chaste 2 Trevisa. 

])e ^ men ]mt were fere ]?at wolde wip good wille over hem no 

iuge fonge * no]?er suffice ^ among hem. But ]7at schrewe Pila- 
tus chastede^ hem wi]? punschynge,^ with manas,® and wi]) 
faire ^ byhcstes. perfore he hadde a name of ]?at ilond, and 
was i-cleped Pontius Pilatus. Herodes Antipas hadde ioye of 
his wickednes,^^ and sente hym ^^ messangers and ^iftes, and 
drou_^ hym [to hym],i2 ^nd made hym princes ^^ under hym in 
]?e lewerie.^* But Pilatus at fe ^^ laste gadrede moche '^^ 
money, and wente to Rome, unwitynge '^'^ Herodes, and forto 
fonge 1^ pe office of Tyberius ]?at [he] ^^ helde of Plerodes ; 
and by cause ])erof fey were enemyes, Herodes and Pilatus, 
anon to fe tyme of Cristes passioun, whan Pilatus sente lesus 
i-clofed 2^ in white 21 to Herodes. pat tyme ^^ Tyberius Cesar, 
fat is 23 the emperoure, hadde an hard siknesse,^^ and herde telle 
fat at Jerusalem was a leche fat heled sike ^^ men onliche ^^ 
wif a word, perfor Tyberius sente oon Volusianus to Herodes, 



to JiiFe batelle to peple in an yle callede Pontus, not willenge MS. Harl. 
to suffice eny gouernoure ; whiche peple he subduede to hym, 2261. 

what thro promisse and thro batelles, with other peynes hade . 

and schewede to f eim that wolde rebelle. Wherefore he was grSne!' 

callede Poncius Pilatus by the gettenge of that yle. Herodes 

Antipas herenge of this Pilate, made hym prince in the lewery 

under hym. At the laste this Pilate hauenge grete treasure 

wente to Rome, Herode not knowenge ferof, that he myjhte 

haue that principate by the confirmacion of Tiberius thempe- 

rour, whiche was taken to hym by kynge Herode ; for whiche 

thynge Herode and Pilate were enemys un to the tyme of 

the passion of Criste, when Pilate sende oure Savioure Criste ^ 

induede with a white clothenge un to Herode. In whiche 

tyme hit was schewede to Tiberius, laborenge in grete infir- 

mite, that f er was a man at Jerusalem healenge alle infirmites 

and diseases oonly by worde. Wherefore the seide Tiberius 



^ From Cx. 

- chastye, fi. ; chastyse, Cx. 

^ \>e] om. Cx. 

■* no jug ye receyve, Cx. 

5 suffry, y. 

^ chastised, /8. ; chastysed, Cx. 

^ punsy7ig, y. 

^ punysshyng with manaces, Cx. 

^faijei', Cx. 

^" wykkednesse, Cx. 

" hym^ om. Cx. 

^- From )8., y., and Cx. 

^3 prince, 0. and Cx. 



^^ luwery, 7. 

^^ ]7e] om. )8. 

^^ mych, )8. 

^7 unwetynge, Cx. 

^^ fange, 13. ; receyve, Cx. 

19 From 13. and Cx. 

20 clothyd, Cx. 

21 why7jt, y. 
^ tyme'] om. 7. 
'^•^ was, Cx. 
-"^ sekenesse, Cx. 
-^ seke, Cx. 
2'* only, Cx. 

VOL. IV. X 



322 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Pi latum, ut medicum ilium sibi transmitteret. Pilato 
itaque ad respondendum per tresdecim dies^ moras 
nectente,^ eo quod Jesus jam crucifixus fuerat, Volu- 
sianus prsedictus familiaritatem Veronicse nobilis ma- 
tronse adeptus est, adeo ut eam cum panno suo lineo 
impressionem Dominici vultus habente ad Csesarem 
Romee perduceret. Hunc ^ pannum cum Caesar inspex- 
isset sanitati redditus est. Comperto itaque quod Pi- 
latus Christum condemnasset, Caesaris edicto Pilatus^ 
capitur, RomsB adducitur ; qui cum ^ tunicam Christi 
inconsutilem super se indutam haberet, semel, iterum, 
atque tertio in prsesentia Csesaris adductus nihil aspe- 
rum aut poenale audire potuit, quousque Dei nutu, aut 
forte alicujus Christiani suasu, praefata tunica nudaretur. 



^ itaque . . . dies'] om. B. 

^ nesciente, B. 

3 hunc, from B. ; hoc, MS. 



■* Pilatus] om. B. 
^ cuni} om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 323 

and bycause J^erof^ for^ he schulde sende hym pat leche. Teevisa. 

Pilatus hadde prittene dayesof^ avisement to Jeve his answere, 

for lesus was to forehonde* i-nayled on^ ]>q crosse. The 
forsaidc Volusianus^ took aqueyntaunce and knowleche of 
a noble ^ womraan ]?at heet Veronica, so ]>ai he broujte hir to 
Home to the emperour wi]? here lynnen ^ clo]?, in ]?e whiche 
clo]? sche^ hadde peprynte^^ of^i j)e liknesse of oure lordes 
face, pe emperour byheld ^2 j^is clo]?, and was hool anon. 
Whan the emperour woste ^^ ]?at Pilatus hadde i-dampned Crist, 
Pilatus was i-take by a maundement of ])Q emperour, and 
i-broujt to Rome, and i-brou^t to fore^^ J?e emperour, and 
hadde on hym Cristes owne kirtel ^^ J)at was wij) oute semes, 
and was i-cleped^^ tunica inconsitulis,^^ and Pilatus was i- 
broujt in ]?is array to fore ^^ ]>e emperour ones, eft, and pe pridde 
tyme. But no worde my^t be seide pat hym schulde greve 
while he hadde on pat clop ; but at pe ^^ laste, by Goddes wille 
and by counsaille of som Cristen man, pe ^^ kyrtel was i-take 



Ab urbe. sende a noble man, Volusianus by name, un to Pilate, that he MS. Harl. 
scholde sende that leche to hym. This Pilate askede respite ^^^^' 
to JifFe a answere by the space of xij. dales, in that Criste ^ transmi- 
was putte to dethe, in whiche tyme the seide messyngere hade gracione. 
grete familiarite of Veronica, that noble woman, in so moche Of the Ve- 
that he broujhte her un to themperour hauenge a clothe with ronicle. 
the impression of the face of oure Lorde. And when that 
Tiberius themperoure hade seen that blessede face of Criste, 
he was restorede to heale ; whiche perceyvenge that Pilate 
hade condempnede Criste to dethe, commaundede Pilate to be 
taken and to be brou^hte to Rome. This Pilate brou^hte 
afore themperour, hauenge the coote of Criste on hym, them- 
perour cowthe not say eny thynge to hym of his wickede 
dede, thus provede twyes or thryes, un til that clothenge 
was taken of hym, other by the wille of God, other elles by 
the exhortacion of somme Cristen man. After that he was 



^ and . . . jjero/"] om. /3., 7., and 
Cx. 

2 thatf Cx. 

3 of] om. Cx. 

^ aforehonde, Cx. 

5 to, /8. and Cx. 

^ Volucianus, Cx. 

' nobel, Cx. 

^ lyneiiy Cx. 

9 heo, /3. 

*^ preentj $. and 7. 



'* and, $., 7., and Cx. 
^- beheelde, Cx. 

^3 wiste, fi. ; weost, 7. ; wyst, Cx. 
^^* and . . . to fore] bifore, /3, ; by- 
fore, Cx. 

'* oiine curtely 7. 
^^ callid, Cx. 
^7 inconsutiliSf 7. 

18 arat/ afore, Cx. 

19 ijg] om. i8. 

20 baf, /8., 7., and Cx. 

X 2 



S24 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Deinde in carcere missus manu propria se interemit. 

De morte Pilati vide infra ultimo anno Gaii. Petrus} 

Tressectae Eo tempore tres erant in Judsea sectse Judseorum, a 

Judea. 

communi reliquorum vita distantes/ videlicet, Pharisei 
Saducei, Essei sive Assidei. Pharisei, eo quod a 
cseteris habitu et conversatione divisi erant, Pharisei, 
id est divisi, dicebantur^ qui cultu austero, victu 
parco utebantur ; statutis suis traditiones Moysi deter- 
minabant, pittacia* cartarum in fronte et in sinistro 
brachio decalogo inscripta, quse phylacteria dicebantur 
in legis memoriam gerebant; fimbrias amplas^ spinis 
alligatas, quibus incedendo pungerentur, ferebant ; ma- 
joribus suis nunquam contraria respondebant ; resur- 
rectionem ^ quoqne corporum ^ sperabant. Saducei 
resurrectionem corporum et angelos esse negabant ; 
animas mori cum corporibus putabant : solos quinque 



^ Hist. Evang. cap. xxxi. 
2 discrepantes, CD. 
^ dicebant, B. 
^ pitacia, MS. 



5 aureaSf B. 

^ mortuorum, added in B. 

' corporuni] om. A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



325 



of liym, and pan he was i-put in prisoun, and ])ere he slow Trevisa. 
hym self wi]> his owne honde. Of Pilatus his deeth loke — — 
we 1 wip ynne, in Gayus his laste Jere. Petrus. pat tyme 
were })re sectes of lewes in Jje lewerie,^ severed and departed 
from ])e comyn lyvynge of oj^ere men. pe sectes were Phariseys, 
Saduceies, and Asseies ^ ])at heet Assideies also, pe Phariseies 
werede "* and usede hard clojnnge, and scarste ^ of mete and 
of drinke ^ ; ])ey determyned Moyses lawes ^ here ordenaunce 
and statutes, pey here scrowes in her forhedes and in hir 
lift armes^ and cleped ])e scrowes philateria ;^ in ]iq scrowes 
were |?e ten hestes ^^ i-write in mynde ^^ of J)e lawe. Also pey 
hadde large hemmes i-wounde ^^ wi]? pornes pat prikked^^ hem as 
pey wente on hir ^^ wey ; pey wip seide uevere here soveraynes. 
Also pey hopede pe arisynges ^^ of ^^ bodies from deth to ly ve. 
[pe Saduceyes denyede pe arisinge of bodyes from dep to lif],i7 
and seide pat [they] ^^ none aungels were ; they trowede pat pe 
soules were ^^ wip pe bodies ; pey helde onliche 20 Moyses his 



Ab urbe. putte un to prison, where he did sle hym selfe. Petrus. In the MS. Harl. 
whiche tyme per were iij. sectes of the lewes in the lewery, 2261. 
differente from the commune life of other peple, that is to say, . 

f. 200. b. Pharisees, Saducees, and Essees other Assideeis. The firste gracione. 
men were callede Pharisei, as diuidede, in that thei were Of the 
diuidede in conuersacion and habite from the rite and con- dethe of 
suetude of other peple, usenge litelle meytes and drynkes, I'ilate. 
makenge a determinacion of the tradicion of Moyses in theire 
statutes, berenge in the lyfte arme philacteria conteynenge 
the thynges and statutes of theire lawes in a memory of 
peirn, usenge also large hemmes prikkede and bownde to 
gedre with pornes, pro whom thei were prickede in goenge, 
Jiffenge not contrarious wordes and answeres to their betters, 
supposenge and Jiffenge to credence the resurreccibn of the 
bodies to comme. The secunde secte, callede the Saduceis, 
denyede the resurreccion of bodies, and that per were 



* we] om. )8., 7., and Cx. 
2 lewry, Cx. 

^ Essayes,Cyi. 

* wered, Cx. 

^ scar site, Cx. 

^ dri/nkke, 7. 

7 laive bij, i8. and Cx. 

^ forheede and in her hjfle, Cx. 

^ pldlaterna, Cx. 

^® teen conimaundements, Cx. 



^1 niuynde, 7. 

12 hounde, p. and Cx. 

13 prycked, Cx. 
I'* in theyr, Cx. 

15 in a rysynge, Cx. 
1'^ ded] added in 7, 
1' From )8., 7., and Cx. 

18 From Cx. 

19 dye\>, fi. ; deye\>, 7. ; dyed, Cx. 

20 heelde only, Cx. 



326 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



libros Moysi recipiebant ; ac quia ^ nimis severi erant, 
nee inter se sociales, ideo se Saduceos, id est justos, 
appellabant. Essei poene monasticam vitam agebant^ 
in omnibus ; nuptias nisi per raro fastidiebant, nuUam 
mulierem servare viro fidem putantes ; vestis eorum 
semper munda ; nulla eis certa civitas ; ante solis ortum 
nihil profanum^ loquentes, solem ubi oriebatur ado- 
rantes ; cum silentio edebant ; juramentum tanquam 
perjurium abhorrebant. Sectss suae neminem adhibue- 
runt nisi sub anni probatione ; deprebensum in peccatis 
a se pellebant, ut herbas more pecudis* decerpens 
usque ad obitum poeniteret. Decem illorum^ simul 
sedentibus, nullus eorum invitis novem loquebatur. 
Spuere in medium coetus vel ad dexteram partem 
vitabant. Sabbatum ^ adeo observabant, ut nee eo die 



1 Atque^ B. 

2 gerehant, B., which transposes 
the words of this sentence shghtly. 

3 prophanum, MS. 



'^ pecudum, B. 
^ eorum, A. 

•^ Sabbatum^ from A.B. ; Sab- 
batOy MS. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 327 

fyve bookes ; and for ]?ey were to cruel and noujt compjmable ^ Trevisa. 

among hem self ]>ey cleped hem self Saduceies, ]?at is ri^tful. 

pe Esseies ly vede wel nygh in alle poyntes as men of religioun, 
and forsook wedlok but it were ful selde, for fey trowed ^ ]}at 
no womman is trewe to hir housbonde. Here elopes were clene 
alwey ; fey hadde non certayn si^t ; ^ to fore ^ fe sonne 
arisynge^ ]?ey speke^ no fing fat was unlawful ; fey wor- 
schipped fe sonne whanne he dede arise; fey speke noutt^ 
at here mete ; fey hated of es as it were forswerynge ; fey 
fonge ^ no man to here secte but by f e assaie of on ^ tere ; Jif 
jjey took eny of here secte wif synnes,^^ fey putte hym away 
forto ete gras as bestes dof ^^ in penaunce to his lyves ende. 
pey ^^ ten of hem sete ^^ to gidre ^'^ noon of hem wolde speke 
a worde wif oute leve of f e nyne ; fey wolde noujt spete in f e 
myddel of the companye, nof er in f e ri^t side, pey helde ^^ 
f e Saturday so holy fat fey wolde fat day greyf e ^^ no mete, 



Ab urbe. angelles, supposenge the sawles of men to dye with theire MS. Harl. 
bodies ; whiche receyvede the v. bookes of Moyses, callenge 2261. 
theym selfe Saducei as ry Jhteuous men. The thridde secte, . / ._ 
callede Essei, exercisede and usede allemoste in alle thynges gracione. 
a life monasticalle, tiffenge litel attendaunce to weddynges, 
seyenge that women be selde trewe to theire howsebondes 
or men. The clothenge of theym was clene alleweye, 
hauenge noo cite of certeynte, spekenge not eny wickede 
thynge afore the risenge of the sunne, Jiffenge lawde and 
honoure to the sonne in the apperenge and risenge of hit. 
This peple did eyte with silence, abhorrenge swerenge as 
periury, not takenge eny man to theire secte withowte pro- 
bacion by the space of a yere ; refusenge a man taken yn 
synnes, whiche man so taken in synne scholde haue in 
penaunce to lyve by herbes un to the ende of his lyfe; 
lothenge to spytte on the ryjhte parte or in the myddes of 
the company. Whiche peple keped theire Sabbatte day, and 



^ compenable, y, ; 7iot compeynable, 
Cx. 

2 trowydf Cx. 

3 cite, fi. ; no cite of certayn, y. ; 
cyte, Cx. 

'^ afore, Cx. 
^ risyng, fi. and Cx. 
^ spake, fi. ; spak, Cx. 
7 spak not, Cx. 



^ toke, Cx. 

^ essay of one, Cx. 

1" synne, /8. and Cx. 

1^ doen, Cx. 

^'^ \>ou'i„ )8. ; though, Cx. 

13 sate, j8. and Cx. 

1"* togeders, Cx. 

15 hulde, y. 

i** dresse, Cx. 



328 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



cibum pararent, ignem accenderent, vas aliquid trans- 
ferrent, aut alvum ^ purgarent. Josephus^^ lihro se- 
cundo.^ CsGteris autem diebus fodientes terrain cum 
dolabro/ demissa circumquaque veste se contegebant 
quando alvum purgabant, ne radio solari injuriam 
facere viderentur ; purgatoque alvo terram egestam 
super foveam reducebant.^ Hi diutissime vivebant 
propter victus moderantiam ; animas omnes a prin- 
cipio creari,^ et pro tempore incorporari putabant ; 
et quidam eorum futura praedicebant. Nam^ volup- 
tatem uf maleficium vitabant, divitias contemnebant. 
Eorum patrimonium commune erat. Non merca- 
bantur inter se, sed quo quisque^ indigebat ab alio 
libere^ sumebat. Unguenta non curabant, vestes et 



' alveum, B. 

^ Josephus ... reducebant] om. 
CD. 

3 De Bell. Jud. ii. 12. 
^ dolaura, B. 



^ dart, B. 

^ Nain] Josephus. Essei, CD. 

' et, B. 

^ quis, B. 

^ libentissimef B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



329 



nojjer tcndc fuyi*e,i iio])er sette a vessel out of oo^ place in^ to Trevisa. 

unoJ)er, and also ]>ey wolde noujt schite * [in] ^ ]>e Saturday. 

loscphus, libro 2^, 0]?er dayes pey wolde digge |?e er]?e wip» ^ 
a chytelle ^ and make hem a pitte, and lete falle her clo]?es 
aboute hem, and hele [al]^ aboute whan pey wolde schite,^ 
for me schulde [noujt] ^^ wene j?at l^Qj dede no ^^ wrong to pe 
Sonne beeme ; and whanne |)ey hadde i-schete ^^ ]?ey wolde 
lille ^^ pe pitte ajen wi]? ]?e same erpe pat ];ey hadde ^* i-digge ^^ 
up of ]?e same pitte. ^^ pese lyved lengest of alle men, for J^ey 
lyvede scarsliche,^^ and dede noon surfeet of mete and of 
drynke ; ]jey trowede j^at alle ]?e soules were i-made at |)e ^^ 
bygynuynge, and i-putt in to ^^ bodyes whan it were ^^ tyme ; 
and som of hem wolde telle what [was] ^^ to comynge ; ^^ for 
j;ey forsook flescheliche likynge ^^ as it were an evel ^^ doynge, 
and despised richesse.^s Here lond and what ])ey hadde was 
comoun ^^ among hem alle ; ])ey chaffared ^^' noujt among hem 



Ab urbe. hade hyt in so grete veneracion, that thei wolde not ordeyne MS. Harl. 
meyte p»at day, kyndelle noo fyre, other elles to go and make 2261. 
clone tlieire wombes on that day. losephus^ libro secundo. . , . 
Jn other daies that peple diggenge the grownde couercde gracione. 
theyme and the grownde when thei scholde goe to sege, 
leste that ]?ei scholde seme to haue doen iniury to the beames 
of the Sonne ; the dewte of nature doen, thei couerede that f. 201. a, 
place with erthe. Whiche peple contynuede longe in lyfe, in 
that thei were so moderate in meytes and drynkes ; suppo- 
senge alle sawles to be create in the begynnenge of the 
worlde, and to be incorporate for a tyme. Also somme of 
theyme seide afore thyngesto comme ; eschewenge voluptuosite, 
despisenge vices, the patrimony of theyme was commune ; 
usenge noo marchandise amonge theyme, but that eiche man 



^fyre,Cx. 

2 one, Cx. 

** in] om. Cx. 

•* cacke^ Cx. 

^ From 7. and Cic. 

^ withoute, Cx. 

" )>witel, fi. ; thivi/tely y. and Cx. 

^ From j8., 7., and Cx. 

^ cache, Cx. 

^° From )8. and 7. 

^^ no\ om. fi., y., and Cx. 

^- schyte, /3, ; cached, Cx. 

''falk, 7. 

^^ hadden, (i. 



^•5 diggide, ^. ; digged, Cx. 

^7 scar sly, Cx. 

1^ k] om. 0. 

^9 <o] om. Cx. 

2*^ Here begins again MS. a. 

-^ From a. and 0. 

^- come, Cx. 

-'^Jlesshehj lyhynge, Cx. 

24 evyl, Cx. 

-^ ryches, Cx. 

25 comyn, fi. and Cx. 

-' chejf'arcde, 7. ; barganycd, Cx. 



330 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



calceamenta nisi conscissa aut consumpta non muta- 
bant ; hospitalitatem exhibebant ; unicum illis pulmen- 
tum erat ; cibum oratione prseveniebant et subsequeban- 
tur ; clamor seu tumultus-^ in eorum tectis nunquam 
audiebatur. Nulli eorum permittebatur aliquid dare 
nisi de communis dispensatoris dispositione. Omne dic- 
tum eorum j uramento fortius sestimabant ; Juramentum 
tanquam [perjurium]^ abhorrebant. Qui post anni 
probationem^ inter eos admit tebatur, jurare cogebatur 
quod Deo servaret fidem, hominibus justitiam, princi- 
pibus obedientiam ; et si contingeret ipsum aliquando 
prseesse aliis, quod nunquam abuteretur viribus [aut] * 
potestatibus ad injuriam subditorum, sed et mentientes 
pro posse convinceret. Ad judicium illorum non 



' seu tumultus'] om. B. 
^ perjurium, jfrom A.B. Some 
word has been written in MS., but 



afterwards erased so as to be il- 
legible. 

^ pnmo anni probatione, A. 

^ auf] added from A.B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB, IV. 



831 



alle,^ but evericbe hadde freliche of [ofere]^ what Jjat^ Trevisa. 

hym nedede.* pey roujte [not]^ of noon oynementis; ]?cy 

chaungede nevere liosen and schoon, nojjer clo^inge, but whan 
])ey were i-tore or i-spend ; ^ pey helde hospitalite ; ]?ey hadde 
oon manere mete ; fey prayede to fore ^ mete and after. In here 
hous was nevere i-herde crye noper noyse ; noon of hem schulde 
noujt ^ Jeve wi]? oute ordenaunce of ]?e comoun spenser.^ 
pey helde alle her sawes ^^ strengere fen eny of ; ^^ fey hated 
of es as it were forswerynge.^^ He fat schulde be fonge ^^ to 
abyde among hem after his a^ere^^ of assay,^^ he schulde 
swere to kepe fey ^^ to God, rijt wisnesse to men, and obedience 
to preostes.i'' And ^if it happede hym somtyme to be above 
[and over] ^^ of ere he schulde nou^t mysuse his power and 
his my^t in damage and wrong of his ^^ sugettes,^^ but he 21 
schulde chastise liers wif al his myjte. To here dome schulde 



A transmi- 
gracioue. 



Ab urbe. scholde take of an of er suche thynge as were necessary to MS. Harl 
theyme ; Jiffenge noo attendaunce to oyntementes ; refusenge 2261. 
noo schoone, ne chaungenge theyme, but if thei were broken ; 
kepenge hospitalite, usenge oon maner and kunyde of meytes, 
and to blesse hit with a certeyne benediccion or that thei tastede 
ferof ; not usenge eny crye ofer rumor in theire places. Also 
that peple was not suffi'ede to Jiffe eny thynge but by the 
sufferaunce of a dispensator amonge theym ; supposenge theire 
worde to be more stronge then eny othe. A man receyvede 
amonge theyme after f e probacion of a yere scholde be con- 
streynede to swere that he scholde kepe fidelite to God, 
ry^hteuousenesse to men, obedience to his souereigne. And 
if hit scholde happe hym to be a gouernoure amonge 
theyme, that he scholde not abuse theire lawes and do iniury 
to his subiectes, but that he scholde conuicte lyers and men 
doenge ageyne the lawe, un to fe iuggemente of whom a 



1 alle'] om. a., )8,, 7., and Cx. 

2 From a., j8., 7., and Cx. 
2 )pat] om. Cx. 

^ neodede, 7. 
5 From Cx. 
^ spente, Cx. 
7 afore, Cx. 
^ ou%t, a. ; not, Cx. 
^ spencer, fi. ; comyn spends, Cx. 
^0 lawes, Cx. 
^^ o\>er, Cx. 



^^ \)ey . . . for swerynge'] om. /8. 
and Cx. 

^•* receyved, Cx. 

^4 ^ere, a. ; yere, Cx. 

^5 essay, Cx. 

^'^ faith, Cx. 

17 prynces, 7. ; princes, fi, and Cx. 

1" From /3., 7., and Cx. 

15 his] om. ;8. 

20 subgettes, Cx. 

21 \,ey, a. 



332 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



minus quam centum personte conveniebant, quorum 
decretum immobile staret.-^ 

Cap. V. 

[De Christi vita et miracnlis et qucedam dc Johanne 

Baptista.] 

Gratiac. Ab hoc anno XV. Tiberii usque ad quintum ^ annum 

15. 

Tyberii. Adae, secundum Eusebium, fluxerunt annorum'^ tria 

30. . 

milia,^ quae faciunt sexaginta Jubilees ; et sic secun- 
dum ipsum sextus decimus annus Tiberii fuit principium 
sexagesimi primi Jubilei ; sed secundum septuaginta 
interpretatores,^ ab Adam usque ad hunc^ quintum- 
decimum annum Tiberii fluxerunt anni quinque milia 
ducenti. xxv., sed secundum Hebr?eos quatuor milia. 
TJnde volunt quidam in hoc anno sextam chili adem 
incipere, eo quod terminata circumcisione tunc ince- 
De predi- perit ^ baptismus. Alii autem ab incarnations Domini 

catione 

Johannis incipiuut. Hoc etiam anno Johannes'*' coepit prsedi- 

Baptistae. 



» CD. vary slightly as usual, and 
add here : " Sabbatum quoque adeo 
" servant quod nee cibuni parant, 
" aut ignem accendunt, nee vas ali- 
" quod transponent, nee etiam al- 
" vum purgant. Cseteris autem 
" diebus fodientes in terra foveam 
" cum dolabro, dimissa circumqua- 
*' que veste se contegunt quando 
" alvum purgunt, ne radio solari 
'* injuriam facere videantur ; purga- 
" toque alvo terram egestam super- 
*' ducunt. Servius Plautus, cor- 



" ruptor filise sua), reus semetipsum 
*' in judicio neeat." 

2 primum, A. 

^ The numbers stand thus in MS., 
but should change places. 

^ retrorsum calculando, added in 
B. 

^ annormn, B. 

^ interpretes, A. 

" nunc, B. 

^ incepitf A. 

'•^ Baptista, added in B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



338 



come no lesse ^ J^aii an hondred persones ; ]7o dome of hem Trevisa. 
schulde stonde stedefast^ and noujt be i-chaunged. 



Capitulum quintum. 

From j^e^ fiftene Jere of Tyberius to |?e firste Jere of Adam, 
for to acounte bakward, were pre ^ j^owsand J ere, so seij? Euse- 
bius ; ^ and so meny Jeres maketli ^ sixty [yere] ^ of grace ; 
and so by his tale J?e sixte]?e ^ of Tyberius was J^e bygyn- 
ninge of ]?e Jere of grace sixty and oon. But };e seventy 
seij) ^ })at from Adam to ])e fifti))e ^^ Jere of Tyberius were 
fyve powsand ^ere ^^ two hondred and fyve and twenty. But 
]je Hebrewes telle]) ^^ foure J>owsand, ]?erfore som men wole ^^ 
mene J)at ])at Jere bygan ^e sixte ])owsand, for ]?e circum- 
cisioun cesede ^^ and fulout ^^ bygan. 0])er bygynnej) ^^ from 
])e incarnacioun of Crist. Also pat ^ere lolin ^'^ bygan ^^ to 



Aburbe. c. persones scholde comme, the ordinaunco and decrete of MS. Harl. 
whom scholde stonde as immovable. 2261. 



A transmi- 
gracionc. 



Capitulum quintum. 



Prom this xv. yere of Tiberius un to the firste yere of Adam, 
in calculacion backewarde be iij. mt yere after Eusebius, 
whiche make Ix. yere of lubilee, and so after hym the xvj. 
yere of Tiberius was the begynnenge of Ixj. lubile. But 
after the Ixx*^ interpretatores, there be v. m''' cc. yere and 
xxv. from Adam un to the fiftene yere of Tiberius. And 
after men of Hebrewe iiij. m^ yere. Wherefore somme men f. 201. b. 
wille and say the vj. ciliade to begynne in this yere, in that 
circumcision endede baptyme hade begynnenge. Somme men 
say that hit begynnethe from the incarnacion of Criste. 



^ lees, $. and 7. ; lasse, Cx. 

^ stedfast, )8. ; stycfast, Cx. 

3 ]>at, 7. 

^fyve, Cx. 

* JEusebeus, Cx. 

'' make, Cx. 

7 From )8. and Cx. 

^ xvj., fi. ; sixtene yere, Cx. 

^ seyn, /8. ; seyye\>, 7. ; saif, Cx. 

^0 XV., Cx. 



^^ ^€/-e] om. Cx. 
'2 tellen, Cx. 
^'^ wil, a. ; wol, Cx. 
^■^ ceeside. /8, ; seesid, Cx. 
^^ fullouyt, 0. ; folloyt, 7. 
tendom, Cx. 
"" begynne, Cx. 
^" loon, fi. ; lohan, Cx. 
^^ yan, a. ; heyan, Cx. 



Cris' 



334 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



care et baptizare, et Christum baptizavit octavo idus 
Januarii die Dominica Epiphanise, et eadem die anno 
revoluto convertit Cbristus aquam in vinum.^ Petrus} 
Unde et in antiquioribus libris dies ilia dicitur plura- 
liter dies Epiphaniorum, id est plurium illustrationum, 
propriis nominibus distinctorum. Nam eadem die sed 
annis diversis factse sunt illse tres apparitiones 
quarum ^ prima dicta est Epiphania, ab epi,^ quod 
est supra, et plia,nos, apparitio, quasi desursum facta 
apparitio, quasi ^ per stellam. Secunda dicta est 
Theopliania, a theos, quod est Deus, quasi apparitio 
facta in baptismo ^ a Deo Patre per columbam. 
Tertia dicta est Betlipliama^ a beth,^ quod est 
domus, quasi apparitio facta in domo per conver- 
sionem aqu8e in vinum. Ranulphus? Et secundum 



2 Hist. Evang. xxxviii. 

^ quaruni\ ova.. B. 

** ept, from A. ; ephif B. ; epy, 

MS. 



^ quia^ B. 

^ in baptismo'] om. B. 

7 Beethphania, A.; Betphania, B. 

3 Beeth, A. 

^ Banulphus'] om. B. 



H 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



335 



preche and cristene, and cristened^ Crist ]?e sixte day of Trevisa. 

Ianyver,2 pe day of ]>e schewynge of oure Lorde. And })at 

day a 3 twelfmon])e "* he tornede water into wyn. Petrus. 
perfore in olde bookes ]?at day is i-cleped ^ )?e day of schew- 
ynges [in the plural nombre, for that day fylJ. ^ many diverse 
schewynges],^ and hadde dyvers names ; for in ]>& same day, 
but ^ in dyvers Jeres, were i-doo ]>re grete schewynges ; j^e 
firste hatte ^ Epiphania, and is a name i-made of epi,^^ ];at is 
above,^^ and phanos, pat is schewynge, as it were ])e ^^ schew- 
ynge i-made from above as it were by a sterre. pe secounde 
hatte 1^ Theophonia, and \>B.t name is made of theos, ))at is 
God, and phanos, ]?at is schewynge, as it were pe schewynge 
i-made of God in baptisynge^^ of Crist by a coluer.^^ pe jjridde 
hatte 1^ Bethania,^'^ and J^at name is i-made ^^ of beth, fat is 
an ^^ hous, and of phanos, pat is schewynge, as it were a 
schewynge i-made in an hous, by tornynge of water into wyn. 
[9).]^ And som men menej) 20 [that]^ pat day a^^ two Jere 



Aburbe. Seynte lohn Baptiste began to preche this tyme and to baptise, MS. Hael. 
and baptisede Criste the viij*^® idus of January on the Sonday 2261. 
of the Epiphanye ; whiche turnede water in to wyne that day "" . 
twelfemonethe. Petrus. Wherefore that daye is callede in gracione." 
olde bookes dies Epiphaniorum, that is to say, the day of mony 
illustrations distincte by propre names. For thre appariciones 
were made in that day, but in diuerse yeres. The firste was 
callede Epiphania, of pis worde epy, that is above, and phanos, 
that is apperenge, as an apperenge made from above by a 
sterre. The secunde was callede Theophania, of this worde 
theos, that is God, and phanos an apparence, as an apperenge 
made by a dovese. The thridde was callede Beethphania, 
of this worde beeth, that is an howse, as an apperenge made 
in a howse by the chaungenge of water in to wyne. ^. And 



^/oUe and foUede, y. 
and baptised, Cx. 
" lanevere, Cx. 
3 at, 7. 

^ twelvemoneth, Cx. 
^ callyd, Cx. 
^ful, 7. 

7 From $.,y,, and Cx. 
^ hut'] om. Cx. 
9 hete, Cx. 
^^ epy, Cx. 



baptise 



^^ aboove, Cx. 

12 a, a. and Cx. 

13 hete, Cx. 
^^follynge, fi. ; foUyng, y. 

15 douve, Cx. 

16 hete, Cx. 

1^ Bethphania, a., /8., and Cx. 
1^ name~\ om. Cx. 
1^ an] om. Cx. 
"^° meene, Cx. 
21 a] om. Cx. 



836 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



quosdam eodem die, duobus annis revolutis, factum 
est miraculum de quinque panibus et duobus piscibus, 
quod dicitur Phagophania,^ a fagin, quod est 
comedere et phanos, apparitio, eo quod tunc apparuit 
miraculum in comestione. ^ Hoc quoque anno, secun- 
dum Lucam et Jeronimum, Christus incepit annum 
setatis suae tricesimum, secundum illud Evangelium, 
Erat Jesus post haptismuTn incipiens quasi annorum 
triginta. Sed secundum Chrysostomum, Marianum, et 
communem ecclesise sensum, et etiam secundum Euse- 
bium in historia ecclesiastica, Christus tunc incepit 
suum tricesimum primum annum ; et nihilominus stare 
potest quod fuit incipiens quasi xxx. annorum, quia in 
modico excessit tricesimum annum. Et sic secundum 
Chrysostomum Christus post bapbismum suum praodicavit 
tribus annis integris, et quantum fluxit a natali usque ad 
passionem. Igitur post baptismum suum Christus feria 
secunda proxima sequente ductus est in desertum ^ a 
spiritu, ubi incepit* jejunium^ suum quadragenarium, 
quod xlo die, feria vi^- quinto-decimo kalendis Marti i 
terminavit. In qua et diabolum temptantem superavit, 
quo die diabolus primum [hominem] ^ supplantaverat. 



B. 



^ fagophania, A. ; fagiphania, 

2 9,, added in B. 
^ deserta, B. 



■* ccepit, B. 

^ jeju7iiare, B. 

^ /lomhiem, added from A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LUi. IT 



337 



was ])e myrakel ^ i-doo of [the] ^ fyve loves and tweie fisches, Trevisa. 

and hat Phagophania,-^ pat name is i-made of phagyn,'* )?at is 

ete, and phanos, ]>at is schewynge, ffor j^at myracle was i-doo 
in fedynge of men. Also ]?at secounde Jere, as Luke^ and 
lerom telle]>,^ Crist bygan his'' l>ritty Jere of age. So sei]? 
pe gospel : " lesus was bygynnynge as it were fritty ^ere." 
But ^ Crisostemus/-^ Marianus, and ]?e comyn menynge of holy 
chirche, and Eusebius in Historia Ecclesiastica, meue]; pat 
|>o '^ Crist bygan his oon andpritty ^ere ; and so^^ Crisostimus 
wil mene pat Crist after his bapteme ^^ prechede ^^ pre lere 
al 11 hool, and as moche more^^ as was from pe nativite to pe 
passiouu tyme. pan Crist pe Monday next after his bapteme ^^ 
was i-lad into wildernesse by pe spirit, and bygan his fastynge, 
and fasted ^^ fourty dayes, and endede his fastynge pe fowr- 
tepe day,^'' in a Friday, pe fiftepe ^® day of Feverer.^^ pat day 
he overcome pe devel ^^ pat tempted hym, in pe whiche day 
pe devel hadde overcome and supplaunted Adam pe lirste man. 



Ab urbe. after somme men the miracle doen by the v. lofes of brede and 
ij. fisches was doen in that day, whiche is callede Fagofania, 
of this worde phagyn, to eyte, and phanos an apperenge, in that 
the miracle apperede in eitenge. And after Seynte Luke and 
Seynte lerom, Criste began the xxx*^ yere of his age in that 
yere. But Criste began then the xxxj. yere after Marianus and 
Crisostom, after the commune chyrche, and after Eusebius 
in his story ecclesiasticalle ; and so, after Crisostom, Criste 
prechede thre yere complete after his baptym, and as moche 
tyme as was betwene Cristenmasse and the tyme of his passion. 
Wherefore Criste Avas brou^hte in to deserte of a spiritte, in 
the secunde fery after his baptyme, that he scholde be temptede 
of the deuelle, where he began the faste of xl*^ dayes, whiche 
he endede in the xl*^ day folowenge, the vj. fery, pe xv. 
kalendes of Marche, in whiche day he ouercome the deuelle 
temptenge hym ; in whiche day the deuelle supplanted Adam. 



MS.Harl. 
22G1. 



A transmi- 
gracione. 

Of the 
miracles 
of Criste. 

How longe 

Criste 

prechede. 



^ myracle, Cx. 

" From Cx. 

^ heete fagephania, )8. and Cx. 

^fagin, a., /8., and y. ; fagyn, Cx. 

^ Luc, a. and y. 

^ sayth, Cx. 

7 Ills'] the, Cx. 

8 Buf] om. Cx. 

^ Crisostimus, Cx. 

^" \>an, 13. ; than, Cx. 

^' and so . . . a/] om. Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



^" fulloyt, /8. ; foiloyi, y. 
^'^ preche, a. 
^** more'] om. Cx. 

^^fulloyt, )8. ; follort, y, ; haptym, 
Cx. 

^*^ faste, a. and $. 

^7 ]pefourte\>e day] cm. Cx. 

18 XV., Cx. 

*^ Fever yrc, Cx. 

20 devil, Cx. 



338 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Deinde secundum veriorem^ traditionein in proximo 
Paschate ejecit vendentes de templo.^ Post hoc 
eodem anno vocavit discipulos suos Andream, Petrum,^ 
Philippum, Nathanaelem. Post hoc anno sequenti, die 
Epiphanise, convertit aquam in vinum. Et post hoc 
secundum Bedam ipse et discipuli sui baptizabant in 
Judsea ; et in * proximo post hoc Paschate incarceratus 
est Johannes.^ Quo etiam festo sanavit Jesus juxta 
probaticam piscinam in Sabbato paralyticum triginta et 
octo annis infirmatum. Et post hoc eodem anno as- 
cendit in montem, ubi duodecim apostolos elegit, quos 
ad prsedicandum misit. Ex quo patet quod tres Evan- 
gelistse qui potissime ab incarceratione Johannis gesta 
Christi narravere, unius anni gesta ante incarcerationem 
Johannis psene intermisere, quae tamen Johannes Evan- 
geHsta, [csetera] ^ minus narrando, solus prosequitur, 
utpote de conversione aquae in vinum, de adventu 



' variorem, B. 

2 ejecit . . . templo'] om. B, 

2 Petrum et Andreaviy B. 



^ hi] om. A. 

'' Baptista, B. 

•^ ccEtera] added from A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



339 



pan J)e nexte Esterne^ after, as trewe loore telle]?, he droof^ Trevisa. 

and chasede '^ selleres [and byers] ^ out of J?e temple. In J)e 

same ^ere after he cleped^ and cliees^ his disciples Andrew,^ 
Peter, Phelip,^ Nathaniel. pe next Jere after he tornede 
water in to wyn in a twelfjje day, and after fat, as ^ Beda 
telle]?, Crist and his disciples cristeued ^^ in ])e lewerye, and })e 
nexte Esterne^^ after lohn was i-prisoned.^^ Also in an 
holy feste Crist helede in a Saturday oon ]>at hadde i-hadde ^^ 
Ipe palsy ey_^te and })ritty ^ere, and after ]?at in J>e same ^ere 
he wente up in to ^* ]?e hille ; }?ere he chees ]>e twelve apostles, 
and sente hem forto prechc, and so it seme]? pat ]7re gospel- 
lours 1^ that telle]? ^^ ])e doynge of Crist after }?e prisonynge 
of lohn I'' Baptiste leve]? untolde almest ^^ ]>e doynge of oon 
Jere to fore J>e prisonynge of lohn Baptiste.'"^ But lohn 20 
J)e Evaungeliste speke]? lesse ^i of o]?er pinges, and telle]? ]7at22 
doynges and dedes how lesus tornede water in to wyn, how ^^ 



Ab urbe. Then for a trawthe in the Ester next foloenge he putte MS. Harl. 
byers and sellers owte of ]>e temple. After that he callede ^^^i- 
in the same yere his disciples Andrewe, Petyr, Philippe, and ^ transmi- 
Nathanael. After that in the yere foloenge, in the day of gracione. 
thepiphany he turnede water in to wyne. And after Bade, f. 202 a. 
after that tyme he and his disciples baptised in the lewery, and 
Seynte lohn Baptiste was putte in prison. In the whiche 
feste Criste did heale a man hauenge the peralisy by xxxviij*^ 
yere at the water. After that he ascendede ' in the same yere 
un to the mownte, where he did chose xij. apostles whom he 
sende to preche. Wherefore hit is expresse that the thre 
euangelistes whiche expressede the actes of Criste from the 
imprisonenge of Seynte lohn, lefte allemoste the actes of oon 
yere of Criste afore ]?e imprisonemente of Seynte lohn 
Baptiste, whom Seynte lohn theuangeliste dothe towche, 
as of the turnenge of water in to wyne, of the commenge of 



^ Ester, a., 7., and Cx. 

2 drof, )8. 

3 drofe ^ chacid, Cx. 

^ From Cx. ; sillers and biers, $. 

^ callyd, Cx. 

^ dies, iS. 

7 Andreu, 7. and Cx. 

^ Petyr, Philip, Cx. 

■^ as] om. Cx. 

*° baptysed, Cx. 

^^ Ester, 7. and Cx. 

^2 lohan was emprysouned, Cx. 



1'* i-hadde^ om. /8. and Cx. 

i"* ^0] om. Cx. 

^^ gospelers, Cx. 

16 telle, Cx. 

1' Ioo7i, fi., passim ; lohan, Cx. 

1^ ahnoost, Cx. 

13 of lohn Baptiste'] om. Cx. 

20 iohaii, Cx. 

21 lasse, Cx. 

2^ ]>ilke, 13. ; the, Cx. 
23 how] om. Cx. 

Y 2 



340 



POLYCHRONICON JIANIJLPJII HIGDEN 



Nicodemi ad Jesum de nocte, de ejectione vendentium. 
Post hoc in tertio Paschate decollatus est Johannes, anno 
scilicet incarcerationis suse completo. Deinde fecit Jesus 
miraculuni quinque panum. Et post hoc anno com- 
pleto, in ^ quarto Paschate passus est Christus.^ Hoc Gratisc. 

32. 
Tiberii 

anno Johannes Baptista, post annalem incarcerationem, 17 
decollatus est in carcere;^ Petrus, capitulo iii^J^ ^Tradit 
nndecimus liber ecclesiasticae historise ^ Johannem apud 
Macherontam, castrum Arabise, truncatura, corpus ejus 
apud Sebasten, quod est Samaria, sepultum ; caput vero 
Jerosolimis juxta Herodis^ habitaculum humatum, ne 
forsan ^ surgeret si caput cum corpore sepultum fuisset. 
Ossa vero ejus tempore Juliani apostatse gentiles dis- 
perserunt, invidentes ejus miraculis ; quae quidem ossa 
ah illis rursum collecta concremata sunt,^ et pulvis in 
aera ventilatus est.^** Hoc quidam modernis tempo- 



^ anno completo m] om. B. 

2 The preceding portion of this 
chapter is very much abbreviated in 
CD., which add here : " Kinebelinus 
** rex Britonum obiit relictis duo- 
" bus filiis Gwiderio et Arvirago, 
" quorum Gwiderius regnum sus- 
" cipiens, duni tributum Boraanis 
" denegat, supervenit Claudius Ca)- 
" sav cum duce Lelio Ilaraone." 



3 Hoc . . . carcere"] om. B. 

^* Hist. Evang. Ixxiii. 

® A. makes this the beginning of 
cap. vi. 

^ historia scolastica, B. 

' Herodis] om. B. 

^ forte, B. 

'•• concremata st (sic), B. ; error of 
scribe. 

>" es<] om. B. 



MONAOHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



341 



Nichodemus come to lesus by nyjtc, and how ^ Icsus droof ^ Tiikvisa. 

oute |)c sellers out ^ of tho temple. After ])iit, at j)e ])ridde 

Esterne * lohn was byheded whan he hadde be i-prisoned al 
a ^ere. At ]>e four]?e Esterne ^ Criste siiffrede def ; J^at Jere 
Tohn Baptiste was byheded^ whanne he hadde be twelve 
monl^es in prisoun.^ Pctrus, capitulo 11°. pe enlevenpe^ 
book Ecclesiasticso historia? telle]:» that lohn^ was byheded 
at Macheronta, a castel of Arabia ; his body was i-buried at 
Sebasten, ])at is Samaria ; his heed was i-buried at lerusalem, 
bysides Herodes his hous,^ for drede Icste ^^ he wolde arise 
from dee]) to lyve J if ])e hede were i-buried wi]? J^e body. 
Mysbileved men to-schedde ^^ his boones,!^ and ])rewe hem 
abrode, in lulianus Apostata his tyme, ffor ]?ei hadde envie 
to pe myracles ^^ j^at he wrou^te ; and pey gadrede ^* efte ]iq 
bones to gyders and brend hem, and wynewede ^^ J)e askes 
awey with fe wynde. pat doynge som men now acountej) as it 



Ab urbe. Nichodemus to Ihesu in the ny^hte, of the puttenge also of MS. Harl. 
byers and sellers from the chyrche. Then Seynte lohn 2261. 
Baptiste was heded in the ende of the yere of his imprisone- ^ transmi- 
mente. After that Ihesu did the miracle of the v. lofes of gracione. 
brede and ij. fisches. That yere complete Criste suffrede 
passion on Goode Friday folowenge. Seynte lohn Baptiste 
was heded after that he hade bene in streyte kepynge or in 
prison in this yere. Petrus, capitulo xj^. The xj*^^ booke 
of the story ecclesiasticalle expressethe Seynte lohn Baptiste 
to be heded at a castelle of Araby callede Macheronta, and his 
body to be buriede at Sebasten other Samaria. Butthei beryede 
his hedde at lerusalem nye to the habitacle of Herode, leste 
that he scholde haue rysen to lyfe ageyne if that his hedde 
hade be beryede with his body. The Gentiles dispersede his 
boones, hauenge envy of the miracles doen by hym, in the 
tymes of lulianus Apostata, whiche boones were gedrede by 
tlieym afterwarde and brente, and the duste and powdre of 
theyme blawen in to the aier. But when the bones of Seynte 



^ houy, a. 

- (Irof, /8. ; drofe, Cx. 
3 out] om. /3. and Cx. 
'• Ester ^ 7. and Cx. 
^ Eester, Cx. 

^ \>at yere . . . prisoun'] om. i8. 
and Cx. 

^ cllcuen)pc, /3. 



^ lohan, Cx. 

^ howse, Cx. 

1" leest, Cx. 

^^ to-sched, /3. ; devyded, Cx. 

^2 hones, Cx. 

^•^ myraclis, Cx. 

" gadj-yd, Cx., et infra. 

1^ wynewidc, $. ; wynnewydy Cx. 



342 POLYCHRONICON RANITLPHI HIGDEN 

ribus quasi secundum martyrium in jam mortuo repre- 
sentant nescientes, dum in festo nativitatis susd ossa 
undecumque ^ collecta cremant. Dum autem ossa 
Johannis colligerentur a gentilibus, quidam Jerosoli- 
mitse immixti^ latenter ipsis colligentibus magnam 
partem ^ ossium tulerunt, inter quse digitus ejus quo 
Christum monstraverat fuisse perhibetur ; quern digi- 
tum postmodum beata Tecla usque ad Alpes attu- 
lit, qui modo dicitur esse in ^ monasterio Mauricii. 
Sed ossa missa fuerunt Atbanasio Alexandrino epi- 
De inven- scopo. Tempore vero Marciani principis Johannes 

tione 

Johannis revelavit ^ caput suum duobns monachis orientalibus 

Baptistsc. 

qui orationis causa Jerosolimam venerant, quod tamen, 
per incuriam perditum,^ diu in specu quodam Phoeniciae 
reconditum est ; ^ donee denuo idem Johannes Mar- 
cello abbati, in eodem specu habitanti, caput suum 



* undique, B. 
- mixti, B. 
'-' ea. B. 



■* ill] om. B. 

^ perditum'] om. B. 

•* reconditum est] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



343 



were the secounde martirdom of pe good i man ; pey woste 2 Trkvisa. 

noujt what ]?ey dede.^ In ]>e feste of his nativite while ]?ey 

gadrcde liis boones to gidres and brende hem as for)? * as J>ey 
my^te, [and] ^ while mysbileved men gadrede lohn his ^ 
bones, men of Jerusalem were i-melled ^ among hem, and took 
wi]7 hem a greet deel of the bones, among J^e whiche bones 
of ]mt deel *^ was ]?e fynger J>at lohn ^ schewed Crist with : 
afterward Seynt Tecla brou^t ]7at fynger anon to ^^ Alpes. 
Alpes bee}) hije^^ hilles in Lumbardie side, pat fynger is 
now in Morys his mynstre,!^ as it is i-saide. But ]?e bone ^^ 
was ^* i-sent to Athanacius,!^ bisshop of Alisaundre. In 
Marcianus ]?e prince his tyme lohn ^ warnede tweie monkes ^^ 
of his heed, and tolde where it lay. pe monkes were of Ipe 
Estlondes,!'' and were i-come to lerusalem forto bidde and praye. 
Nojjeles ^^ pe heed was longe i-lost by unkonnynge, and was 
i-leide in a denne in Fenicia, forto pat lohn ^^ efte tolde ^^ 
were 21 his heed lay to Marcellus pe abbot ]?at wonede ^^ in j^e 



Ab urbe. lohn Baptiste were gedrede, men of lerusalem were amonge MS. Harl, 
the Gentiles, and gedrede a grete parte of his boones, amonge ^^^^' 
whom the fynger was with whom he schewede oure Savioure ^ transmi- 
Criste; whiche fynger the blessede virgyn Tecla broujte un gracione. 
to Alpes, whiche is seyde to be nowe in the monastery of f- 202 b. 
Seynte Mauricius. But the other boones were sende to At- 
tanasius, the byschoppe Alexandryne. Seynte lohn Baptiste 
schewede his hedde by reuelacion to ij. monkes of the este 
partes of the worlde, whiche come to lerusalem for grete 
deuotion in the tyme of Marcianus themperour. Whiche loste 
by symplenesse of theyme, was hidde in a place of Fenicea 
un tille that Seynte lohn schewede his hedde ageyne by reue- 
lacion un to Marcellus thabbotte dwellenge nye to hit. From 



1 ded, )8. and 7. ; dede, Cx. 

2 weost, 7. ; wyst, Cx. 
2 dyde, Cx. 

'^forVl ferfortli, Cx. ; a ferforth, 
/3. 

5 From )8. and Cx. 

6 lohans, Cx. 

^" medled, /8. and Cx. 
^ deel of the hones, a., 13., 7., and 
Cx. 

'J lohan, Cx. 

1" unto, Cx. 

^^ heiy, /8. ; ben hye, Cx. 



^^ Morys minister, /8. ; Morys my- 
nyster, 7. ; Mons mynyster, Cx. 
^3 bones, /8., 7., and Cx. 
^* were, a., )8., 7., and Cx. 
^5 Athanasius, /8. and Cx. 
^^ niunkus, )8. ; two monkys, Cx. 
I'' Est] om. Cx. 
^^ Nevertheles, Cx. 
•'J till that lohan, 0. and Cx. 
-^ tolde"] om. 7. 
21 whare, 7. 
2" dwellyd, Cx, 



844 



rOLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



revelaret ; et ^ extunc ccepit festum decoUationis 
suae in urbe ilia celebrari, eo scilicet die quo caput 
inventum fuerat et elevatam. Alii autem tradunt illud 
festum non decoUationis esse, sed de collectione ^ ossium 
prius facta et combustione. Demum^ caput illud 
Constantinopolim per Theodosium imperatorem allatum 
est, et inde ad Gallias,^ quod modo in urbe Ambia- 
nensium^ peregrinantibus ostenditur.^ 



Cap. VI. 

[De septem diaconis, et de origine et fato Judce pro- 
ditoris : qumdam etiam de rebus Romanis et Bri- 
tannicis.] 

Christus passus est viii. kalendas Aprilis, quo die 
secundum Cassiodorum facta est tam magna solis 
defectio qualis antea vel post nunquam fuit, ita ut 
stellse in ccelo visas sint;^ et terr^e motu multae in 



Gratiac. 

XXXII!. 

Tiberii. 

XVIII. 



1 ef] om. B. 

2 de collatione, B. , 
^ Deinde, B. 

^ Mamdphus, added in CD. 

^ Ambranensium, B. 

^ The latter portion of the chap- 
ter is the same in substance in 
CD., with the addition of : — *' Beda, 
" lihro de tempore. Si quis ab 
" initio muudi inchoans primam 
" feriam, id est Dominican!, in 
*' capite posuerit, oranesque annos 
" deinceps 52 ebdomadoriim, id est 
" 364 dierum feccrit, sicque ad 3093 
" annos a rnundi exordio usque ad 
"17 annum Tyberii Ca?saris com- 
" putando perduxerit, inveniet Jesum 
" Christum 8 kalendas Aprilis, luna 



1.5, feria sexta, secundum histo- 
riam Evangelii crucifiximi fuisse, 
et D. kalendas Aprilis, die Domi- 
nica, surrexisse ; sed nobis sup- 
putantibus versus supra a prae- 
senti tempore usque in passionem 
Domini, propter aliqua niiniita 
temporum intermissa, seu propter 
intervalla vacationis regum, qui 
neglectis diebus seu mensibus 
regnum usurparunt, anni nobis 
deficiunt. Quod satis liquet ex 
verbis Jeronimi, qui transtulit in 
Latinum cronicam Eusebii, usque 
ad 20 annum Grajce conscriptum, 
in qua nonnulla ab Eusebio pra;- 
termissa adjecit." 
' sunt, A. 



I 



MONACHI CESTRENSTS, LIB. IV. 345 

same dyn.^ And pan afterward ])e feste of j^e byhedynge gan Trevisa. 

to byholde^ in the same citee pe same day }>at ])e heed was 

i-founde and i-take up of j^e erj^e. 0])er men ^ telle]) ))at it is 
nou^t ))e feste of \>e decollacioun, of pa * byhedynge, but of pa 
collectioun, of ])G gaderynge of j^e bones ^ pat was raj^er i-doo, 
and of pG brennynge. panne Theodocius ^ pe emperour 
broujte ])e heed in '^ to Constantynnoble ; ^ and j^ennes it was 
i-broujt into Fraunce, and is ofte i-schewed to pilgryraes at 
Amyas.^ 



Capitulum sextum, 

Crist suffi-ede ^'^ deth sevene dayes to fore Averel ^^: Cassiodo- 
rus seij} ]?at fat day was agreetaclips ^^ of |)e sonne, so grete J?at 
noon suche ^^ was ^^ to forehonde nofer ^^ after, so |)at pG sterres 
were i-seie in hevene, and erjje^^ schakynge in Bithinia prewe ^^ 



Ab urbe. whiche tyme the feste of the decoUacion of Seynte lohn was MS. Harl. 
halowede, and began firste in that cite in the same day that 2261. 
his hedde was taken up from the erthe. Somme men say . 7~ . 

/1 . r«iTn- r>m iQi r>i A traiismi- 

that teste is not oi the decoUacion oi beynte,^^ but oi the gracione. 
gedrenge of his boones made afore and also brente. At the 
laste that precious relike the hedde of Seynte lohn Baptiste 
was broujhte to Constantinople by Theodosius themperour, 
and after that in to Fraunce in to the cite Ambianense, schewede 
pGx to pilgremes. 

Capitulum sextum. 

OuRE Savioure Criste suffrede passion the viij^^^ kalendes 
of Aprile, in whiche day was a grete clippes, after Cassio- 
dorus, and feylenge of lighte, in so moche that sterres were 
scene as to falle from hevyn. Also there was in the tyme of 
his blessede passion suche movenges of erthe, in so moche that 
diuerse cites in the cuntre of Bithinia were destroyede, and 



^ r/en, o. and Cx. I ^" suffride, /8 



- be i/-holde, a. ; be holden, Cx. 

' men] ova. Cx. 

^ J>e] om. a., j8., 7., and Cx. 

^ boones, Cx. 

^ Theodosius, Cx. 

"* in] om. Cx. 

^ Constantinojdc, Cx. 



^ Ainbians, y. ; Ainyens, Cx. I '^ Sic. 



" afore Apryl, Cx. 

1- eclips, )8. and Cx. 

1-^ sich, )8. 

'^ yseye, added in 7. 

^^ aforehond nowther, Cx. 

'^ eor\>e, 7. 

•' iverc throwe, Cx. 



346 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Bithynia^ urbes sunt subversse. Ranulphus. Tunc 
quoque petrse scissse sunt; unde^ verisimile est ut 
vense et fissurse quse in rupibus et lapidicinis nunc 
apparent ex illo terra3 motu pervenerint,^ cum ante 
tempus illud saxa fuerint* inconscissa. JosejyJius.^ Hoc 
anno, die Pentecostes, sacerdotes in templo audierunt 
commotiones et sonitus locorum. Deinde ex aditu 
templi repentinam erupisse vocem dicentium, Migre- 
mus ex^ his sedibus. Hoc etiam anno, circa Pente- 
costen, ordinatus est ab apostolis Jacobus minor, filius 
Jacobus _ Alphei, episcopus Jerusolimorum, qui primus inter 

minor epi- j. ■> ± i. ' x i 

Scopus Jeru- 

quiTnter™' COS missam cclebravit, et rexit episcopatum ibidem 

apostolos 
primo mis- 

bravi?^^" triginta annis. Ordinati sunt septem diaconi : Stephanus, 
Philippus, Procborus, Nichanor, Timon, Parmenas, et 
Nicbolaus, qui non stetit in unitate, sed uxorem suam 
passim exposuit. Eusehius in Historia, lihro Hi? Iste 



1 Befhania, A. ; Bythinia, M.S. | ^ CD. transpose reference to 

2 quoque, added in B. | next passage. 
•* venerunt, B. j ^ ah, B 
"^fueranty B. j ^ Cap. 29. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV 



347 



doun meny citees. ]^. Also J^e ^ stones were i-clove, J^erfore Trevisa. 

hit seme]) J^at veynes and clustres ^ j^at now hee]> i-sene in 

quareres ^ and in roches and in rokkes * come of J>at erjje 
schakynge in Bithinia,^ for tofore ^ pat tyme stones ^ were 
hole wi]> oute cliftes. losephus. pat ^ere in ])e Witsonday ^ 
preostes in fe temple herde steringes^ and noyse of places ; 
Jeanne J>ey herde a voys breke out sodenliche ^^ faste by ]>q 
temple, ]>at seide, " Passe we out of fese^^ seges." Also fat Jere 
about Pentecoste, ]?at is "Witsontide,!^ j^g apostles ordeyned ]?e 
lasse lames, Alpheus his sone, bisshop of Jerusalem ; he song ^^ 
first masse among hem, and rulede ^^ ])e bisshopriche at Jeru- 
salem J?ritty Jere. pere were i-ordeyned sevene dekenes,^^ 
Stevene, Phelip, Procerus, Nichanor, Timon, Parmenas,!^ and 
Nichol. Nichol ^^ stood nou^t as he schulde, but he made ^^ his 
wif comoun ^^ to alle j^at wolde have hir. E.usebius, in Historia 
Ecclesiastic a, libro 3°. pis Nichol hadde a faire wyf, and was 



Ab urbc. turnede upwarde the laweste partes of theyme. ^,. In MS. Harl. 
whiche tyme grete roches of stones were departede, where- 2261. 
fore hit is lyke that the veynes and departenffes whiche .^ . 
appere now in the roches of ston come of that movenge of gracione. 
the erthe in the tyme of the passion of Criste, for stones f. 203. a. 
were not diuidede afore that tyme. losephus. Prestos in 
the temple of lerusalem herde that same yere, in the feste 
of Pentecoste, a voice seyenge, '' Departe we from these setes 
" and places." lacobus minor, son of Alpheus, was made 
bischoppe of lerusalem in that yere abowte Pentecoste, 
whiche songe firste masse amonge theyme, beenge bischoppe 
fer by xxx*^ yere. Also vij. diacons were ordeynede, whose 
names be Steven, Philippe, Procerus, Nichanor, Timon, Par- 
menas, and Nicholas, which stode not in unyte. Eusebius in 



Historia Ecclesiastica, libro tertio. 



This Nicholas hauenge 



2 clufteSf a. ; cliftes, )8. and y. ; 
clyftes, Cx. 

^ quarers, /3. and y. ; ben seen in 
quareis, Cx. 

^ rockeSf )8. 

5 in Bithinia] om. a., /8., and Cx. 

** hyfore, Cx. 

^ onests, Cx., by a misprinting. 

^ Whytesoneday, Cx. 

'J stirynges, a. ; stiryngis, &. ; 
sturynges, y. styiynges, Cx. 



^^ sodenly, Cx. 

^^ ]>eos, y. 

*2 Whitesonetyde, Cx. 

13 songe, Cx. 

1' reuled, Cx. 

15 dekons, y. ; dekens, Cx. 

1^ Permenas, Cx. 

!'■ Nycholas, Cx. (bis) et infra. 

'^ no'^t as a scholde bote a made, 

'^ comyn, fi., 7., and Cx. 



348 POLYCHKONICON lUNULPHI IIIGDEN 

Nicholaus pulcram habens uxorem, cum increparetur ^ 
ab apostolis tanquam zelotypus,^ productam in medio 
uxorem siquis ea uti vellet permisit. In quo facto 
simplici et innocenti licet quidem illicitos et promis- 
cuos sectati sunt concubitus : constat tamen Nicholaum 
hoc ex contemptu vitii ad destestationem zelotypise 
potius egisse, quam expetendam voluptatem docuisse ; 
prsesertim cum filii et filise ejusdem Nicholai usque 
in sevum casti permanserint, nee ipse post primam 
aliam uxorem duxerit. Ranulphus.^ De isto Jacobo 
notandum est quod quatuor modis cognominatus est ; 
scilicet Jacobus Alphei, quia fuit filius Alphei : frater 
Domini, quia sanctitate et facie ei Dominus * simillimus 
fuerat, adeo ^ ut plerique in eorum specie fallerentur. 
Unde et Judas dedit Judseis signum osculi ne ipsi 
in captione Christi ^ fallerentur. Item dictus est ^ 
Jacobus minor, quia alter Jacobus, filius Zebedei, 



1 increpareretur , A.B. 
- zelotopus, A. 
^ Hanulphus'] om. CD. 
■* ei domino, A. ; eidem Domino, 
B. 



^ adeo'] oiu. B. 

•" Jacobi, A. ; Jacobo, B. 

' est] om, A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



349 



blamed of ])e apostles as J;ey he were ielous, and he broute Trevisv. 

forp his wif, and J if eny man wolde ligge ^ by here he wolde 

suffre it. In symple ^ and innocent doynge ]>ey} somfolwede^ 
dyvers leccherie, Jit Nichol* dede it^ in despisynge of |?e vice^ 
of ielousye^ and noujt by wil to teche men to desire flesche- 
liclie ® likynge, and nameliche ^ for his sones and his ^^ 
dou^tres lyvede cliaste^^ to her lyves ende, and also he hym self 
took noon opev wif after his firste wif. [^-3 ^^ Of ])is lames 
take hede pat he hadde foure surnames ; and so he is i-cleped ^^ 
lacobus Alphey,^* for he was Alpheus his sone ; oure Lorde his 
broj^er, ffor he was most liche ^^ to oure Lorde in holynesse and 
in face, so pat meny men were begiled ^^ in pe^-^ liknesse of hem 
tweyne.^^ And perfore ludas _^af pe lewes a signe^^ of a cosse ^^ 
leste pey were desceyved^^ in pe^^ takynge of Crist. Also he 
is i-cleped pe lasse lames, ffor pe oper was Zebedeus his sone, 



Ab urbe. a feire wife was blamede of thapostles as iolyous of his wife, MS. Harl. 
wherefore he brou^hte her un to the myddes of theyme, de- 2261. 
sirenge euery man to use her that wolde. And thaujhe . . .^ 
that mony peple declynede to synne per by, this seid Nicholas gracione. 
did so for contempte of vice of iolysye, and for noon other 
cause. For the sonnes and doubters of the seide Nicholas 
were permanente in chastite alle the tyme of theire life, and 
he maryede not eny woman after his firste wife. '^. Hit 
is to be attended that Seynte lames afore rehersede was 
callede by iiij. names ; firste he was callede lacobus Alphei, 
for cause he was sonne of Alpheus ; and the brother of God, 
for he was like to Criste in face and in holynesse, in so 
moche that he was taken of mony peple for Criste. Where- 
fore ludas tafe a token of kyssenge to the lewes, leste that 
thei scholde have been disseyvede in the takenge of oure 
Savioure Criste. Also he was callede lames the lesse, for 
the other lames, son of Zebedeus, was callede a fore of Criste, 



^ lye, $. and Cx. 
2 simpel, Cx. 

^folowide, )3. ; though somme fo- 
lowyd, Cx. 

'^ Nicholas, Cx. 
* yet, Cx. 
" vyse, Cx. 
T jelusy,^. 
^Jlesshely, Cx. 
^ namely, Cx. 
1" his] om. Cx. 
1^ chaast, y. 



12 From a.,fi., and Cx. 
^•^ named, Cx. 

" Alphei, 0. and y. ; Alphay, Cx. 
'^ moost lyke, Cx. 

^^ ^ysyi^d, Cx. 

17 }pe] om. y. 
1^ two, Cx. 

13 assigne, y. 

"0 cos, a., fi., and 7. ; cusse, Cx. 
2^ deceyved, Cx. 
" }>e] om. Cx. 



350 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



quamvis natu posterior, prius tamen a Christo 
vocatus nomen majoris sortitus est, quod^ adhuc 
in ecclesia Romana et in plerisque ^ religionibus 
observatum est, ut qui prius ingreditur ^ major 
vocetur. Item quarto dictus est Justus quasi autono- 
masice/ propter meritum excellentis sanctitatis. Hie 
nempe ex utero materno sanctus et virgo vinum et 
siceram ^ non ^ bibit, carnes [non] ^ gustavit ; ferrum 
caput ejus non ascendit ; oleo et balneis^ non est usus; 
ex nimia geniculatione callos^ in genibus^^ liabuit. 
Jacobus Qui goli licuit ingredi sancta sanctorum : primus om- 

primum *^ ' *- 

missam inter 

ceSravit. nium missam celebravit. In parasceue-^^ Christo passo 
votum^^ fecit se non comesturum donee Christus re- 
surgeret. Fimbriam vestimenti ejus ^^ populi tangere 
certaverunt. Hoc anno, inter dies Ascensionis et Pente- 
costis, Mathias loco Judas proditoris eligitur.^* De quo 



1 et, A.B. 

2 et plurihus, B. 

3 ingreditur] from A.B. ; ingre- 
diar, MS. 

■* authonomatice, A. 
° ncc ciseram, A.B. 
•• non] om. A.B. 
7 non] added from A.B. 



^ halneo, B. 
^ calles, A. 
'•^ ejus, A.B. 
^^ pascene, A.B. 
^- vovit se, A.B. 
^3 sui, A.B. 
''* electiis est, A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 351 

))eyj ^ he were ^onger J^an he, for he was raj)er i-cleped ^ of Trevisa. 
Crist, he 3 is i-cleped ]>e more lames, and ]>at manere is _^it 
i-used in the chirche of Rome and in meny religions, so J»at he 
pat come]? first is i-cleped J?e more. And he is i-cleped ri^tful 
for j)e wor]?ynesse of passynge holynesse. pis was alway holy 
and clone mayde ; from ]?e tyme ]?at he was first i-bore he drank 
nevere wyn, nofer si]?er,^ noj^er tastede flesche ^ ; eyren ^ come 
nevere on his heede, he used nevere oyle no|?er ^ baj?es ; ffor 
greet knelynge ^ his knees ^ were as ^^ ])e sooles ^^ of his feet. He 
allone hadde leve to entre in to ]>e holyest place of the temple ; 
first of alle he song a masse. In ]?e Good Friday whan Crist 
deyde, he made his avow ^^ ]?at he wolde nevere ete or ^^ Crist ^^ 
was 1^ arise, pe peple fondede wel faste to touche j>e hem ^^ of 
his elopes, pat yere, bytwene fe ascencioun,!'' ]?at is holy 
porsday, and Witsonday,!^ Mathias was i-chose ^^ and i-made 
apostel in stede of ludas pe traytour. Of hym ^o it is i-wrete ^^ 



Aburbe. thaujhe that he was yonger in age then lames the lesse, MS. Harl. 
wherefore he was callede lames the more. Whiche consuetude 2261. 
is obseruede in Rome, and in mony other places, that he is . ^ . 
callede the more that commethe afore, and he that commethe gracione. 
after the lesse. Also he was callede Tames ry^hteuous, by a 
figure callede Autonomasia, for the merite of excellente holy- f. 203. b. 
nesse. This Seynte lames was holy and devoute, for he drunke 
noo wyne ne sidere, nei]?er he did eite flesche, his hedde 
was not schavede, usenge not bathes or oyntementes, whiche 22 
stones in his knees of ofte knelynge. . To whom hit was 
lawefulle allon to entre in to Sancta Sanctorum ; whiche 
seide the firste masse. Also he made a promyse in the 
passion of Criste on Goode Friday, that he wolde not eyte 
un til )>at Criste hade rysen from dethe to lyfe. Also Mat- 
thias was subrogate in the stedde of ludas, traytoure to 



1 though, Cx. 

2 called, Cx. 

3 Ae] and, Cx. 

"* cyther, a. ; «rfer, fi. and Cx. 
sy)>ere, 7. 
^fleysch, 7. 

6 yren, a. and Cx. ; yre, 7. 
' nether, Cx. 
^ kneolyng, 7. 
5 knen, 7. 

^° hard as, added in 7. 
" soles, Cx. 



*2 avowe, Cx. 

^■^ er, /3. and Cx. ; ar, 7. 

^^ or Crist'] bis in MS. 

^^ were, Cx. 

^6 hemme, Cx. 

'7 assencion, Cx. 

^3 Whytesonedaye, Cx. 

^^ choose?}, Cx. 

20 hem, Cx. 

21 wreton,Cx. 
2=^ Sic. 



352 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Juda^ in historia quadam, licet apocrypha,^ sic^ legitur : 
De origine De oriqioie JudcB proditoris^ Fuit ^ vir quidam in 

Judae pro- i/ x j. 

clitoris. 

Jerusalem nomine Ruben, secundum Jeronimum de ^ 
tribu Isachar,^ et uxor ejus Ciborea ; qui dum nocte 
quadam mutuum sibi debitum exsolvissent, somniavit 
mulier [quod] ^ filium sceleratissmura et gentis sutE pro- 
ditorem peperisset. Nato itaque filio et Juda vocato,^ 
cum^^ abhorrerent parentes tarn filium ^^ occidere 
quam gentis suae proditorem ^^ enutrire, ipsum in fiscella 
posit um mari deponunt ; ^^ quem ad insulam Scarioth 
delatum, regina^^ loci liberis orbata reperiens, simu- 
lando se gravidam, filium peperisse mentita est. Post 
modicum tempus concepit et ipsa regina filium ex 
rege, quem tandem adultum Judas jugiter molestabat, 



1 Juda] ova.. B. 

2 Apocrifa, MS. 
2 sic] om. A.B. 

■» A.B.C.D. omit title. 

^ enim, added in B. 

^ de] om. B. 

'' Ayachar, B. 

** quod] from A.B. 

^ iiommato, B. 

1" et, B. 

^1 suum, added in B. 

1- destructorem, A. ; dcstrxictioiiein, 



B. 



^3 exponunt, A.B. 
^* B. has this portion much varied: 
Kegina loci illius ad litus maris 
spaciandi gratia veniens reperit, 
secreto nutrivit, se tandem simu- 
lavit pregnantem, peperisse men- 
titur, et Judas quasi filius regis 
educatur. Postmodum vero re- 
gina ilia de rege domino suo 
filium concepit." 




MONACHT CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



353 



in 



a storie, J>ey^ ^ ]>e 
in lerusalem that hi^te^ 



auctor l^erof be unknowe : A man was Trevisa. 

Ruben, [as lerom sayth,]^ of pe 

lynage of Isakar ; his wif hi^te ^ Ciborea. In a ny^t whan ]>ei 



womman 

9 



sone, 



J>at 
-bore 



hadde ^ i-payde dette of wedlok eyfer to ofer, tlie 
niette^ ])at sche'' hadde i-bore a swipe ^ wicked 
schulde be traytour of his owne peple. pe childe was i 
and [yi^]-cleped ludas, and J?e fader and pe moder were 
agrised ^^ for to slee fe childe, o^er for to norische ^^ hym up j^at 
schulde destroye^^ his owne peple. perfore J^ey putte hym in a 
litel ^^ cribbe ^^ i-schape as a litel ^^ bote,^^ and de ^^ hym in to J?e 
see, and so he come to an ilond jjat hatte Scarioth.^^ pere ]?e 
queue of ]?e lond^o hadde none^i children, and fonde ])e cribbe 
and ])e childe, and feyned hir self with childe, and ly^ ^2 g^^d 
feynede Jjat sche hadde childe. But noujt^^longe after Jje 
queue conceyved and Jede^* wij) childe by pe kyng. Whan pe^^ 
childe was i-bore and come to agie, ludas greved hym alwey,^^ 



"O^J 



Ab urbe. God, in that yere betwene the ascencion and Pentecoste, of MS. Harl. 
whiche ludas hit is redde in a story, thaujhe hit be seide 2261. 
and callede Apocriphate : There was a man in lerusalem, , ^ . 
Ruben by name, of the tribe of Ysachar after Seynte Terom, gracione. 
the name of the wife of whom was callede Ciborea. This 
Ruben takenge the pleasure of the flesche of Ciborea his 
wife in a nyjhte, sche dremede that sche had childed a 
wickede son, traytour to his peple. This sone borne and 
callede ludas, the fader and mother abhorrenge to sle theire 
owne son and to norysche theire childe whiche scholde be a 
traytour, putte hym in a wele in to the see. Whiche broujhte 
by the see un to the yle of Scarioth, the qweue perof, fenynge 
her as grete with childe, made a lesynge, seyenge ludas to 
be her son. After that the qwene of that yle of Scarioth con- 
ceyvede a childe by the kynge here howsebonde ; whiche en- 
creasede and groen in age, ludas hurte soore, causenge hym 



^ though, Cx. 

2 heete, Cx. 

3 From /8., 7., and Cx. 
^ hete, Cx. 

^ hadden, a. and 7. 
^ dremed, Cx. 
7 heoy )8. ; shee, 7. 
^fulle, 7. 

^ ybore an ylle sonne, Cx. 
^° From a. 

" agryse^ a. and 7. ; agrise, )8. 
agrysed, Cx. 
'- norsche, 7. 
^^ distruye, /8. 

VOL. IV. 



14 lytul, 7. 

1" cryb, a., 7., and Cx. 

16 litel'] om. )8. and Cx. 

17 boot, 7. 

1^ dede a. ; dude, 7. ; dide, Cx. 
1^ hete Scariot, Cx. 

20 ilond, Cx. 

21 no, a. and Cx. 

22 lay, /3. ; laye, Cx. 

23 nouyt] om. Cx. 

24 yude, 7. 
"^ \>at, a. 

^<^ ful ofte, Cx. 



354 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

et ad fletum cogebat. Quod videns regina, Judam 
verberibus crebro afflixit, sed nil profecit. Detecto tan- 
dem quod Judas ad regem non pertineret, Judas 
latenter regis filium interfecit, et poenam metuens cum 
quibusdam tributariis usque Jerosolimam profugit, seque 
curiae Pilati tunc prsesidis mancipavit. Et quoniam res 
similes faciles sibi conveniunt, maximum Pilati favo- 
rem Judas adeptus est. Quadam ergo die Pilatus 
de palatio suo prospiciens in pomerium Ruben, qui 
revera pater Judse fuerat, captus est desiderio pomo- 
rum, quamobrem Judam emisit ut poma carperet ; cui 
occurrens Euben, post jurgia et ictus, a Juda filio suo 
lapide percussus in capite occubuit ; sed Juda clam f ugiente 
post facinus, putatum est Ruben subito interisse. Tunc 
Pilatus dedit facultates Ruben et Ciboream Judae in 




MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. IV. 



355 



and made hym wepe ^ ful ofte. The 2 queene was war ^ j^erof, Tkevisa. 

and beet ludas ful ofte, but al for noujt, fFor it was not wor]) Jjc 

while. At |)e laste it come out J)at ludas was not pe kynges 
sone, and ];an he slow^ ^ priveliche |?e kynges sone, and dradde 
J?e payne and fiij ^ to lerusalem Avi)? men Jjat were tributarie, 
and putte hym ^ to Pilatus ^ courte, ^at was ]>o ^ iustice ; ^ and 
for ]>inges |?at beeth i-liche^^ acorde^ to gidres,^^ ludas hadde 
sone grace and ^^ grete favour of Pilate. In a day Pilatus loked 
out of his paleys in to Ruben his orcherde ^^ j^at so|;eliche ^* was 
ludas ^^ his fader, and Pilatus hadde likynge to ]>e apples, perfore 
he sente ludas to gadere [hym] ^^ of pe apples ; J>an Ruben com 
and mette hym, and after [the] ^'^ stryf and strookes he ^^ up 
wij> a stoon and smoot Ruben on pe hede, and slou^ his owne 
fader. But ludas flyj priveliche ^^ awey after ]?at evel dede, 
and Jjerfore me trowede pat Ruben was sodenliche ^^ deed, 
panne Pylatus Jaf to ludas al Ruben his castel,^^ and he Jaf 



Ab urbe. to wepe oftetymes. The qwene perceyvenge that, correcte MS. Harl 
soore ludas and ofte, but hit profite noujhte. Then at fe laste 2261. 

hit was schewede that ludas was not son to the kyuge ; . 

ludas did sle the lawefulle son getten by the kynge. Whiche gracioneJ 
dredenge dethe or other grete peyne j^erfore, fledde with tri- 
butaries un to lerusalem, and wente to ]?e cowrte of Pilate, 
presidente of the lewery, haaenge grete favor of Pilate, for f. 204. a. 
like tliynges take soone conuenience. This Pilate lokenge 
from his palice in to the gardyn of Ruben in a day, whiche 
was fader to ludas, hade grete appetite to diuerse frutes in 
hit. Wherefore he sende ludas that he scholde stele somme 
apples, whom Ruben metenge, and rebukenge hym for that 
offense, was sleyne by the hurte of a ston in his hedde thro 
ludas his son. But ludas fleenge secretely, peple supposede 
Ruben to haue diede sodenly. Then Pilate Jafe the goodes 



ofte'] om. )8. and Cx. 



^ weopCf y. 

^ The . . 

^ waar, y. 

■* slowe, Cx. 

^ drad the peyne andjledde, Cx. 

^ them, Cx. 

^ Pylates, o. 

^ \>an, iS. 

^ than justyser, Cx. 

^^ hu)> ylyche, y. 

" be lyke acorde togeders, Cx. 



1" grace and] om. a., fi., y., and 
Cx. 

13 orchard, )8. and Cx. 

14 sothely, Cx. 

15 ludas] om. y. 

16 From a., Id,, y., and Cx. 

17 From Cx. 

1^ Judas, a., Q., 7., and Cx. 
^"^ fled pry vely , Cx. 

20 sodeyrdy, /3., et infra. 

21 catel, /8., y., and Cx. 

z 2 



356 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

uxorem. Die igitur quadam dum Ciborea vitam suam 
miseram coram Juda deplangeret, eo quod filium suum 
marinis fluctibus exposuisset, quod maritum amittens 
invita nuptui tradita fuisset, depreliensum est quod 
Judas proprium patrem occidisset, et quod propriam 
matrem desponsasset. Igitur suadente Ciborea Judas 
Christum secutus est, et culpis dimissis/ procurator 
ejus et apostolus etfectus est. Hoc ^ quoque anno post 
electionem Mathiae, et etiam ^ post missionem Spiritus 
Sancti, apostoli antequam dispergerentur in mundum, 
convenientes* apud Jerosolimam ediderunt symbo- 
lum apostolicum. Et Stephanus septimo kalendis 
Januarii lapidatus est.^ Eodem anno Petrus apostolus, 
filius Johannis, provincise Galilese de vico Betbsaida, 



^ dimissus, B. 

2 Hoc . . . est] om. CD. A. 
transposes this and the next pas- 
sage. 

3 ctiani] om. B. 



■* convenientes'l om. B., which 
slightly transposes the order of 
words. 

^ Et . . , esf] om. B. See 
note 2. 



MONACHI CESTiiENSIS, LIB. IV. 



357 



Ciboreas ^ to be ludas his wife, pnn in a day Ciborea made Trevisa. 

greet moone ^ tofore ^ ludas of here wredched ^ hede ^ and 

soruful^ lif, how sche'^ hadde i-putte her ^onge sone in to J^e see 
stremes, how sche ^ loste her housbonde sodenliche,^ and how 
sche ^ was i-maried ajenst her Aville, and so it was i-knowe ^^ 
]>at ludas hadde i-slawe his owne fader and i-wedded his owne 
moder. perfore by counsaile of Ciborea, ludas folwede ^^ 
Crist, and ^^ his trespas were for^eve, and so ludas was Crist 
his procuratour^^ and his disciple. Also |)at J ere, after Jje 
ellectioun of Mathias, and after pe sendynge of }>e Holy Gost, 
or ^* ]>Q postles^^ wolde goo aboute ]>Qj} come ^^ in to dyvers 
londes, ^ey come to gyders at lerusalem,^^ and made ])e crede ; 
and Stevene was stoned to dethe sixe dayes to fore ^^ lanyver. 
pat J ere Peter J)e apostel, lohn his ^^ sone, of pe province of 
Galilee, of J>e street Bethsayda, Andrewe ^^ his broker, bygan to 



Aburbe. Qf Ruben and Ciborea his wife to ludas. This Ciborea, wife MS. Hael. 
and moder to ludas, sorowenge her wrecchede lyfe a fore ^^^^* 
ludas, how that sche hade putte her son to the floodes of the ^ transmi- 
see in grete perelle, and that sche was putte to mariage gracione. 
ageyne her wille after the dethe of her howsebonde, hit was 
perceyvede that ludas hade sleyne his awne fader and mariede 
his moder. Ciborea, moder to ludas, movede hym that he 
scholde folowe Criste, and so his synnes for^iffen, he was 
made the proctor and apostle of Criste. The apostles mette 
in that yere at Jerusalem after the eleccion of Seynte Mathy, 
after the sendenge also of the Holy Gostc, or thei were dis- 
persede in to the worlde, where they made the crede seide of 
commune peple, callede the crede apostolicalle. And Seynte 
Steven was stonede to dethe the same yere in the thridde day 
of Auguste. In the same yere Petyr the prince of apostles, 
son to John, of the province of Galilee, of the place callede 
Beethsaida, and broj?er of Andrewe, began to be presidente in 



^ Cyhorcciy /8. and Cx. 
■^ mone, /8. 
2 mone hifore, Cx. 
"* wreccliid, /3. ; wrechchede, y. 
wrecked, Cx. 

^ hede'] om. a., /3., and Cx. 

^ sorouful, y. 

7 heo, )8. (bis). 

^ sodenly, Cx. 

^ shee, y. 

'" knowen, Cx. 



^^folowed, Cx. 

12 ],at, 13. 

13 proroure, Cx. 
'^^ er, /3. and Cx. 

15 apostles, j8., 7., and Cx. 
i*^ ])eyy come'] om. /8. and 
rightly. 

^T to J. togeders, /8. and Cx. 
1^ bifore, fi. ; afore, Cx. 
^^ Joones, fi. ; Jones, Cx. 
'^ Andreu, $. and 7. 



Cx. 



358 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Tiberii. 
XIX. 



frater Andreae/ incepit praesidere in partibus orientis, 
ubi quatuor annis pontificavit, missasque celebravit 
dicendo, Pater noster} Deinde venit Antiochiam, ubi 
sedit septem annis ; inde Romam sedit xxxv.^ annis ^ 
septem mensihus, De conversione Pauli apostolic ^Siv. 
Paulus con versus est ; qui statim post baptismum, ab 
Anania susceptum, fuit cum discipulis apud Damascum. 
Inde ivit Arabiam, ac inde ^ revertens Damascum fecit 
tres annos, quos Scrip tura vocat dies multos. Inde 
demissus in sporta per murum,* venit elerusalem videre 
Petrum, cum quo mansit dies xv., conferens cum eo 
evangelium. Post hoc venit in partes Syrise et Sicilise ^ 
et Asise ^ per quatuordecim annos, quibus expletis rediit 
in ^ Jerusalem ad apostolos. Deinde appeUatione facta ad 



^frater AndrecB] om. B. 

2 Jeronimus de viris illiistribus, 
added in A.B. 

3 17, A.B. 
* et, B. 

' A. omits heading. Eodem 
quoque anno, tertio die Augusti, hea- 



tus Stephanus diaconus passus est 
lapidibus, added here in A.B. 

^ deinde, B. 

7 Silicice, A. ; Cilicice, B. 

^ ubi prcBdicavit et docuit, added 
inB. 

^ in'] om. A, 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



359 



holde ])e bisshoppes see in ]>e est ^ londes, and was bisshop pera Trevisa. 

foure J ere, and song masses and seide [j^e] ^ Pater noster. 

Icromus^ de Viris \illustribus~\.^ pan^ Peter com to Antiocliia, 
and was bisshop ])ere seven ^ere ; j^anne he come to Rome, and 
was J^ere fyve ^ and twenty ^ere and seven monj^es.'' Paule 
was converted, and was wij? [j?e]^ disciples at Damascus anon 
after ^ pat he hadde i-fonge bapteme ^^ of Ananias, and |)ennes 
he wente into Arabia, andtornede J^ennes a^e ^^ in to Damascus,^^ 
and made J?re yeres, ])at holy writte clepe]? ^^ meny dayes, fere 
he was i-lete a doun in a cupe ^^ over j^e wal ^^ and com in to 
Jerusalem for to see Peter, and lefte ^^ wij? hym fiftene dayes, 
and talkede ^^ wi]> hym of J>e gospel. Afterward he come in to 
fe contrayes of Siria and Silicia,!^ and of Asia, and was ]?ere 
fourtene yere, and whanne pe fourtene Jere were i-doo ^^ he 
com to fe apostles into Jerusalem forto see Peter, and lefte 
wi)? hym fiftene dayes, and talkede wij? hym fiftene dayes ^^ 
pe gospel ; ^^ fanne whan he hadde appeled, he come to fe 



Aburbe. the partes of the este, where he was bischop iiij. yere, syng- MS. Habl. 
enge masse, seyenge Pater noster. Jeronimus de viris illus- 2261. 
trihus. After that he wente to Anthiochia, where he was vij. . 

yere. After that he wente to Rome^ where he was presidente gracione.' 
xxv*i yere and vij. monethes. Seynte Paule was convertede this 
yere the viij*^^ kalendes of February, whiche was at the cite 
of Damascus, with the disciples, anoon after that he was bap- f. 204 b. 
tisede of Ananias, returnenge from that cuntre to Araby, and 
after that to the cite of Damascus, makenge iij. yere, whom 
scripture callethe mony dayes. From whiche cite he wente 
to Jerusalem to see Petyr, with whom he dwellede xv. dales, 
laborenge the gospelle of Criste with hym. After that he wente 
in to the partes of Siria, Silicia, and of Asia by xiiij. yere, 
returnenge after that to Jerusalem to ]?e apostles. After that 
an appellacion made to themperour, he come to Jlome, where 



1 eeste, Cx. 

2 From a., )8., and Cx. 
^ Jeronimus, Cx. 

'* From )8. and Cx. 
5 Whan, Cx. 

I vyf, 7. 

' monethes, Cx. 

^ From a. and Cx. 

^ Damaske unto after, Cx. 

^^ fong fuUouyt, /3.; was mad a 
Cristyn man, y. ; receyved Crysten- 
dom, Cx. 



Cx. 



^^ agayne, Cx. 
^2 Damaske, Cx. 

13 caltyd, Cx. 

14 k7/pe, 7. 

15 doune over the wall in a cupe, 



1^ was, Cx. 

1' Suria 8f of Cicilia, Cx. 

1^ was doon, Cx. 

1^ fiftene dayes^ om. a. 

-^ forto . . . gos'pel] om. Cx. 



360 



POLYCHRONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 



Csesarem Romam venit, ubi extra urbem conduxit hor- 
reum j)ublicum, in quo de verbo vitge tractavit. Inter 
quos Seneca preceptor Neronis, non solum ore ad os, 
sed^ etiam epistolis Paulum visitavit. Persius poeta 
nascitur. Tiberius Csesar anno setatis suae ^ Ixxviii., ;^^jy 

Tiberii.' 

circiter kalendas Octobris veneno extinctus obiit. 
PetruSy quinquagesimo nono.^ Qui sentiens se mori- 
turum, convocatis duobus nepotibus suis* coram aliis 
nobilibus, Gaio ^ scilicet filio Germanici fratris sui, et 
Tiberio filio ^ Drusi filii sui, quern plus dilexerat, statuit 
ut in crastino^ substitueret successorem,^ et diis prius 
interpellatis disposuit apud se ilium prseferri e nepoti- 
bus qui prior ad ilium in crastino ^ veniret ; signifi- 
cavitque latenter Tiberio ut omni modo prior veniret ; 
sed dum ille mane venire nollet nisi prius pransus, 
Gains ^^ prsevenit, et sic imperium obtinuit. 



^ et, B. ; sed in epistolis, A. 

'■^ suce'] om. A. 

^ liistor. Lib. Act. Apost. c. Ixii. 

** suis"] om. B. 

^ Gaio, from A. ; Cai/o, MS. 



^ filio'] om. A. 

7 sibi, added in A.B. 

^ heredem, B. 

^ crastinum, B. 

^" Gains, from A.B. ; Cayus, MS. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



361 



emperour into Rome, pere wi]? oute ]>e citee he hired ^ a 
comoun berne,^ and taujte Jjerynne ]>e wordes of lyf. Among 
pe whiche ^ Seneca, ]?at was Nero his mayster, visited Poule, 
nou^t onliche* mou}) wi]? mou]?, but also wij? lettres and pistles. 
Parsius ^ J>e poete is i-bore.^ Tyberius Cesar deyde/ i- 
poysoned ^vi]> venym, ]?e J ere of his age J^re score and eyjtene, 
as it were pe firste day of Octobre. Petrus, capitulo 5°.^ 
Tyberius knewe ]?at he schulde deie, and cleped to hym 
his nevewes to fore^ oj^ere noble mene, Gayus his owne 
bro])er [sone],^^ and Tiberius ]mt he loved moste,^i J^e 
sone of his owne sone Drusus, and ordeyned ])at he wolde 
a morwe ordeyne hym a successour, and prayde^^ first to 
his 13 goddes. And he ordeyned by hym self ^* to putte to 
fore^ his owne nevewes hym^^ ]?at come first to hym 
amorwe, and warnede Tyberius priveliche^^ pat he schulde 
come first in al man ere wise. But he was recheles a morwe, 
and wolde noujt come or he hadde i-ete,i'' and so ^^ Gayus 



Trevisa. 



Ab urbe. \^q hirede a berne withowte the cite, in whom he spake and ^S. Haul. 
tauthte the wordes of swete doctryne. Amonge whom Se- 226K 
neca, the maister of Nero, visitte not Seynte Paule oonly by ^ transmi- 
bodyly presence, but also with excellent epistoles. Parsius the gracione. 
poete was borne this tyme, and Tiberius themperour diede this 
tyme thro poyson, in the Ixxviij*^ yere of his age, in the 
kalendes of October. Petrus, capitulo quiiiquagesimo. Whiche 
knowenge hym selfe to dye, callede to hym Gains, the son of 
Germannicus his broj^er, and Tiberius the son of Drusus, the 
noble men of thempire beenge presente, ordeynede to be his 
successor whe]?er of theym ij. come to hym ra|?er in the 
mornynge. Wherefore he made a signe to Tiberius that he 
scholde comme afore in eny wise, but he seide pleynly that he 
wolde not comme afore that he hade dynede. Wherefore Gains 



' huyredy )3. ; huyrede, y. 

2 hured a comyn b&'u, Cx. 

•^ whoche, y. 

■* not only, Cx. 

^ Persius, Cx. 

^ was born, Cx. 

7 deye]>, 7. 

^ sexto, Cx. • 

^ afore, Cx. 



10 From a., )8., and Cx. 

^^ mooste, Cx. 

^2 hy prayede, 7. ; prayd, Cx. 

^3 here, a. aud 7. ; her, fi. and Cx. 

H sulf, 7. 

15 he, Cx. 

^^ pryvely, Cx. 

1' til he had ete, Cx. 

i'^ 60] om. Cx. 



I 



362 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Kymbelinus^ rex Britonum obiit, relictis duobus 
filiis, Guyderio ^ et Arvirago, sed Guyderius ^ regnum 
suscipiens, dum tributum denegat, Romanos contra se 
provocat.* 



Cap. VII. 
[De Gaio imperatore Romano et de Pontio Pilato.] 

Gaitjs ^ nepos Tiberii ex fratre Germanico, dictns est Gaius. 
Caligula, eo quod in excercitu natus nomen calceamenti 

militaris, quod est caliga,^ sortitus est. Hie Tiberio 
successit, quasi quatuor annis et novem ^ mensibus 
regnaturus. Hie omnium sceleratissimus, Tiberii dede- 
cora purgavit ; deum coeli et terrse se vocari prsecepit. 
XJnde et statuam suam in templo Jerosolimis collocari 



^ Kimbelinus, A 
^ Guiderico, B. 
3 Guidericus, B. 

^ The whole slightly varied as 
usual in CD. The last sentence 



is transposed to the preceding 
chapter. 

5 Gam.s, from A.B. ; Carjus^MS. 

<"' Caligula, MSS. 

' quatuor ^ B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. IV. 363 

come first, and hadde the empere.^ Kynbelynus ^ kyng of Trevisa. 
Britouns deyde, and lefte after hym tweye soncs, Guyderius 
and Arveragus ; ^ but Guyderius ffeng ^ J>e kyngdom, and 
wernede ^ tribute, and so he made pe Romayns arise ajenst ^ 
hym. 



Capitulum septimum. 

Gatus, Tiberius his nevew of his [ Gains.'] '^ broj^er ger- 
mayn, was i-cleped Caligula,^ for he was i-bore in pe oost.^ 
He hadde fe name of a kny^t his leg barneys/^ fat hatte 
caligula.i^ pis was emperour after Tyberius, and regnede 
as it were foure ^ere and nyne monjjes,^^ and was [a] ^ swij^e 
wicked^^ man,i^ and clensede alle }?e schame of Tyberius. He ^^ 
made men clepe ^^ hym god of hevene and of erj»e ; ferfore he 
made his ymage i-sette in pe temple of Jerusalem ; he lay by 



Aburbe. commenge in the morowe was made emperour and successor MS. Harl. 
to hym. Kymbelinus kynge of Britones diede this tyme, 2261. 
levenge after hym too sonnes, Guiderius and Arviragus. But ^ transmi- 
Guiderius succedenge in that realme did prouocate gretely the gracione. 
hate of the Romanes ageyne him, in that he denyede to pay 
a tribute to theyme. 



Capitulum septimum. 

Gatus the son of Germannicus, callede Caligula, reioycede Gayus. 
that name in that he was borne in the myddes of an hoste, 
reignenge iiij. yere and ix. monethes. This Gaius was replete 
with wickydnesse, commaundede hym to be caUede the lorde of 
heuyn and of erthe. Wherefore he causede an ymage, made f. 205. a. 
to his similitude, to be sette in ])e temple of lerusalem ; 



* empyre, Cx. 

2 Kymbelinus, /3. and Cx. 

3 Arviragus, Cx. 

* had, Cx. 

5 warned, Cx. 
fi ayenes, y. 

7 From a. 

8 Gaiygula, Cx. 

9 hooste, Cx. 



^^ legge harneysed, Cx. 
1^ hat caligla, $. ; heete Galygula, 
Cx. 

1- monethes, Cx. 

1^ wykked, y. 

1^ an ydle disposed man, Cx. 

15 He] and, Cx. 

1^ calle, Cx, 



364 



POLYCHKONICON EANULPHl HIGDEN 



fecifc.i " Stuprum ^ quoque duabus sororibus suis intulit. 
" Ex una etiam ^ natam filiain corrupit. Sorores 
" tandem sic cognitas exilio condemnavit.* Hie primo 
*' imperii sui anno Herodem Agrippam nuper per 
" Tiberium incarceratum liber avit, et regem Judese 
'' fecit." Secundo regni sui ^ anno Herodem Antipam 
incestuosum, una cum Herodiade adultera, accusante 
Agrippa,^ perpetuo condemnavit exilio. Puellam 
vero qu8G saltaverat terra absorbuit.*^ Sed et ^ tertio 
imperii anno Gaius ^ Pilatum Judsese prsesidem, 
in multis accusatum, apud Vienniam ^^ Gallise exilio 
relegavit, in opprobrium generis sui, quia inde 
oriundus erat.^^ De accusatione Pilati}^ Accusa- 
verant^^ eum Judsei quod ^^ innocentes occidisset, quod 
Judseis reclamantibus statuas gentilium in templo 
posuisset, quod ex pecunia sacrae corbanae oblata aquae- 
ductum usque in domum suam fecisset; quod etiam ^^ 
stolam sacerdotalem in domum suam transtulisset, nee 



1 From A.B.C.D. 

2 Stupra, A.B. 

3 Ex quarum una, A.B. 

4 a se sic corruptas rclegavit, 
A.B. 

5 sui'\ om. A. 

6 COS, added in B. 

7 In Lege nda Sanctorvm, added 
in CD. 



^ et^ om. B. 

^ Gaius, from A.B. ; Cayus, MS. 

"^ Viemtani (sic), B. 

'^ erant, B. 

12 A.B. omit title. 

13 enim, added in B. 

14 et, B. 




MONACHI CESTRENSrS, LIB. IV. 



365 



Ins owne sustrcs, and gat a doubter on ]?at oon, and lay by ]>a.t Trevisa. 
oper^ afterward, and at J^e laste he exciled ^ his sustres ])at — ~ 
he hadde i-lay by. pis is ^ J)e firste Jere of his empere de- 
lyverede Herodes Agrippa [out of prisoun, and made hym 
kyng of pe lewerye. Tiberius hadde i-prisoned Herodes 
Agrippa]."* pe secounde ^ere of his kyngdom he exciled 
Herodes Antipa, and Herodias ]?at hadde i-lyved in spouse- 
breche ^ wi]> Herodes Antipa, and Herodes Agrippa accusede 
hem ; ))e eovpe swelowede ^ ]>e wenche ]?at tomblede.^ But 
Gayus ]?e ])ridde ^ere of his empere^ exiled Pylatus iustice 
of pe lewerie,^ and sente hym in to Vien, fat is in j^e reume ^^ 
of France, in despite of his kyng, for he was i-bore f>ere.^i 
pe lewes accusede Pilatus |»at he slou^ ^^ men gilteles,^^ ]>at 
he hadde i-sette ymages of men of straunge naciouns in l^e 
temple ajenst ]?e wille of lewes ; also pat he hadde i-take 
money ^^ of [the] ^^ holy tresorie, and i-made a water condite ^^ 
in to his owne hous ; also ]?at he hadde i-take pe stole ^'^ of 
preostehood ^^ in to his owne hous, and wolde not delyvere hit 



Aburbe. abusenge his sustres, puttenge theym in to exile after that MS. Haul. 
abusion. This Gains made Herodes Agrippa kynge of lewery, 2261. 
putte in prison afore by Tiberius, in the firste yere of his ^ trammi- 
reigne. Also he condempnede, in the secunde yere off his gracione. 
reigne, Herodes Antipa for inceste with Herodias his wife, 
to perpetualle exile, by the accusation of Herodes Agrippa ; 
and the earth openenge deuourede the dojhter of the seide 
Herodias. Then Gains putte Pilate to exile in to Vienna of 
Fraunce, accusede afore hym in mony thynges, in opprobry of 
hys kynrede, for he was borne in those partes. For the lewes 
accusede hym that he did sle innocentes, and that he putte 
ymages of the Gentiles in the temple ageyne theire wille, and 
that he made condites of water to come in to his place of the 
siluyr of theire holy cofre. And also that he toke the prestes 
stole home to his place, and wolde not suffre theyme to haue 



^ dou-^ter, a,, $., y., and Cx. 

2 exyled, Cx., et infra. 

^ is'] om. )8., 7., and Cx. 

^ From a,, )8., 7., and Cx. 

5 bruch, )8. ; bruche, 7. 

^ swolewede, 7. ; swolowyd, Cx, 

7 tombedey a. and 7. ; tombled, Cx. 

^ empyre, Cx. 

^ Jewry^ Cx. 

^" rente, 7. ; royalme, Cx. 



" In the margin is written, " Pi- 

lat ys a Frenchman." 

^2 slowe, Cx. 

^2 guides, 7. 

'^ mony, Cx. 

15 From )8. and Cx. 

1^ conduyt, 7. 

17 stoole, )8. 

^^ prysthode, Cx. 



366 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

earn summo sacerdoti nisi pretio dato diebus festiv 
trad ere vohiisset. Missus ergo in career em die quadam 
cultro ^ ad purgandum pomum accommodato propria 
manu se interemit. Qui cum ^ moli ingenti alligatus 
in Tiberim projiceretur, spiritus maligni maligno ap- 
plaudantes inundationes, pestes, tonitrua circa locum 
commovebant. Idcirco Romani ,ipsum extrahentes 
Rliodano^ fluvio merserunt* apud Vienniam/ quse^ 
tunc locus maledictionis censebatur, et Vigena/ quasi 
via Jehennse, dicebatur. Sed et ibi pestilentia ut prius 
excitata, cives loci ipsum ^ Losanise sepelierunt ; sed et 
ibi indigense turbati cadaver prsefatum in quodara 
puteo montibus circumsepto immiserunt, ubi usque 
hodie sonitus terribiles audiuntur. In historia scholas- 



cultello. B. 



^ CMWj] om. B, 

^ Modano, A. 

** immerserunt, A.B. 



^ Viennam, B. 
•5 qui, B. 
"* Viena, B. 
^ ppm (sic), B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



867 



but for hire^ to j^e prince of preostes^ in J?e holy dayes. 
panne he was putte in prisoun, and borwede '^ a knyf for to 
pare an appel, and slou^ hym self J^erwiJ? [and] "^ wi]? his 
owne hond. And he ^ was i-bounde to a greet stoon, and 
i-})rowe ^ into Tyber. panne wicked ^ spirites made ioye wi]) 
hym fat wikked^ was also, and made pestilence and greet 
risynge of water and greet })ondrynge aboute fat place, per- 
fore ])e Romayns drou^ ^ hym up ^*^ of Tyber, and frewe hym 
in to Rone Avien ; ^^ fat place was f o i-graunted the place ^^ 
of corsynge, and also it hatte ^^ Vigenia, as hit were via, fat 
is a weye, and of lehenne, fat is f e valey of children of deep- 
nesse.i^ But fere fil ^^ [a] ^^ pestilence also, and f e men of f e 
place buriede hym at Losane ; and fere also men of f e con- 
tray were afrayed,!^ and dede ^^ fat body in to ^^ a putte fat is 
byclipped al aboute wif hilles.^^ pere is Jit i-herde griseliche ^^ 
here and noyse. In Historia Scolastica22 hit is i-rad^s fat 



Trevisa. 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. hit in holy dales withowte that they scholde Jiffe a certeyne jyfg harl 
summe of money to hym. Whiche putte in to prison, hauenge 2261. 
a knyfe to pare an apple, did sle hym selfe f er with, whiche 
was caste in to Tiber with a grete weijhte tyede and made 
faste to hym. But wickede spirittes ioyenge of that pray, 
movede the water moche, causenge grete thundre and li^h- 
tenge. Wherefore the Romanes takenge hym owte of Tiber, 
caste hym in to the water callede Rodanus, at Vienna, callede 
then the place of cursenge, and Vigenna, as a way to helle. 
But that place trowblede soore, the citesynnes beryede hym at 
Lisania. Then men dwellenge in that place, trowblede with that 
carion, caste that body in to a pytte compassede with hilles in 
a circuite, where terrible voices and sowndes be herde. Also 
hit is redde in the story scolasticalle, that Pilate, accusede of 



^ huyref P., 7., and Cx. 

2 preestes, Cx. 

•^ borewydy Cx. 

^ From a., 7., and Cx. 

^ he] om. Cx. 

^ tkrowen, Cx. 

' wi/kkede, 7. ; t/lle, Cx, 

^ wykked, 7. ; ylle, Cx. 

^ drowe, Cx. 

^0 up] out, Cx. 

" at Vie?i, a., j8., 7., and Cx. 

*- plase, Cx. 



1' hete, Cx. 

^^ chylderti of deepness, 7. 
nessCy Cx. 

15 /m/, 7. 

16 From Cx. 

17 effrayed, Cx. 

18 dude, 7. 

13 to] om. 7. and Cx. 

20 hulles, 7. 

21 harde grysely, Cx. 
"2 ecclesiastica, Cx. 
23 it is redde, Cx. 



dep' 



368 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



tica legitur quod Pilatus a Judseis ^ apud Tiberium 
accusatus, apud Lugdunum GalliiB deportatus sit. Ran} 
Et potest utraque historia sine repugnantia salvari 
intelligendo quod post accusationem Jud^eorum sit 
apud Lugdunum deportatus, et quod post reversionem 
Volusiani de Jerosolimis cum Veronica^ ipsum de 
exilio revocaverit, ut graviorem reciperet condemna- 
tionem. Quod autem Pilatus * manu propria se ^ inter- 
fecit Eusebius et Beda contestantur.^ 

Cap. VIII. 
\^De rebus a Claudio imperatore Romano gestis.] 

Claudius patruus Gaii^ et Drusi, interfecto jam^ 
Gaio,^ ope et industria Herodis Agrippse assumptus 
est ad imperium, mense Augusto, et regnavit quasi ^^ 
quindecim annis. Hie memorise rarse fuit, nisi quod 
Britanniam ^^ subjugavit ; nam cibi et potus ac 



^ a Judceis"] om. B. 

2 Ran.^ om. E. 

3 postquam Ccesar audisset sce- 
vitia Pilati in Christum, added in 
CD. 

'* seipsum, added in B. 
^ se'] om. B. 



^ The chapter is slightly varied, 
as usual, in CD. 
7 Gaii] from A.B. ; Caiiy MS. 
^jam] om. A. 

9 Gaio] from A.B.; Cai/o, MS. 
^^ quasi'} om. B. 
" Britannias, A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



3G9 



"pe lewcs 1 accusede Pilatus to Tiberius, and |^at Pilatus was Trevisa. 
i-borc to Lugduns in Fraunce [I^],^ and [that] ^ ei|)er storie 
may be saved wij) cute \vij> seienge,"* forto understonde fat he 
was i-bore to ^ Lugduns after the accusatioun of the lewes ; 
and after ])ixt Vokisianus was i-come a^en from lerusalem he 
cleped ^ hym oute of pe excilynge forto fonge ^ harder damp- 
naeioun. Eusebius and Beda witnessith ^ pat Pilatus slowj ^ 
hym self wip his owne hond, Claudius}^ 



Capitulum octavum. 

Claudius, pe eme ^^ of Gayus and of Drusus,i2 -whanne 
Gayus was i-slawe, was made emperour by sleij)e ^^ and help of 
Herodes Agrippa, and bygan to regne in Lammesse monpe,^^ 
and regnede as it were fiftene ^^I'e. pis his dedes beep ^^ 
selde 1^ in mynde, but pat he made the Britouns sogette ; ^^ 



Ab urbe. the lewes afore Tiberius, was sende to Lugdune. in Fraunce. ^^S. Harl. 
51. And either story may be salvede with owte repugnaunce, 2261. 
understondenge that Pilate was sende to Lugdune by the ^ transmi- 
accusation of the lewes, and that he was callede from exile gracione. 
after the commenge of the messynger Volusian from lerusalem, 
that he myjhte haue a more grevous condempnacion. And 
that Pilate did sle hvra selfe, Bede and Eusebius here f- 205. b. 
wyttenesse. 



Capitulum octavum, 

Claudius, the uncle of Gains and of Drusus, began to 
regne after the dethe of Gains, thro helpe of Herodes 
Agrippa, in the monethe of Auguste, whiche reignede xv. 
yere. This Claudius did noo thynge of commendacion in 
his tyme, but that he made the yle of Briteyne subiecte to 



* luwes, Cx. 

' From o., 7,, aud Cx. 
3 From Cx. 

* wi\>STjggyng , y. ; sayenge, Cx. 

* to] into, Cx. 
' callyd, Cx. 

7 have, Cx. 
^ witnessev, )3. 

* slewe, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



^^ Claudius'] om. Cx. 

^' eame, Cx. 

^^ Drusis, y. 

^3 sleyhte, Cx. 

^* vionet/i, Cx. 

^^ The dedes of this be selde, Cx. 

^* sylde, a. 

^^ sugct, /3. ; suhyet, Cx. 

A A 



370 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

libidinis semper intemperanS; meditatus est legem 
statuere qua veniam daret flatum retro emittentibus, 
60 quod quendam in liac parte nimis se continentem 
vidisset periclitatum. Joseplius, lihro vicesimo. Hie 
Claudius tres habuit uxores ; ex quarum prima Petiva 
genuit filiam Antoniam ; qua mortua duxit Mes- 
salinam, ex qua genuit filium Britannicum et Octaviam 
filiam ; tertio duxit Agrippinam filiam Germanici, 
habentem jam filium Neronem ; cui Neroni Claudius 
copulavit filiam suam Octaviam. Pro zelo autem 
quern Claudius ad Agrippinam liabuit occidit uxorem 
suam Messalinam ; qua occisa in triclinio recumbens 
ssepe ^ quasi aniens ^ requirere solebat cur domina 
sua Messalina non veniret. Metuens igitur Agrippina 
ne Britannicus filius Messalinee succederet patri 



' scEpe"] om. B. 



I 2 ame7is'] om. A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



371 



for lie ^af ^ hym alwey to mete and drynke,^ and to ^ leccherie Trevisa. 

oute of mesure, and caste hym to make a lawe to excuse alle 

pat bybynde leet goo any blaast,^ fFor somtyme he sparede it 
to moche,^ and fil of^ greet peril. loseus, libro 2^? pis 
Claudius hadde ])re wifes ; ^ the firste heet Petyva, and he gat 
on hir a doujter ])at heet Antonia.^ Petyva deide, and he 
wedded Messalina, and gat on hire a sone ])at heet Brytanny- 
cus, and a doujter ]?at heet Octavia. His pridde wif hi^te ^^ 
Agrippina, Germanicus his doubter, and sche hadde a sone 
))at heet Nero. Claudius wedded his doubter Octavia to ]?is 
Nero, and for love J)at Claudius hadde do ^^ ])is Agrippina he 
slout 1^ his wif Messalina, and whanne sche was i-slawe ^^ 
Claudius in triclinio, sittynge at |}e ^* mete, usede forto speke 
as ]?ey he were out of his ^^ mynde, and axe ^^ why his lady 
Messalina wolde not come. Agrippina dradde '^'^ lest Britanni- 
cus the sone of Messalina schulde regne after his fader, and 



hym ; intemperate of meyte and drynke and of the fleschely MS. Hakl. 
luste. Whiche was in purpose to have made a lawe of re- 2261. 
mission and pardon to men sendenge furthe wynde from the . , . 
partes posterialle, in that he hade passion oftetymes and peyne gracione. 
in abstenynge hym ]>erof. losephus, libro vicesimo. This 
Claudius hade iij. wives, whiche gate of Petiva, the firste of 

After the dethe of whom 
he gate a sonne callede 
Britannicus. and a doubter callede Octauia. After that he 
mariede Agrippina, hauenge a son callede Nero, to whom 
Claudius mariede his doubter Octauia ; and for the lufte that 
Claudius hade to Agrippina, he did sle his other wife Messalina. 
After the dethe of whom, Claudius syttenge at table, as in 
furiosite, wolde say oftetymes, and inquire of peple stondenge 
abowte hym, why Messalina his lady come not to the table. 
This Agrippina, dredenge leste that Britannicus, the son of 
Messalina, scholde succede hym ia the empire, poysonede 



theyme, a doZhter callede Anton i a. 
he mariede Messalina, of whom 



^ made, y. 

2 drynghe, y. 

^ to] om. Cx. 

^ blaste, Cx. 

^ myche, /3. ; meche, 7. 

* m, a., fi., and Cx. ; ful in, y. 

7 20, a., &., and Cx. 

^ wyves, a. 

^ Antompde, Cx. 



^" hitte, a. ; hete, Cx. 

" to, 13. and Cx. 

^2 slewe, Cx. 

13 slayn, Cx. 

1^ >e] om. Cx. 

1' his'\ om. fi. and Cx. 

1^ axede, Cx. 

17 drad, Cx. 

A A 2 



372 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Claudium intoxicavit, ut filium suum Neronem prje- 
iiceret. Qui tandem ad regnum promotus condignum 
antidotum matri sure rependit ; nam Britannicum 
intoxicavit, matrem propriam i cum uxore sua Octavia 
interemit. Ranulphiis. De prsefata Messalina^ refert 
Juvenalis satiricus, quod tant?e fuit libidinisut prime 
se prostibulo privato traderet, deinde palam se exponeret, 
non satiata sed lassata recedens, quod ^ etiam nobiles 
matronas ad consimile flagitium solicitabat. Beda, libro 
primo, capitulo quarto. Eo anno fames gravissima xlv?' 

Claudii. 

per Syriam facta est, quam pr^edixerat Agabus pro- 
pbeta in Actibus Apostolorum. Petrus, odogesimo 
primo^ Dum fames haec ^ ubique et maxime in Judaea 
invalesceret, Helena regina Adiabenarum ^ veniens 
Jerosolimam, emit granum undecumque ut fideles 
indigentes sustentaret ; quae tandem juxta Jerosolimam 



' suam, B. 

^ Masselhia, B. 

' quo, A. 



* Act. Apost. cap. ci. 

5 hie, B. 

^ Abeginarum, CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



73 



perfore sclie poysoned ^ Claudius, for liir sone Nero scliulde Tkevisa. 

be emperour. And Nero quytte ^ his moder }?at triacle whan 

he was emperour, for he poysonede Britannicus, and slow^ ^ 



B. Of ]>e for- 
and seith j^at 
hir priveliche ^ 
putte hir forth 



his owne ■* moder and his owne wif Octavia. 
saide Messalina speki]? luvenalis Satiricus, 
sche was so leccherous })at first sche dede 
to ]?e prive ^ hore place,^ and afterward he ^ 
openliche, and wente J^ennes not fulfilled^ of pe mancre doynge, 
but wery of travaille ; and sche also excited ^^ noble wifes to 
J^e same manere of doynge. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 4P, 
pat Jere was so ^^ greet honger in Siria, j^at Agabus ]?e pro- 
phete hadde i-prophecied in Actibus Apostolorum. Pe- 
trus, 81. While pis honger i^^vas strong in every ^-^ place of 
Siria, and in the lewerie moste,^* Helene ^^ ])e quene of Adia- 
benes com to lerusalem, and boujt corn [al aboute] ^^ forto 
susteyne nedy ^^' Cristen men at lerusalem, and at \>e laste sche 



Ab urbe. Claudius her howsebonde, that Nero her son my^hte be MS. Harl. 
emperoure. Whiche Nero, made emperour. ^afe a condigne 2261. 
rewarde to his moder ; for he did sle Britannicus, the son of ^transm'- 
Messalina and of Claudius, with Octavia wife to hym, and his gracione. 
moder also. ^. luvenalis satiricus reherselhe that the seide 
Messalina v/as of grete luste ; that sche wolde expresse here 
body to peple privately to haue the pleasure of the flesche, 
and after that openly, and as a commune woman, returnenge 
after that to the fowle luste of the flesche, not as fullefyllede 
but as made wery ; whiche movede other noble women to lyke f. 206. a. 
synne. Beda, libro primo, capitulo tertio. A grete hungre 
was hade in this yere thro the cuntre of Siria, propheciede 
to comme by Agabus the prophete, in Actes of thapostles. 
Petriis, capitulo octogesimo primo. That grete hungre con- 
tynuenge in the lewery, Helena, the qwene of Adiabenes, 
commenge to lerusalem, bou^hte grete plente of corne j^at 
sche myjhte norische trewe peple hauenge nede ; whiche 



^ poysened, Cx. 
^ quyt, Cx. 
^ slewe, Cx. 
^ owne^ om. Cx. 

* dyde hir pryvely, Cx. 

6 pryvey, a. ; pryve, Cx. 

7 harlattes place, Cx. 

8 she, .a., 7., and Cx. ; heo, /3. 

* noyt folfuld, 7. 



^^ she exyted, Cx. 

'^ \>e, a., y., and Cx. 

^' hongre, Cx. 

'^ everychy 7. 

^^ letvry vioost, Cx. 

^^ Helyne, 7. 

15 From Cx. 

*' neody, 7, 



374 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

fecit extrui duo mausolea, in quibus jussit recondi 
corpus suum et corpus filii sui, quorum vestigia^ 
apparent. Unde putant nonnulli, in hac parte de- 
cepti, ibi fore mausoleum Helense matris Constantini, 
quia de ea legitur quod Jerosolimam visitaverit, et 
in multis adornaverit. Hoc etiam anno Paulus 
ascendit Jerusolimam ut conferret evangelium cum 
Petro.^ In cujus anni fine Petrus, liberatus a carcere 
Herodis Agrippse, Romse primus cathedram tenuit 
quintodecimo kalendis Februarii, ubi et sedit viginti 
quinque annis septem mensibus ; ubi et scripsit duas 
epistolas suas canonicas.^ Quo etiam anno, idus 
Julii, facta est divisio apostolorum per totum mundum, 
postquam symbolum^ edidissent ; unde et Petrus Romam 
veniens dirigit Marcialem apud Lemovicas,^ Apolli- 
narem apud Ravennam, Marcum vero ad^ iEgyptura. 
Iste Marcus genere Leviticus, filius Petri ex baptismo 
et discipulus, cum ipso Petro Romam venit, ubi ad 
rogatum fidelium scripsit evangelium, quod et^ Petrus 
DeSancto approbans ecclesiis leo^endum tradidit. Deinde Marcus 

Marco. * ^ ^ 

ad Aquileiam^ missus plurimum populum convertit. 



1 adhuc, added in A. 

2 principe Apostolorum, added in 
B. 

^ In . . . canonicas'} om. A.B. 
* simbolum, B. 



^ Leneonitas, B. 
^ apud, B. 

" Sanctus, added in B. 
^ Aquiliam, A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



375 



made tweyne ^ buriels, and heet burie ]?erynne here body Trevisa. 

and hir sones body, pe buriels bee])^ Jit i-sene. perfore 

meny bee]? disceyved,^ and trowe]? ]?at j^ere is ]?e buriels of 
Helene ^ Constantyn his moder, for me rede]? ^ of here ]?at sche ^ 
come to Jerusalem and hijte the citee in meny ])inges. Also 
J)at Jere Paul '' come to Jerusalem,^ and talkede ^ wi]? Petir of 
]>e gospel. Also J^at ^ere, ])e fifte]?e ^^ day of luyl, ])e apostles 
were departed in to al ]?e world aboute. pan Peter come 
to Rome, and sente Marcial to Limonica ^^ and Appolinaris to 
Raven, and [Marchus ^^ into Egipt. pis] ^^ Marcus, of Levy 
his kynde,!^ was Peter his sone by bapteme,!^ and his disciple, 
and come wi]? Peter to Rome, pere at ]?e prayere of Cristene 
men he wroot ^^ J?e gospel, ])at Petir allowede and aprevede,!^ 
and took it to be i-rad ^^ in chirches. pan Marcus was sent into 
Aquileya, ]?ere he converted moche ^^ folk j at ]?e laste he was 



Aburbe. causede ij. beryalles to be made nye to Jerusalem, in whom MS. Harl. 
sche commaunded her body to be putte, and the body off her 2261. 
Sonne, thesignes and tokens of whom appere Jitte at pis tyme. . , .^ 
Wherefore mony men deceyvede, suppose Helene the moder gracione. 
of noble Constantyne to be beryede ]?er, in that hit is redde that 
sche was at Jerusalem, and onournede hit with grete Jiftes. 
Seynte Paule wente to Jerusalem in this yere, and laborede 
the gospelle of Criste with Seynte Petyr, Jn whiche yere, in 
the idus of the monethe of Julius, thapostles were diuidede 
thro alle the worlde. Wherefore Petyr commenge to Rome, 
directe Marcialis to Lemonica, and Appolinaris to Rauenna, 
and Seynte Marke to Egipte. This Marcus, son to Petyr by 
baptym, and his disciple, come to Rome, where he did write 
the gospelle of Criste thro the supplication of trewe peple, 
whiche Seynte Petyr did approbate, and commaundede hit to 
be redde in chirches. After that, Marcus sende to Aquileia, 
convertede moche peple to ]>e feithe of Criste. After that he 



^ tico, Cx. 

2 beene, Cx. 

' ben disserved, Cx. 

^ Elyne, 7. 

^ rede, Cx. 

« heo, )8. 

7 and . . . Jerusalem'] om. in y. 

8 Poul, )3. 

^ to talke, a., )8., 7., and Cx. 
^° Jifte7i]>e, fi. ; fyftene, Cx. 
" Lymonicay Cx 



^2 Marcus, fi. 
13 From a., )8., 7,, and Cx. 
1* kuynde, 7. 

^'^ follought, fi. ; folloyt, 7. ; bap- 
tym, Cx. 

16 wrote, Cx. 

17 appreoved, 7. ; alowed and ap- 
proved, Cx. 

IS raddc, Cx. 
19 mych, )8. 




376 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHl HIGDEN 



Postmodum ad Alexandriam ^gypti destinatus, passus 
est.-^ Tandem circa annum Domini quadringentesimum 
•sexagesimum septimum de Alexandria ad Yenetiam 
translatus est. Hie aliquando pollicem ^ sibi abscidit, 
ne sacerdos aut episcopiis fieret ; sed pr?evaluit Dei dis- 
positio et auctoritas^ Petri, qui ipsum Alexandria© 
episcopatui prsefecit. Gaufridus^ et Alfridiis. Regnante 
apud Britannos ^ rege Guyderio, tributumque Ro- 
manis negante, supervenit Claudius Csesar. Beda,^ 
lihro primo, capitulo tertio. '^ Britanniam quasi ^ 
absque praslio conquisivit, quae excitata in tumultum 
propter non redibitos transfugas videbatur. Itaque 
transvectus^ est in insulam quam neque ante Julium 
Csesarem neque post eum quisque adire ausus 
fuerat. Orcades etiam insulas, ultra Britanniam 
in oceano positas, Romano adjecit imperio, ac sexto 
postquam ^^ profectus est mense Romam rediit, filioque 
suo Britannici nomen imposuit.^ Dux Claudii Loelius 
Hamo ^^ apud Porcestriam regem Guyderium occidit. 



* est] om. B. 

^pollicem'] from A.B. ; pelicem, 
MS. 

3 domini, added in B. 

^Hist. Reg. Brit. iv. 12,13. 

•^ Britanniam, B. 

^ Beda . . . irnposjiW] om. CD. 



" Ac, added in B. 
^ quasi^ om. B. 
^ iransuetuft, B. 

^° postquam'] om. B., which trans- 
poses slightly. 
" Hima, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



377 



i-sent to Alexandria in Egipt, and J^ere he was i-doo to the ^ Tkevisa. 

deth. pan aboute ]?e Jere of oure Lord foure hondred ])re score 

and sevene, he was translated and i-broujt oiit^ of^ Alexan- 
dria into Venys. This kut * of his fombe soratyme, leste he 
schulde be made preost othir bisshop ; but God his ordynaunce 
hadde the maist^ie, and auctorite of Petir, ])at made hym 
bisshop of Alexandria. Beda, libro primo, capitulo 5^. Kyng 
Guyderius regnede among J^e Britouns,^ and wernede ^ J)e 
Romayns tribute ; ferfore Claudius Cesar come and conquered 
Britayne, as it were wij) oute bataille ; and greet noyse of 
grucching '' was arered in Britayne as it semed ; ^ ffor here 
men fat fly^ ^ were nou^t restored a^en. He come into an 
ilonde, ])eve lulius Cesar to fore hym ^^ durste ^^ nevere come, 
no]?er othir men ^^ after hym. Also ]>e ilondes Orcades,^^ J?at 
beej> ^* byjonde Britayne in ])e see of occean, he made sugette 
to ]>e empere 1^ of Rome, and tornede a^en to Rome ]?e sixte 
mon]>e after J^at he wente out, and taf his sone ]>at name 
Britannicus. Lelius Hamo, a ledere ^^ of Claudius, slou J ^^ kyng 



Ab urbe. was sende to Alexandria in Egipte, where he sufFrede passion. MS. Harl. 



Whiche was translate from Alexaudry un to Venece abowte the 
cccclxvij. yere of oure Lorde. This Marcus kytte a weye his 
thombe in a tyme, that he scholde not be a byschoppe ; but the 
disposicion of God and auctorite of Seynte Petre preuaylede, 
whiche made hym bischop of Alexandria. Beda, libro primo, 
capitulo tertio. Claudius themperour come this tyme to 
Briteyne, Guiderius ^^ beenge in hit governoure and kynge, 
denyenge to pay a tribute to the Romanes, whiche conquerede 
hit as withowte eny batelle. After that he wente in to an yle, 
to whom noon enemy entrede with an hoste sithe Claudius was 
in hit, neither by noon other man afore, lulius Cesar excepte. 
Also he adiecte to thempyre of Rome the yles of Orcades 
sette in the ocean ; returnenge to Rome in the vj^^« monethe 
that he come from hit, callenge the name of his sonne Bri- 
tannicus. Lelius Hamo, a duke longenge to Claudius, did sle 



2261. 

A transmi- 
gracione. 



f. 206. b. 



1 the] om. /3. and Cx. 

2 out] om. a., )8., and Cx. 
^from, Cx. 

* kit, fi. ; kyt, Cx. 

' Brytons, Cx. 

^ weornede, 7. ; warned, Cx. 

7 grutcliyng, Cx. 

® semeth, Cx. 

^Jled, Cx. 

1" to fore hym] om. Cx. 

" )'Urste, 7. 



^^ vian, Cx. 

^3 OrchadeSy 7. and Cx. 

1^ hen, Cx. 

^^ subget to the empyre, Cx. 

^^ ledare, 7. 

^7 sle we, Cx. 

1^ In the margin is this note : 

Britannice Gwydyr, there is, not 

far from Denbigh, a house bearing 

his name to this daye." 



378 POL YCHRON ICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Ipseque Hamo apud portum Haraonis, a nomine suo sic 
vocatum, quae modo Haraptonia dicitur, occubuit. De- 
inde Claudius post variam belli sortem Arviragum 
fratrem Guyderii in gratiam recepit filiaraque suam 
Oenuissam de Roma adductam regi Arvirago copulavit, 
locumque nuptiarum celebrem facere volens, a nomine 
suo Claudiocestriam nuncupavit. Ranulphus} Quod 
Britannice Caerclau dicitur, id est urbs Claud ii ; sed 
postmodum vocata est Gloucestria sive Glovernia, a Glora 
duce Demetise, quern Claudius fertur ibidem genuisse. 
Deinde Claudius legiones militares in Hiberniam misit ; 
sed eo Komam reverso cum Arviragus subesse diffugeret,^ 
missus est a Roma dux Vespasianus,^ qui regem et 
regnum, insulam quoque [ Vectam] ^ Britannise ab austro 

GratisB. 

proximam, Romano subegit imperio. Herodes Agrippa ciaudH. 

Quiuto. 



^ Ranulphus] om. CD. | ^ Vespacianus, MS. 

2 defugerit, B. | < From A.B.C.D. 



MONACHI CESTHENSIS, LIB. IV. 



379 



Guyderius at Porchestre, and j)is Hamo deyde to fore ^ Hamo Trevisa- 

his haven, ])at was so i-cleped ^ by his name, ])at hatte ^ 

Hamptoun. panne Claudius after dyverse happes of bataille 
fenge* Arviragus, Guiderius his brothir, to his grace, and 
broujt his doubter Genuissa^ from Rome, and maried hire 
to kyng Arviaragus.^ And for he wolde make ]>e place of 
])e mariage solempne, he cleped ^ hit Claudiocestria [by] ^ 
his owne name. [^.J ^ Claudeocestria hatte Caerclou ^ yn 
Brittisshe speche, ]?at is Claudius his citee ; but aftir pat it 
was i-cleped Gloucestre, and Glovernia also, and hadde fat 
name of a ^^ duke of Demecia ]mt heet Glora. Me seij> ]>at 
Claudius Cesar gat hyni ]?ere at Gloucetre. panne Claudius 
sente legiouns of knyjtes into Irion d, but he tornede ajen to 
Rome ; and Arviragus wij? drowe hym, and wolde noujt be 
under ])e Romayns. perfore Yaspasianus, a duke ^^ of Rome, 
was i-sent, and made ]>e kyng and }»e kyngdom and J^e ile of 
Wight,^^ pat is next to Britayne in \>e south side, sogette ^^ to 
\>e empere ^^ of Rome. Herodes Agrippa whaune he hadde 



Ab urbe. Guiderius the kynge of Briteyne at Portesmouthe ; and that MS. Harl. 
Hamo diede at a haven namede after hym, now namede 2261. 
Hampton. After that Claudius receyvede Arvirao^us, brother » ^ . 
to Guiderius, un to grace, makenge hym kynge, and Jiffenge to gracione. 
hym Gemissa his dojhter, broujhte from Rome, to mariage, 
makenge a ryalle place for that mariage, callenge hit Chestre 
after his name. ]^. Whiche is callede, after the langage 
of Briteynes, Caerclau, that is to say, the cite of Claudius ; 
whiche was callede afterwarde Glovernia, of Glora duke of 
Sowthewales, whom hit was seide Claudius to haue geten Jjer. 
After that Claudius themperour sende legiones of knyjhtes in 
to Yrlonde ; whiche returnede to Rome, Arviragus kynge of 
Britones wolde not be tributary to the Romanes in eny wise. 
Wherefore Claudius themperour sende Vespasian to Briteyne, 
whiche subduede to hym the kynge, the realme, and the yle of 
Wi^hte. Herodes Agrippa wente to Cesarea in Egipte, after 



^ afore, Cx. 

2 called, Cx. 

3 hatte'] now hatt, )8. ; now hatte, 
; is now, Cx. 

4 take, Cx. 

° Genuyssa, Cx. 

^ Arviragus, a. and Cx. 

7 callydy Cx., et infra. 



^ From a. and Cx. 
^ hete Caertleon, Cx. 

10 a] the, Cx. 

11 due, Cx. 

12 Wyghte, Cx. 

13 suhget, Cx. 

1* thempyre, Cx. 



S80 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN" 

postquam afflixisset quosdam de ecclesia descendit 
C?esaream, ut in lionorem C?esaris spectacula faceret, 
ibique permisit se Deum appellari. Quamobrem per- 
cussus ^ ab arigelo, tumenteque jam ^ corpore, ad amicos 
ait, " En ego ille,^ qui modo dicebar Deus, nunc mortis 
" nexibus merito constringor :" eb sic obiit. Petrus, 
quinquagesimo sexto} Iste Herodes Agrippa fuit 
filius Aristobuli, filii magni Herodis Ascalonitse; ^ 
ejusque soror fuit Herodias, quern tenuit avunculus 
suus Herodes Antipas, frater Aristobuli prsedicti. Hie 
itaque Herodes Agrippa fuit vir magnanimus, belli- 
cosus, liberalis, sed ^ pauper. Camque^ Roraam veniret 
vivente Tiberio Caesare, ut alteram tetrarchiam tunc 
vacantem adquireret, incidit in amicitiara Drusi filii 
Tiberii Csesaris, multisque debitis se obligavit ut 



^ est, added in B. 

^ jam] om. B. 

2 ille] om. B. 

^ Act. Apost. c. lix-lxii. 



5 Abscolonita, B. 
" gue, B. 
7 Cum, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



381 



i-greved som of [the] ^ holy chirchc, he com to Cesaria ^ Trevisa. 

forto make pleyes in worschippe ^ of Cesar, and ])ere [to] ^ 

lete hym self be i-cleped God. perfore an angel smoot"^ hym, 
and his body swal, and he seide to his frendes, "Lo iche^ ]?at 
" was i-cleped [god] ^ now I am skilfulliche ^ i-bounde '^ wi]) 
'* boundes ^ of deth ;" and so he deide. Petrus, capitulo 56^.^ 
pis Herodes Agrippa was Aristobolus [his sone ; Aristobolus]^^ 
was ]?e sone of ])e grete Herodes Ascalonita,^^ and his suster 
was Herodias, here hilde ^^ his erne ^^ Herodes Antipas, ]?e for- 
saide Aristobolus his broj^er. pis Herodes Agrippa was a 
man of greet herte, a good ^^ werriour, and fre ^^ of Jiftes, but 
he was poore.^^ He come to Rome while Tyberius Cesar 
lyvede forto gete ^^ anoj^er tetrarchia, pat is anoJ)ir forJ?e ^^ 
deel 1^ of ])e kyngdom of lewes, and hadde greet frendschipe ^^ 
of Drusus, Tiberius Cesar his sone, and oblegede^i hym self 
for moche dette forto wynne ])e wille of the Romayns. But 



Ab urbe. that he hade sleyne mony trewe peple of Criste, that he myjhte MS. Hael. 
make disportes per in the honoure of thempcroure, where he 2261. 
suffi'ede hym to be callede a Godde. Wherefore he was ~~ — . 
smyten of an angelle ; whiche swellenge in the body, seide to gracione.' 
his frendes, " Behold e, frendes, y am now constreynede with the 
" bondes of dethe that was callede Godde ;" and so he dyede. 
Petrus, capitulo quinquagesimo sexto. This Herodes Agrippa 
was son to Aristobolus, son to Herodes Ascalonita, a man of 
grete boldenesse, bellicose and liberalle, but of grete pouerte 
with alle. Whiche wente to Rome in the ^^ of Tiberius thempe- 
rour, that he myjhte haue reioycede an o])er tetrarcliye, beenge 
vacante Jjat tyme, where he felle un to the luife and frende- 
schippe of Drusus, son to Tiberius, byndenge hym to Drusus 
in grete goodes, so that he wolde be a meane that he myjhte 
haue the favor of the Romanes and his intente. But this f. 207. a. 



^ From Cx. 

2 Cesarea, Cx. 

^ worship, Cx. 

^ smote, Cx. 

5 Ich, /8., et infra ; Y,y. ; I, Cx. 

I shylfych, y. 

' rightfully bounden, Cx. 

^ bondes, Cx. 

9 66», Cx. 

^^ From a., 7., and Cx. 

^^ Ascolonita, Cx. 

'- hylde, o. ; heore huld, 7. 



'3 hir heldc his erne, $. ; her oldest 
eame, Cx. 

^■* greet, a. and Cx. 

^'"freo, 7. 

^" pour, Cx. 

^' geete, Cx. 

^^ferthe, iS, ; feur\>e, 7. 

^"^ fourth deelc, Cx. 

-^ frenschip, y8. 

2' obleged, Cx. 

" Sic. The scribe has omitted l/fe. 



382 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



animos Romanorum sibi conciliaret, sed Druso pnema- 
ture mortuo, adeo doluit Tiberius Caesar ut omnes 
quondam familiares a prgesentia sua amoveret, ne mors 
Drusi per tales conspectos ad memoriam suam reducere- 
tur. Unde contigit Agrippam tanquam [desolatum] ^ 
Judseam redire ^ qui prae verecundia et inopia in 
turrim quandam ut fame obiret se includens, ad in- 
stantiam Herodiadis sororis suae relevatus est per 
Herodem. Quo sibi tandem beneficia inproperante, 
indignatus Agrippa adiit Coesarem Tiberium, cujus 
gratiam tandem nactus adhsesit Gaio ^ filio ^ Ger- 
manici.^ Demum cum aliquando in currum cum eodem 
sederet Gaio/ mortem importuni senis Tiberii impre- 
catus est, ut sic Gains ^ ad imperium posset pro- 
moveri. Quod audiens auriga eorum, nunciavit hoc 
Caesari ; qua de re incarceratus est Agrippa per sex 
menses, usque ad obltum Tiberii. Huic quidem 



'^desolatum'] fromA.B. 

- transire, B. 

3 Gaio'] from A.B. ; Cayo, MS. 



^fratris, B. 

° impei-atoris, added in B. 

6 Gains'] irom A. 'B.; Cayus,MS. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



383 



Drusus was hastiliche deed,! and ]?erfore Tyberius Cesar was Trevisa. 

sory, \)iit he dede alle ^ Drusus his servauntes out of his pre- 

sens,^ lest Drusus his deth come to his mynde by sight of 
his servauntes ; ferfore it happed * ])at Herodes Agrippa wente 
a^en to ]?e lewerye,^ as it were a man wi]> oute comfort, and 
for schame and for nede^ and mescheef he closed hym self^ in 
a tour ])at he myjte die for honger. But at ])e^ prayer of his 
suster Herodias he was releved by Herodes Antipa. But 
Herodes Antipa repreved hym in a tyme for ))e good ftat he 
hadde i-doo hym, and Herodes [Agrippa] ^ hadde indig- 
nacioun ferof, and wente to Tiberius Cesar, and gat ^^ grace 
of hym at ]>e laste, and lefte^^ wij? Gayus Germanicus his 
sone. In a tyme he sat^^ wi]? Gayus in his chare,!^ and 
wesched ^^ J)at Tyberius, J>e olde man and unesy,!^ were dede, 
pat Gayus myjte be emperour. The chariatour ^^ herde ^^ pat, 
and warnede the emperour, and perfore Agrippa was i-prisoned 
sixe monpes anon to ^^ pe deth of Tyberius Cesar. While pis 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Aburbe. yonge man Drusus dedde, Tiberius themperour sorowede so MS.Harl 
moche that he myjhte not sufFre men familier with Drusus to 2261. 
be in his presence, leste that he scholde reduce to his mynde 
the dethe of his sonne by the si^hte of theyme. Wherefore 
Herodes Agrippa returnede to the lewery as desolate, puttenge 
hym selfe in a toure for schame, that he myjhte dye for hungre : 
neverthelesse he was relevede by Herode howsebonde un to 
Herodias his sustir. Whiche rebukenge hym of the benefites 
schewede, Herodes Agrippa, hauenge indignacion perofF, wente 
to Tiberius, in whose presence he founde suche grace that he 
longede to Gaius the son of Germannicus. Which sitteuge in a 
tyme in the chariette with Gaius, preyede and desirede the 
dethe of Tiberius, that Gaius my^hte be made emperour. The 
dryver of the charyette herenge that, schewede his seyenge to 
Tiberius, wherefore Herodes Agrippa was putte in to prison 
by vj. monethes, un to the dethe of Tiberius. Thys Herodes 



^ hastly dede, Cx. 
- dide al, Cx. 
^presence, Cx. 
^ happide, j8. 
5 lewry, Cx. 
^ neode, y. 

^ sylf, 7- 

8 >el om. Cx. 

9 From j8. and Cx. 

10 gate, Cx. 



happr/d, Cx. 



1» leefte, Cx. 

12 saat, y. 

13 chaar, y. 

i** wisschede, ^. ; chaar and wyss- 
ched, Cx. 

13 unnesy, y. and Cx. 
1^ charyoter, yS. and Cx. 
17 hurde, y, 
1^ monethes unto, Cx. 



384 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Agrippa3 sic incarcerate nunciavit quidam concaptivus ^ 
suus in auguriis peritus, dum videret bubonem insidere 
arbori cui Agrippa innixus est, quod cito liberaretur, 
et quod ad regnum promoveretur, in tantum quod 
amici sui ejus felici tat i inviderent : et ^ quamcito hujus 
generis alitem super se iterum videret, quinto post 
hoc die moreretur. Tandem Tiberio mortuo, Gaius^ 
liberavit Agrippam, conferens ei duas tetrarchias, 
Philippi scilicet^ et Lysanise, imponens ei cum nomine 
regis diadema. Qua de causa indignata valde est 
Herodias soror sua, quod vir suus, Herodes Antipas te- 
trarcha, regium sibi nomen nusquam ^ adquisierat ; 
stimulavit virum suum Herodem, ut ad Gaium ac- 
cedens regium nomen mercaretur : sed Gaius praeventus 
epistolis Agrippa3 deportavit Herodem usque ^ Lug- 
dunum Gallise. At ^ cum Herodias optionem ^ haberet, 



* captlvus, A. 

2 quodf A.B. 

3 Cayus, MSS., et infra. 
^ scilicet] om. B. 



^ non, B. 
^ ad, A.B. 
' Atque, A. 
^ opi?iionem, A. 



MONACHI CESTEENSIS, LIB. IV. 



885 



Agrippa was in prisoun oon of his prisoneres ])at was kon- Trevisa. 

nynge in dcvyne ^ warned hym ]>at he scliulde sone be de- 

lyvered out of prisoun, and be a kyng, so Jjat his owue ^ 
frendes schulde have ^ envie to his welthe. pis devynour de- 
vynede so while he seygh * an owle ^ sitte uppon fe tree pat 
Agrippa lenede too,^ and seide }>at as sone as he sigh ^ 
evere ^ suche a manere bridde ^ sitte above hym he schulde 
dye J^e fifte day after. Whan Tyberius was deed Gayus de- 
lyverede Agrippa, and ^af hym tweie tretrarches,^ of Phelip 
and of Lisania, and crownede and clepede hym kyng. per- 
fore his suster Herodias was wroo]?, and hadde grete indig- 
nacioun, for here housebonde Herodes Antipas, J>at was 
tetrarcha, hadde noujt i-gete hym the name of kyng ; and sche 
excited hir housbonde Herodes Antipa J>at he schulde goo to 
Gayus and begge ^^ ]>e name of [a] ^^ kyng. But Gayus was 
i-warned to forehonde ^^ by lettres of Agrippa, and put Herodes 
to Lugdinius ^^ in Fraunce ; and for Herodias was Agrippa his 
suster, sche hadde chois whe|)eri^ sche wolde goo ajen or 



Ab urbe. 



Agrippa beenge in prison, a man in captiuite schewede to hym MS. Harl. 
by augury that he scholde be soone delyverede, after that he 2261. 

hade sene an owle syttensre on a tre, and that he scholde be . , . 

promotede ageyne, in so moche that his frendes scholde haue gracione. 
grete envye j^erof ; and that he scholde dye in the v*^® daye 
folowenge after that he hade scene the same kynde or eny of 
the same kynde to haue sytte in lyke wise. Themperour 
Tiberius dedde, Gains delyverede Herodes Agrippa from prison, 
^iffenge to hym ij. tetrarchies, of Philippe and of Lysania ; 
^iffenge to hym a diademe with the name of a kynge. Where- 
fore Herodias his suster, hade grete indignacion that Herodes 
Antipas here howsebonde reioycede not the name of a kynge, 
movenge hym that he scholde go to Gains themperour and 
purchasse a diademe with the name of a kynge. But Gains 
themperour hauenge letters afore sende from Herodes Agrippa, 
sende hym to Lugdune in to Fraunce. Neverthelesse he ^afe 
choyce to Herodias to chose whe]?er sche wolde goe Avith here 



' dyvynynge, a., y., and Cx. 
2 owne'] om. y. and Cx. 
^ habhe, y. 

* sty, 0. ; sijy, y. ; sawe, Cx. 

* oule, $. 

^ lened to, Cx. 
7 eft, a. and Cx. 

* byrde, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



Cx. 



^ tetrarchies, a. 

^" bugge, y. ; beye, Cx. 

11 From Cx. 

1- a forehonde, Cx. 

!•' Lugdunus, )8. and y. ; LugdunSy 



I'' choes where, Cx. 



B B 



386 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



eo quod soror Agrippse fuerat, redeundi aut virum suum 
comitandi, ipsa autem prseelegit exilium cum viro suo, 
dicens se non dimissuram [maritum] ^ in adversis, 
cui communicaverat in prosperis ; sicque tradita est 
Agripp86 tertia tetrarchia, quae quondam^ fuit Herodis 
Antipse. Demum interfecto Gaio Csesare,^ cum esset * 
controversia inter senatores, milites, et populum 
Eomanum, senatu formidante ssevitiam imperatorum 
et incommoda reipublicae, e contra populo timente 
avaritiam consulum, per ^ industriam Agrippse Claudius 
constitutus est imperator; qui statim dedit Agrippae 
quartam tetrarchiam,^ scilicet Judseam ; et ita sublimatus 
rediit in Judseam/ ubi post reditum suum occidit 
Jacobum, et incarceravit Petrum; deinde apud Caesaream 



* maritum] added from A.B.C.D. 

2 tertia . . . quondamJi om. A. ; 
quondam, om. B. 

3 Casare'] om. B. 
^fieret,B. 

^ constituerunt imperatorem Clau' 
dium filium ^Drusi] avunculum 



Gaii, qui Herodi propter industriam 
suam in pacificatione controversice 
prcBdictcE dedit quartam tetrarchiamy 
scilicet Judeam, B. 

^partem, A. 

^ See above, note ^. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



387 



folwe ^ hir housbonde Herodes Antipas.^ And sche chees ^ to Trevisa. 

be exciled* wi]? here housbonde, and seide Jjat sche^ wolde 

noujt leve hir housbonde in his meschif, J>at sche^ hadde 
i-folwed in his wel]?e and '^ in his bonchif ; ® and so J^e pridde 
tetrarcha ^ was i-take from Herodes Antipa and i-^eve to 
Herodes Agrippa. At the laste Gayus Cesar ^^ was i-slawe, 
whan ])ere was strif bytwene ]?e senatoures and kny^tes and 
})e peple of Rome. For ]^e senatoures dradde pe cruelnesse ^^ 
of ])e emperours and [jje] ^^ disavauntage of ]>e comounte,^^ 
and \Q peple dradde the covetise of J?e consuls, panne by 
sli|)e ^^ of Herodes ^^ Agrippa, Claudius was i-made emperour, 
and anon he ^af Herodes Agrippa ]?e four|)e tetrarcha,!^ J^at is 
ludea, and so Herodes Agrippa ^^ was i-made grete, and wente 
a^en in to |)e ^^ lewerie,!^ and aftirward fere he slough lames 
and prisoned Petir. panne he made pleyes ^^ at Cesarea, as 



Aburbe. howsebonde other elles to goe to Herodes Agrippa broker to MS. Hakl. 
her. But Herodias did electe to goe to her howsebonde 2261. 
beenge putte in to exile, seyenge that sche wolde not leve . . . 
here howsebonde in adversite with whom sche was in pros- gracione. 
perite. And so the thridde tetrarchye was Jiffen to Herodes f. 207 b. 
Agrippa, whiche tetrarchye was occupiede before with Herodes 
Antipas. After Gaius sleyne, there was a contraversie be- 
twene the senatores and J»e peple of Rome, the senate dredenge 
the cruellenesse of themperoures, the peple dredenge in contrary 
wise the cruellenesse of the senate. Neverthelesse Claudius 
was made emperour by the helpe of Herodes Agrippa, whiche 
^afe to hym the iiij*'^® tetrarchye, that was the lewery or 
lada ; whiche enhawnsede soe, wente un to the lewery, 
and imprisonede Petyr, and did sle Seynte lames. After 
that he wente to Cesarea, to make plaies and disportes in 



* other folow, Cx. 

2 Herodes Antipas] om. a. )3., and 
Cx. 

3 heo cheSy $. 

^ exiled, y. ; exyled, Cx. 

5 heo, )8., et infra. 

^ sche] om. a. ; 7. has a. 

7 in . . . and] om. Cx. 

8 bonchef, a. and )8. ; bonchief, 7. ; 
bonechefe, Cx. 

^ tetrarchia, /3. and Cx. 
10 Cesar] om. Cx. 



^' cruwelnesse, fi. ; drad the 
cruelte, Cx. 

^'^ From a. and Cx 

^2 comynte, Cx. 

^* slei-^^pe, fi. ; sleyght, Cx. 

^» Herodes] om. Cx. 

^^ tetrarchia, a., /8., and Cx. 

^7 Agrippas, a. 

^^ ]pe] om. Cx. 

1^ Jewry, Cx., et infra. 

'^ playesy Cx. 

BB 2 



I 



388 



POLYCHRONICOX RANULPHl HIGDEN 



Obitus 

beatae 

Marise 

matris 

Domini. 



ludos agens, prout supra dicitur, vermibus corrosus 
et tumens obiit, relinquens post se successorem ad 
duas tribus et dimidiam ultra Jordanem filium suum 
Agrippam, qui tamen non ^ est dictus Herodes, sed 
solomodo Agrippa ; ad quem postmodum,^ imminente 
urbis eversione, fideles de Judsea confluxerunt. De 
ohitu MaricB matris Cliriati? Beata Maria mater Grati*. 

XLIX. 

Claudii. 

Domini obiit anno vitse suae sexagesimo tertio, quia ^ii. 
in nativitate filii sui habuit annos quatuordecim, post 
hoc vixit cum eo annis triginta tribus, et post 
secundum * quosdam sexdecim annis, secundum alios 
duodecim annis, ut* sic sexagenaria sit^ essumpta ; 
quia apostoli feruntur prsedicasse post Christum in 
Judaea et circa Judseam duodecim annis.^ Philippus 
apostolus in civitate '^ Hierapoli,^ anno setatis suae ^[jv^" 

Claudii. 

septuagesimo octavo, crucifigitur. Lazarus primus 
episcopus Cypri moritur secunda morte, habens viginti 



^ non] om. B. 

2 ad quem postmodnm'] om. B. 

3 A.B.C.D. omit title. 

* secundum . . . iit'] ascensionem 
ejus in custodia Sancti Johannis 
Evangelista; sexdecim et, B. 

® sW} tertia fuit, B. 

''B. inserts: ''Andrea episcopus 
" Cretensis dicit quod usque nunc 



" vestigia genuum beatse Mariae 
" Virginis in marmore ecclesiae 
" ostenduntur et recubitus ejus 
" super lapidem ubi sompno natu- 
" rali iudulsit." 

7 171 cwitate'\ om. B., which 
sh'ghtly transposes the sentence. 

'** JhcrapvU, MS. 



1 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 
K 



389 



it is i-seide to forehonde,^ and swal and was i-ete wi]) wormes Trevisa. 

and deidc, and lefte aftir hym, to be his successour over ^ 

tweie [other] ^ lynages and an half by^onde flom ^ lordan, his 
sone [Herodes] ^ Agrippa, fat^ was nou^t i-clepede Herodes, 
but onliche Agrippa. To hym Cristene men fiye ^ aftirward 
out of ])e lewerie, whanne ])e citee schulde be i-take and de- 
stroyed. Seinte Marie, oure Lordes moder, deide ])e ^ere of 
hir age J>re score and ])re, ffor in ])G bur|)e '^ of hir sone sche 
was fourtene Jere olde, and lyvede^ wi|? hir sone ])ve and 
])ritty Jere, and^ aftirward sixtene ^ere, as som men wiP^ 
raene, and so sche was i-take hens ^^ whan sche was sixty 
wynter olde and more ; ffor me seith ^^ j)at ])e apostles prechede 
aftir Crist in ]?e lewerie, and in ]?e countrees aboute, ful twelve 
^ere. Phelip the apostil was i-nailled ^^ to ])e cros in ]>q 
citee lerapolis,!* j^e J ere of his age ]?re score and ey^tene.^^ 
Lazarus ])e firste bisshop of Ciprus ^^ deide in his secounde 
dej>, and hadde foure and twenty ^ere bytwene his tweie 
dethes. Trevisa, Lazarus deide ones and was arered from 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. the honor of thempei'oure, where he diede miserably, as hit MS. Harl. 
is rehersede afore. Whiche lefte successour to hym Agrippa 2261. 
his Sonne, to ij. tribus and a halfe over lordan ; whiche 
Avas not callede Herodes Agrippa, but oonly Agrippa; to 
whom the trewe peple of the lewery fledde afore the de- 
struccion of the cite of Jerusalem. Oure blessede Lady, moder 
to Criste redemptor of mankynde, diede in this yere, whiche 
was ]>G Ixij. yere of her age, for sche hade xiiij. yere in age 
in the nativite of Criste, lyvenge with hym afterwarde xxxiii*^ 
yere. And, after the sayenge of somme men, sche lyvede 
after his dethe xvj. yere, and after ol)er men xij. yere ; so 
]>at sche was assumpte in the Ix. yere of here age ; for it is 
writen expresse that thapostles prechede in the lewery and 
abowte hit xij. yere after the dethe of Criste. Philippe 
thapostle was crucifiede at Iherapolis, the Ixxviij. yere of his 
age. Lazarus, the firste bischoppe of Ciprus, diede in the 



^ qforehonde, Cx. 

^ to he . . . overl om. Cx. 

3 From Cx. 

^flum, i8. ; flume, Cx. 

^ )>at'\ om. Cx. 

^fled, Cx. 

7 hyrth, Cx. 

^ lex}ed, Cx. 



® and'] om. Cx. 

10 wol, Cx. 

11 haincs, /3. and Cx. 
1^ men say, Cx. 

13 nayled, $. and Cx. 

1* Iherapolis, )8. 

1* eyghten, Cx. 

1^ Cipres, y. (bis) ; Cipris, Cx. 



1 



890 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



quatuor annos inter utrasque mortes. Felix missus est a 
Claudio Judsese procurator, coram quo Paulus accusatus Gmtiae. 

Claudii. 

ad sui defensionem appellavit Csesarem ; in quo tempore ^^^^' 
a multi fuerunt pseudo^-prophetse. Eutrojpius, libro^ 
seeundo. Tunc quoque pullulavit genus Sicariorum in 
Jerosolima, qui claro luce populo permixti tam imper- 
ceptibili^ arte plurimos necabant, ut gravior esset metus 
viventium quam serumna mortuorum ; unde et multi ob 
refugium deserta petebant. Claudius obiit Romse in Gratiae. 

Claixdii. 

palatio suo, anno setatis suae sexagesimo quarto, mense ^^^* 
quasi Martio ; nam uxor sua Agrippina extinxerat eum * 
veneno, ut excluso filio ejus Britannico, filium suum 
Neronem prseferret.^ 



1 pseudo'] space left in B. 

2 Egesippus libro seeundo, A.B. ; 
Egesippus, CD. Both references 
are wrong. 

3 imperceptibili, from A.B. ; in 
perceptibili, MS. (division). 



* cum, B. 

^ The whole chapter varied in 
CD., besides having some obvious 
omissions of the scribe. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



391 



deth to lyve, and lyvede aftirward foure and twenty ^ere, [and Tkevisa. 

was bisshop of Ciprys, and deide eft ; and so Lazarus hadde 

foure and twenty ^ere] ^ by twene his tweyne dethes. panne 
it folwe]) in storie : ^ Felix procuratour of ]>e lewerie ^ was 
i-sent by Claudius ; to fore ^ [this] ^ Felix Paule^ was accused, 
and appeled for his diffence'' to ]>e emperour. pat tyme 
were meny false prophetes. Egesippus, libro 2°. Also J>at 
tyme wexe ^ meny schrewed ^ swerd men in Jerusalem, and 
were i-melled^^ among ]?e peple, and slou^ meny men so 
sotelliche,^^ and so priveliche,^^ J)at no man kouj^e ^^ hem 
aspie, so fat the drede of hem J^at lyvede was more grevous 
pan ]?e meschief of hem pat were dede. perfore meny men 
wente into wildernesse for to have refute ^* and socoure. Clau- 
dius deide at Rome in his owne paleys,!^ J^e Jere of his age 
]?re score and foure, as it were in ]>q monjje of Marche ; for his 
wif Agrippina slou^ hym wi]> venym, forto putte of his sone 
Britannicus, and to make here owne sone Nero emperour. 
Nero}^ 



Ab urbe. firste dethe, restorede to lyfe ageyne by miracle, contynuede MS. Habi-. 
in Ijrfe after that by the space of xxiiij^i yere. Felix was 2261. 

sende to the lewery by Claudius themperour, and made the . , . 

proctor of the lewes, afore whom Paule accusede made ap- gracione. 
pellacion to themperour afore hym to his defense. In whiche f- 208. a. 
tyme meny fals prophets were. Egesippus, libro 2°. Then 
the kynde of perellous men spronge in Jerusalem, whiche did 
sle men in the li^hte day by arte imperceptible, in so moche 
that the drede of men lyvenge was more grevous then the 
compleynte of the dedde men ; wherefore mony men lefte that 
cite and wente to wildernesse. Claudius themperour diede at 
the cite of Rome in his palice, the Ixiiij. yere of his age, in the 
monethe of Marche, whom Agrippina, wife to hym, did 
extincte with poyson, that Britannicus his son excludede, Nero 
myjhte be emperour, whiche was son to Agrippina, 



^ From a. 

'^ Trevisa . . . storie] om. )8. and 
Cx. 

3 Jewry, Cx., ut semper. 
^ afore, Cx. 

5 From 7. and Cx. 

6 Powle, Cx. 

" defens, a. and y. ; offence, Cx. 
* were, )8. 



^ shrewyd, Cx. ; scherewed swe- 
ordmen, 7. 

^0 medled, /8. and Cx. 

^^ subtily, Cx. 

^' pryvely, Cx. 

^^ coude, Cx. 

1^ refuyt, 7. 

^^ palis, Cx. 

^^ Nero} om. /3., 7., and Cx. 



392 



POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 



Cap. IX. 

[De Neronis vita, et de primis ecclesice Romance 

episcopis.] 

Nero films Domitii et Agrippinse sororis Gaii, ^Lvif* 

Neronis. 
XV 

generque Claudii, coepit regnare, regnavitque quatuor- 
decim annis fere.^ Hie instrumentorum musicorum ^ 
curiosissimus cultor, adeo ut publico testimonio 
citharcedorum principem se gauderet appellari, adeoque 
vocis amoenitate captus erat, ut non. solum a cibis 
nocentibus abstineret, sed etiam vocis conservandse 
gratia frequenti clysterio ^ vomi tuque uteretur. Et cum 
canere coepisset, nulli licitum erat tlieatrum egredi 
Demi- donec ccepta terminasset, consiliis* histrionum omnino 

serrima vita 

se subdens. Et cum omnium imperatorum esset^ 
avarissimus, adeo ut cunctis sic ^ responderet, " Qui 



^fere'] orn. B. 

2 erat, B. 

^ cllsterio, MS. 



^ consilio, B. 
5 esset] om. B. 
^ sic'] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



39r> 



Capitulum nonum. 

Nero pe sone of Domicius and of Agrippina, Gaius his Trevisa. 

suster, hadde i-wedded Claudius his doujter,^ and bygan to 

regno ^ alio most ^ fourtene Jere. pis was most curious and 
crafty to worche '^ wij> instrument^ of musik, so ]?at he hadde 
k)ye and likynge to be openliche^ i-cleped prince of har- 
poures ^ ; also he hadde greet likynge in ]^e swetnesse of his 
voys, pat abstynede hym and sparede al manere mete and 
drynke'' ]>at was noujt good for ])e voys, and noujt only die )>at 
didde^he,^ but also he usede ofte clistories^^ and spuynge.^i 
Trevisa. A clisterie is an instrument jmt phicicians use]' forto 
putte in a manis ne|)er endc forto dense his wombe. panne 
it folwe]? in |?e storie : ^^ whan Nero gan ^^ to synge,i^ no man 
was so hardy to go out of pe theatre or ^-^ he hadde i-made 
ende of his song. And he was [al] ^^ i-ruled and i-ladde by 
ledynge and counsaille of mynstralles ^^ al ]?at he hadde : ^^ 
and for he was moost coveitous of alle emperours, he usede 



Capitulum nonum. 

Aburbe, Nero the son of Domicius and of Agrippina sustyr toMS. Hakl. 
Gaius, Sonne in lawe to Claudius, began to reigne, whiche 22 61. 

reignede allemoste xiiij. yere. This Nero luffede gretely . 

instrumentes muaicalle, in so moche that he enioyede hym graScfS!" 
to be callede in festes the prince of harpers; whiche ioyede so 
moche of the swetenesse of his voyce, that he wolde not ab- 
steyne oonly from meytes and drynkes, but also to haue a 
vomite in certeyne tyme. Whiche begynnenge to synge, noo 
man hade audacite to go furthe from the place un til that 
he hade endede thynges begunne. Neuerthelesse this em- 
perour Nero moste avarous, seyenge to the peple oftetymes, 



^ doxter, y. 

2 and regnede, added in )8. and 7. 

2 almoost, Cx. 

* wyrche, y. ; werke, Cx. 

5 oponlych, y. ; openly, Cx. 

^ harpers y 3. and Cx. ; har pours, 

y- 

7 dryngke, y. 
^ dude, y. 

^ not only he dyde that, /3. and 
Cx. 



^*' clysteryes, a., P.,y., and Cx. 
^^ vomytes, fi. and Cx. ; spuwyng, 

7- 

^2 Trevisa . . . storie"] om. ^. 
and Cx. 

^3 bigan, fi. and Cx. 

!•* syngge, y. 

^^ er, /3. and Cx. ; ar, y. 

10 From a,, )3., and Cx. 

^" ministrals, y. 

^^ al . . . hadde] om. Cx. 



L 



394^ POLYCHRONICON RAMULPHI HIGDEN 

*' omnibus praeest omnibus indiget," tarn en histrionibus 
cuncta largiri non gravabatur, eos singulis urbis Romse 
honoribus prserogando. Suetonius} NuUam vestem 
bis induit, soleis argenteis usus est, et soleas argenteas 
mulis suis aptari fecit ; retibus aureis piscabatur, quae 
funibus purpureis extrahebantur. Hie etiam, ut 
similitudinem Trojse ardentis conspiceret, plurimam 
Romse partem per septem dies et noctes incendi fecit ; 
et tunc tragico boatu Iliadem decantabat. Orosius} 
Tantse quoque ^ fait luxurise ut frigidis et calidis 
lavaretur unguentis. Virum quoque in uxorem duxit, 
ipse etiam ut uxor a viro acceptus. Alvum quoque 
matris suae fecit incidi, ut locum conceptionis videret. 
Martinus. Qui cum a medicis argueretur quod 
matrem suam dehonestasset, respondit, "Nisi me 

^ Nero, 30. i ^ Tam deditus quoque^ B. 

2 Lib. vi. cap. 5. j 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIE. IV. 



395 



forto seie,i '^ He |7at is above al ha]) nede^ to al ; " bot^ Jit it Trevisa. 

greved hym noiijt to Jeve mynstralles * al }>at he hadde; 

and he ^ Jaf hem all J?e worschippes of ])e citee of Rome. Sueto- 
nius. He werede no cloo|) twyes ; he usede scho soles of silver 
and schodde his mules ^ wi]? silver.'' He fisched^ wi}) nettes of 
gold, ))e nettes were i-drawe wi]> [ropis of ] ^ reed silk. Also 
]>is,i^ for he wolde see j^e liknesse of Troye whan it was i-sette 
a fuyre,!! [he sette a greet deel of Rome a fuyre,^^] ^^ J?at 
brende sevene nyght ^^ and sevene dayes ; and he gan to ^^elle^^ 
and songe ^^ ])e gestes^^ of Troye. Orosius. Also he was so 
leccherous J?at he wolde be i-wasche^® wi)? bote oynementes 
and colde. Also he wedded a man for to be his wif, and [he] ^^ 
bycam^o anoj^ir manis wif. Also he lete kerue his owne moder 
wombe, for he wolde see |)e place j^at he was conceyved ynne. 
Martinus. Phisicians ^^ blamed hym for he hadde defouled22 his 
owne modir, and he ^ answerde and seide, " But Je make me goo 



Aburbe. " He that is a prince hathe nede to alle thynge, 

rewardes to mynstrelles, JifFenge to theym singuier pre- 
rogatives, and inconsuete of the noble dignites of Rome. 
Suetonius. This emperour usede not to were oon cloth enge 
too tymes ; usenge schone of siluyr, and schoenge his mules in 
lyke wise ; fisch enge with nettes of golde whiche were drawen 
with cordes made of purpulle. Whiche willenge to see the 
similitude of the cite of Troye in the brennenge of hit, 
causede a grete parte of the cite of Rome to brenne con- 
tynually by vij. daies and vij. ny^htes, and then he songe a 
songe of Troy. Orosius. Nero was of so grete lecchery that 
he was waschen with hoote oyntementes and colde ; whiche 
causede the wombe of his moder be kytte that he myjhte 
see the place of concepcion. Martiiius. Whiche reprovede 
of leches in that he hade doen to his moder so grete crudelite, 



Jafe grete MS. Harl. 

2261. 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



f. 208. b. 



1 segge, y. ; saye, Cx. 

2 neode, y. 

3 hut, Cx. 

^ mynstrals, /3. and Cx. 
^ he'] om. y. 
^ muyles, y. 

7 and . . . silver^ ora. /8. 
Cx. 

^fysshed, Cx. 
9 From )3. and Cx. 
^^for this, Cx. 
^^fyre, Cx. 



and 



^3 From a., $., y., and Cx. 
^^ nyghtes, Cx. 
^^ yolle, y. 

^^ synge, a., $., and y. ; crye and 
singe, Cx. 
^^ geestes, y. 
^^ wesshe, Cx. 
" From y. and Cx. 
2^ bycaam, y. 
2^ Phisiciens, Cx. 
2^ defowled, Cx. 



39 G POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

" feceritis impregnari/' unde ^ sciam modum et dolorem 
pariendi ^ omnes peribitis. At illi fecerunt eum ^ po- 
tionibus inflari,* ranamque latenter bibere; qui tandem 
post multos cruciatus ranam et evomuit, ac si partum 
fecisset; sed et ^ causam deformitatis in prole medici 
dixerunt esse quod debita tempora pariendi prsevenisset. 
Hanc tamen ranam Nero fecit in turri qnadam 
custodiri usque ad obitum suum, unde putant quidam 
locum ilium a rana ibi latente Lateranam appellari. 
Item Nero fecit sibi quoddam coelum aereum altitu- 
dinis centum pedum, minutis foraminibus pertusum, 
nonaginta columnis marmoreis supportatum ; quod 
fecit aquam desuper infundi,^ instar pluvire de coelo 
cadentis. Fecit etiam de die lampadem ardentem per 
illud ^ coelum train, et ad occidentem instar solis 
occumbere ; et fecit de nocte speculum ^ gemmis orna- 



1 ut, A. I 5 eQ ora. A. 

" vos, addei in B. ^ fundi, B. 

^ ventrem ejus, B. ' isUid, B. 

■* injiammari, B. | ^ de, added in B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



397 



" wij) childe,^ Je scliulle ^ be deed everichon." panne ]>ey made Trevisa. 

hym swelle with drinkes,^ and made hym unwitynge drinke a 

frogge ; and at j^e laste aftir moche^ woo and wi]) moche sorwe 
he delyvered hym and caste up ]m ^ frogge. But Jie phisiciens 
seide fat pe childe was i-bore to fore ^ his tyme, and jjerfore 
it was so unjjryvyngcliche ^' and so evel^ i-schape. But Nero 
made this frogge be kept in a toure to his owne lyves ende. 
perfore som men wenej> fa^ Lateran ha]? |)at name of a frogge 
])a}^ lotede ]?er ; fore ^^ latere a Latyn is lotye and be i-hidde o]>er 
unknowe in ^^ Englische, and rana in ^^ Latyn a frogge in ^^ 
Englisshe. Also Nero made hym an hevene of an hondred 
foot hy^e, i-bored and i-prulled ^^ wi]> meny smale holes, and 
it was i-bore up wi)? foure score pilers and ten of marbil stoon. 
He leet hilde ^^ water ])er uppon, J^at dropped doun ^^ as it were 
reyn pat falle]> from hevene. He made also a lampe brenninge 
be i-drawe in ^^ ])at hevene be day, J^at ^ede ^^ adoun westward 
as it were ]>e sonne ; and he made a myrour ^^ i-liZt ^^ with pre- 



Ab urbe. 



seide to theym, "^e schalle suffre dethe withowte ye make me MS. Haul. 
with childe, that y may knowe the maner and peyne of child- 2261. 

enge. The leches causede hym to be inflate with pociones, . 

and to drynke a frogge priuely, whiche euomette that frogge gracione!" 
after that he hade felede a ly telle peyne, as if he hade bene 
delyverede off childe. The leeches seide the deformite of the 
childe to be causede in that the dewe tyme of childenge was 
prevente. Neuertheles Nero causede that frogge to be 
kepede in a towre un to his dethe. Also this Nero made to 
hym an heuyn of the altitude of a c. foote, boorede j^ro with 
litelle hooles, borne up with xc. pillers of marbole, on whom he 
causede water to be caste, fallenge downe lyke as if hit hade 
bene water descendenge from heuyn. Also he made a lampe 
to be movede in hit by alle the day, and to goe downe at the 
weste lyke un to the sonne, makenge a myrrour onornede with 



^ ^ai y may assay c what soroice 
hyt is for to trauayie and here chyld, 
added here in y, 

2 shal, Cx. 

3 drenches, fi. ; drynches, y. 
* mych, /3. 

5 ]?«] a, Cx. 
^ ajore, Cx. 

7 uri^ryvynglich, fi. • unihryvynly, 
Cx. 

^ and so evel'\ cm. y. 
^ wenen that, Cx. 



1« \>at, 13. 

^^ loted therefor, Cx. 
^- an, a., fi., and y. 
13 a, a., fi., and y. 
!•* \>urled, a. ; y\>irled, /8. ; y^urled, 
. ; and bored and thyrled, Cx. 
15 helde, fi. and y. ; fall, Cx. 
1^ droppide adoun, fi. 
1" m] into, Cx. 
1*^ yeode, y. 
19 vierour yhyyt, y. 
-0 hiyt, a. ; yhiyte, p. ; sette, Cx. 



398 POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 

turn instar lunse refulgere : sed hsec omnia nutu divino 
ita repente confracta sunt ut nee quidem minutiae 
eorum sunt repertse. Fecit etiam quadrigam super 
illud coelum trahi, ut quasi sonus tonitrui audiretur; 
sed Deus immisso vento valido quadrigam in flumen 
trajecit. Eutro^ius} Nero multos nobiles interfecit, 
e quibus fuerunt Li via uxor Octaviani, Agrippina mater 
propria, soror patris ^ sui et uxor. Unde cum Seneca 
Cordubensis^ philosophus, patruus Lucani magisterque 
Neronis, condignam magisterii sui* mercedem ex- 
peteret, data est ei optio in quo arboris ramo suspendi 
vellet. Cum autem Seneca requireret cur hoc sup- 
plicium mortis ^ meruisset, Nero limatum gladium 
super caput ejus vibrari fecit ; cui trepidanti dixit Nero, 



1 Lib. vii. cap. 14. 

^ patrui, B. 

^ Cordulensis, B. 



'* suil om. B. 
5 mortis^ om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



399 



cious stones, J^at schyned ^ by nyjte as it were fe mone. Trevisa. 

But al ]7is was ^ by Goddis ordinaunce so sodeynliche ^ de- 

stroyed ^ so to russhed ^ and to ^ broke fat ])erof was nevere 
i-founde gobet '' no])er cromme.® Also he made a carte ^ wi]? 
foure wheeles ^^ be i-drawe up on jje ^^ hevene, so Jjat ])at noyse 
was i-lierde ^^ as it were J^e noyse of a greet ])ondir, but God 
almyty sente a greet wynde J>at ])rewe the carte into the ryver. 
Eutropius. Nero slou^ ^^ meny noblemen and Livia Octavi- 
anus his wif,^* his owne moder Agrippina, and his fadir suster 
and his wif ; and Seneca J)e philosofre of Corduben, Lucanus 
his eme/^ was Nero his maister, and axed covenable reward for 
])at he hadde i-be Nero his maister, and hadde choys in whiche ^^ 
bowj ^'^ of a tree ^^ he wolde be an honged.^^ Seneca axede why 
he hadde disserved 20 j^at manor e deth ; ]7an Nero made oon 
skirmysshe above ^^ Seneca his heed with a bryght swerd, and 
sigh 22 j,at he was wondir soore afeerd,^^ and seide, " As sore as 



Ab urbe. gemmes to schyne in the ny Jhte in to the similitude of the MS. Harl. 
moone. But these thynges were broken sodenly by the wille 2261. 
and power of Godde, that eny parte of theym cowthe not be , ^ . 
founde. Also he made wheles and cartes to be made in hit gracione. 
and drawen |7er, that hit scholde seme to peple that hit hade be 
the thundre. But Allemy^hty God causede that instrumente 
to be broujhte in to the water as sodenly by a grete wynde. 
Eutropius. This Nero did sle diverse noble women, as 
Liuia the wiffe of Octouian, Agrippina his moder, the suster 
of his fader, and also his awne wife. Seneca Cordubens, 
uncle to Lucanus and maister to Nero, askenge a condigne f. 209. a. 
rewarde of Nero themperour for his doctryne, hade licence to 
chose on what bowjhe he wolde be hongede. Then Seneca in- 
quirede what offense he hade doen that he scholde haue suche 
a dethe. Nero takenge owte a swerde and puttenge hit on 
his hedde, seide to Seneca, " Lyke as thow dredes this swerde, 



* schyne, a., )8., and 7 ; shone, Cx. 

2 \>eus were, 7. ; these were, Cx. 

3 sodenly, Cx. 

* distruyed, fi. ; so sodeynliche 
destroyed, om. 7. 

* ruschedy /3. and Cx. ; ruyschet, 7. 
6y, a. 

7 gobet founde, Cx. 

^ crome, 7. 

^ carre, Cx. 

^0 whelis, Cx. 

1^ ])at, a., j8., and Cx. 



^- yhurd, 7. 

^3 slewe, Cx. 

^^ Octayians wyf, Cx. 

^5 Lucanus eame, Cx. 

^^ whuch, 7. 

^' bowe, Cx. 

^^ treo, 7. 

^^ hanged, Cx. 

20 deserved, fi. and Cx. 

2^ one to scarmuch about, Cx. 

"2 sawe, Cx. 

"2 sore aferd, Cx., et infra. 



400 POLYCHRONICON lUNULPHI HIGDEN 

^' Sicut ^ tu gladium istum formidas, ita et ^ ego te adbuc 
" timeo sicut aliquando puer timebam. Quamobrem 
'' te vivente intrepidus esse non potero." Unde Seneca 
elegit sibi mortis genus, ut incisione vense in balneo 
moreretur. Et sic quasi quodam prsesagio nomen sor- 
titus est Seneca, quasi se ^ necans. Habuit hie 
Seneca duos fratres, quorum unus, Julius Gallo, opti- 
mus declamator, manu propria se interemit ; alter Mela 
pater Lucani poetse. Qui etiam Lucanus, postquam 
librum suum de incommode civilis discidii composuisset, 
unde Neronem ad concordiam et pietatem emolliret, 
jussu tamen ejusdem Neronis venarum incisione obisse 
fertur, Policratica, lihro octavo.^ Prsefatum Senecam 
quidam contemnere audent, freti auctoritate Quin- 



1 Si, A. I ^ B. omits reference. The com- 

2 et] om.B. I plete reference is cap. 13. 



3 



quasi se] sese, B. 




MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



401 



" J)ou art afeerd of J)is swerd, as sore I ^ am aferde of the, and Trevisa. 

" ^it 1 1 am as sore aferd of the as I was somtyme while I^ was 

" a childe. And f>erfore while |?ou art on lyve ^ I^ may noujt 
*' be wi]> oute drede, but evere in greet drede." perfore Seneca 
chees^ what manere deth he wolde take, and chees ^ to be i-late 
blood in a bathe, and to dye in |>at manere. As so ^ as it 
was^ by a forbledynge^ he hadde j^at name Seneca. For 
Seneca in ^ Latyn is he lpa,t slee]? hym self in ^^ Englisshe, 
pis Seneca hadde tweyne ^^ bre})eren ; oon of hem heet lulius 
Gallo, and was [the] ^^ best declamator of alle. He slow 
hym self wij? his owne bond, pe o])er bro])er heet Mela, 
Lucanus [j»e poete his fader. Also J»is Lucanus,] ^^ whanne 
he hadde i-made his book of ]?e harm and damage of stryf and 
discord bytwene citejeynes.^^ and j^erby he bronjte ^^ Nero^^ 
to acorde and myldenesse, Jit by heste of Nero he was i-slawe 
in blood leest ^^ by kuttynge ^^ of his veynes as it is seide. 
Policratica, libro 8^. Som ben ^^ bolde and hardy "^ to despise 
J)is Seneca, and fondith^^ forto grounde hem^^ uppon ])e 



Ab urbe " soe y drede the, lyke as y did in my yowthe, wherefore y MS. Harl. 
" can not be bolde thow beenge in lyfe." Wherefore Seneca 2261. 

chosede the kynde of his dethe, that he myjht dye in a bathe . 

thro the kyttenge of a veyne ; and so the name of Seneca was grSne.^" 
fullefiUede, callede Seneca as sleenge him selfe. This Seneca 
hade ij. brether ; that oon of whom was callede lulius Gallo, 
a noble declamer, whiche did slee hym selfe. That other 
broker hizhte Mela, fader to Lucan the poete. This Lucan 
makenge a booke of the incommodite of ciuile batelle and 
dethe to Nero, that he my^hte inclyne his herte to Concorde, 
was seide to dye thro the kyttenge of a veyne thro ]?e pre- 
cepte of Nero themperour. Policronicon^ libro octavo. Mony 
men haue audacite to despise Seneca, usenge for theire schelde 



1 ych, i8. (bis). 

2 ich, fi. 

2 alyve, Cx. 

^ ches, 13. (bis). 
^ so] om. Cx. 
^ were, Cx. 

^for hedynge, a., /3., and Cx. 
forhodyng, y. 

^ a, /3., 7., and Cx. 
^0 an, a., fi., and 7. 
^^ two, Cx. 
12 From fi. and Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



$. 



^3 From a., 13., and Cx. 
'^ citesens, 7. ; cyteseins, Cx. 
^5 he brouytel ybro^t, 7. 
16 jS'ero'] om. 7. 

^7 bloodiest, a. ; slayn and blodelescy 
yn blodles, 7. ; slayn in bleding, 



Cx 

'^ kittyng, Cx. 
^^ be];», )3, ; bu]), 7. 
2*^ and hardy'] om. 7. 
^^fondith'] om. Cx. ; foutide\> to 
grounde ham, 7. 
22 him, Cx. 

C C 



402 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

tiliani, qui tamen mihi desipere videntur, cum et ipse 
familiaritatem Pauli ^ meruerit, et ^ beato Jeronimo 
in sanctorum catalago ponatur, cui et ^ fait ingenium 
docile, plurimum studii, multa rerum cognitio: tractavit 
fere omnem studiorum materiam, orationes, poemata, 
epistolas, philosophiam pene omnem ; ubique fidelis 
custos virtutis et hostis vitiorum, in tantum ut aurea 
saecula videretur reformare, et deos humano generi 
reconciliare. Fecit quoque libellos de Beneficiis, de 
dementia, declamationes, tragedias, de naturalibus 
qusestionibus et de Tusculanis,* de casibus fortuitis.^ 
Jeronimus de viris illustrihus.^ Paulus appellans Gmtije. 

^ ^ LVIII. 

Neronis. 

Csesarem Romam vinctus mittitur, ubi per biennium ^^* 
in libera manens custodia, adversus Judaios disputat, et 
postmodum liber dimittitur. Quo in ^ anno Petrus apud 
Romam duos ordinavit episcopos sive coadjutores, 



^ a beato Paulo, B. 

2 a, added in A.B. 

3 et] om. B. 

* qucestionibus, added in B. 



5 de remediis fortuitorum, CD. 
^ illustris (sic), B. The com- 
plete reference is cap. 5. 
7 in] om. A.B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



403 



auctorite of Quintilianus, but me semeth fat ])ej dote]),^ for Trevisa. 

he was worthy to be homeliche ^ [with] ^ Paul, and lerom 

rekeneth hym ^ among holy seyntes. pis Seneca hadde noble 
witte to lerne ^ and to teche, and hadde greet studieng ^ 
and greet knowleche of ]?ynges, and wel nyh^ al matir of 
study of witte ^ and of sciens, he hadde and wroot resouns 
of poetrie and nyh al manere philosofie, and in every doynge 
[he] ^ was good and trewe kepere of vertues, and enemy of 
vices and of synnes, so J>at it semede J^at he made worldes ^^ 
of golde and godes ^^ acorde wij> mankynde. Also he made 
bookes de Beneficiis, de Clemencia, declamaciones, tregideas/^ 
de naturalibus questionibus, et de Tusculanis, de casibus 
fortuitis. /e?'o de viris illustribus. Paul appelede to the 
emperour, and was i-sent y-bounde^^ to Rome, and ]}ere he 
was two Jere in fre warde, and desputed^^ a^enst J»e lewes, and 
was aftirwarde i-lete goo free.^^ pat Jere ' Peter ordeyned at 
Rome tweyne bisshoppes, j^at were helperes to teche ]?e fey ^^ 



Aburbe. the seyenge of Quintilian, whiche seme to deceyve me, sythe MS. Harl. 
he hade grete familiarite with Seynte Paule, and is put in the 2261. 

nowmbre of holy men after the seyenge of Seynte lerome; 

whiche made bookes and tretys allemoste of alle matters ; the *^^^s™i- 



trewe keper of vertu, and the enmy of vices, in so moche that 
he scholde seme to reforme golden worldes, and to reconsile 
goddes to makynde. This Seneca made bokes of benefites, of 
clemency, declamacions, and tragedies, of naturalle questiones, 
and Tusculan, and of chaunces of fortune. Jeronimus de viris 
illustribus. Seynte Paule appellenge or makenge appellacion 
to themperoure, was sende to Rome y-bownde, where he 
taryede in fre kepenge by the space of ij. yere, and disputede 
ageyne the lewes ; after that he was dimitte and wente at 
liberte. In whiche yere Seynte Petyr ordeynede ij. bis- 
choppes at Rome, other ij. helperes to hym, Linus and Cletus, 



gracione. 



^ doute, Cx. 

2 homely, Cx. 

3 From j8., y., and Cx. 
^ hym] om. y. 

^ leurne, y. 

^ studiyng, fi. and Cx. 

7 nye, Cx. 

^ In MS. the words from to lerne 
. . . of witte are repeated by an 
error of the scribe. 



9 From i8. and Cx. 

10 worlles, a. and y. 

11 goddes, )8. 

12 tragedias, fi., y., and Cx. 
1^ bounden, )8. and Cx. 

1^ despuytede, y. 
^^ freo, y. 
^^feith, Cx. 



C C 2 



\% 



4i04i POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Linus et Linuiii et Cletum, ad explendum ministeria sacerdotalia 

Cletus, CO- ' ■*• 

adiutores 

sane 1 e ri. pQp^;[Q supervenienti, non autem pontificalia. Ipse 
enim ^ Petrus orationi et prsedicationi vacabat. Mar- 
tinus} De isto Cleto legitur ^ quod primus in litteris 
suis scripserit " salutem et apostolicam benedictionem/' 
Hie multum commendavit peregrination es factas ad 
sanctos, potissime ad limina apostolorum Petri et Pauli, 
asserens quod validior foret^ ad salutem animae 
apostolorum visitatio quam duorum annorum jejunium. 

Lucas Evan- Hoc quoquc auno Lucas, cum^ Paulo in urbe consti- 

gelista. 

tutus E-omana, scribit ^ Actus Apostolorum, prius tamen 
scripserat evangelium. Circa bunc annum obiit 
Longinus, miles quondam et centurio, qui lancea latus 
Domini jussu Pilati aperuit, ac de sanguine decurrente 
visum recepit, sicque credens, ab apostolis instructus,^ 
apud Caesaream Cappadocise viginti octo annis vitam 



^ enim'] ova. B. 

2 Mariimis'] om. CD. 

3 legitur'] om. B. 
'^fuiU B. 



* cum] om. B. 

^ scj'ipsit, A. 

" instructus] om. A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



405 



of holy cliirche ; Lynus was oon and Cletus ]?at o])er ; forto Trevisa. 

fulfilled ]?e offys ^ of preosthood to ])e peple ])at com, and noujt 

the office of bisshoppes. Peter hym self was occupied in bedes 
and in prechynge. Martinus. Of }>is Cletus hit is i-write 
J?at he wroot first in his lettris '* Salutem et apostolicam bene- 
" dictionem," ])at is, greetynge^ and J»e apostles blissynge. pis 
preysed * moche pilgrimage i-doo to holy seintes, and special- 
liche to j^e apostles Peter and Paul ;^ and seide |>at oon visitynge 
of ]7e apostles was more helpliche ^ to a man his soule l>an two 
^eres fastynge. Also ]?at ^ere Lukeas '' was wij? Poule ^^ in J?e 
citee of Rome, and wroot ]7e book fat hatte ^ Actus Aposto- 
lorum ; but he hadde i-wrete ^^ ]?e gospel to forehonde.^^ 
Aboute ])at J ere deyde Longius,!^ [the] ^^ kny^t and cen- 
turio^^ jmt opened!^ Crist his side^*^ wif» a spere at Pilatus his 
heste,^'^ and feng his sight ^^ by ]3e blood ])at ran uppon }>e 
spere out of Cristes side ; and so he trowide ^^ in Crist, and was 
i-taujht of ])e apostles, and wente to Cesaria 20 in Capadocia, 



Aburbe. to fullefiUe the ministery off pristes to the peple commenge to MS. Hakl. 
theyme, and notte the pontificalles, for Seyute Petyr Jafe his 2261. 
laboure to preier and to prechynsre. Martinus, Hit is redde * ^„ • 
that this Cletus did wiyte lirste in his letters salutem et gracione. 
apostolicam benedictionem, whiche commended gretely pil- f- 209. b. 
gremages, and specially the visitation of thapostles at Rome, 
seyenge that the pilgrimage made to thapostles was more 
meritorius to the sawle then the faste of ij. yere. Seynte 
Luke and Seynte Paule did wryte the Actes of the Apostles in 
the cite of Rome, nevertheless e thei hade wry ten afore the 
gospelle of Criste. Longius the knyjhte and centurio diede 
abowte this yere, whiche openede the side of oure Lorde with 
a spere by the commaundement of Pilate, and receyvede si^hte 
of that precious blode in towchenge his eien with hit. Whiche 
belevenge in Criste, and instructe in the feithe by thapostles, 
wente to Cesarea of Capadocia, where he lyvede a monasticalle 



^ fulfulle, 7. 
2 thoffice^ Cx., bis. 
^ greting, Cx. 
'^ praised, $. and Cx. 
* Poul, i8. 

^ more helpyng, 7. ; most helpli, 
Cx. 

' Lucas, a., )3., 7., and Cx. 

8 Paul, Cx. 

9 hete, Cx. 

10 write, /8. and Cx. 



^' afore, Cx. 

'2 Loyiginus, a., $., and 7. 

^3 From j8. and Cx. 

^* and centurio^ om. Cx. 

'5 opnede, 7. 

^^ his side'] om. Cx. 

^^ at Pilatus his heste] om. Cx. 

'^ to fie his syhte, Cx. 

^^ trouwede, 7. 

20 Cesarea, fi. and Cx. 



406 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



monasticam duxit, plurimos ad fidem convertens, tan- 
dem martyr occubuit. Persins, satiricus et poeta, mori- 
tur. Ranulphus} Fuerunt autem plures poetse quam 
satirici. Dicitur enim poeta a fictione, qualis fuit 
Virgilius, potissime in -^neid, et Ovidius. Satiricus 
dicitur a saturitate materise sive reprehensionum, quas 
invehebant contra delinquentes, et fuerunt tres tales, 
scilicet Persius, Horatius, Juvenalis. Isidorus, lihro 
septimo, capitulo septiono.^ Officium poetse est ut ea 
quae vere gesta sunt in species alias obliquis figura- 
tionibus cum decore aliquo conversa transmutent. 
Inde est quod, sicut poetse viderunt templa ceteris 
domibus pulchriora, et simulacra corporibus majora 
Diis suis construi, ita eloquio augustiore et venustiore 
Decs honorandos putaverunt ; unde et quidam poetarum 
tbeologi dicti sunt, quoniam de diis carmina faciebant. 



^ Ranulphus'] om. B.C.D. 

- Ubro tertio, B. ; CD. omit refer- 



ence. The correct reference is lib. 
viii. cap. vii. 



MONACKI CESTRENSIS, LIB. TV. 



407 



and lyvede holy lyf eyjte and twenty ^ere, and convertedo Tkevisa. 

and 1 tornede meny men to J>e fey ^ of holy chirche, and deide 

martir at ]>e laste. Persius Satiricus a ^ poet is deed.^ [^] ^ 
pere were more ^ poetes ])an satirices. Poeta ha)? J?at name 
of feynynge, and suche on ^ was Virgil, specialliche in his 
Eneyd,^ and Ovidius. Satiricus is [y-] ^ seide of saturitas, 
pat is fulnesse of pe matir, o])ev of the reprovynges ^^ fat pey 
speke ajenst wikked^^ men and evel levynge, for ]>ey speke 
}>erof at J?e fulle.^^ And J>ere were J^re [such],!^ Persius, 
Oracius, and luvenalis. Ysidorus, libro 8, capitulo 7°. pe 
office of a poet is forto telle pinges |?at bee)? ^^ soo)? in dede 
by oJ?ir liknesse and chaungynge, with florischynge of ^^ faire 
manere of spekynge. perfore it is pat ^^ as poetes sigh ^^ pat 
temples were fairer pan oper hous,^^ and mawmettes ^^ huger ^o 
pan opir ^^ bodies, so pey trowed pat goddes schulde be wor- 
schipped wip the more ^^ faire and noble spekynge ; perfore 
som poetes beep i-cleped 23 dy vynes, £for pey made here 



Aburbe. life by xxviij^' yere, and convertede mony peple to the feithe MS. Harl. 
of Criste, and at the laste he diede a martir. Persius Satiricus ^^^' 
the poete diede this tyme. ^. There were mony poetes ^ transmi- 
whiche were not callede Satirici, for the name of a poete is gracione. 
seide of feynenge, as Virgille was specially in Eneydos, and 
Ovidius was callede Satiricus of fuUefyllenge of the mater, 
other elles of reprovenges whom they invecte ageyne tres- 
passoures. And of suche men were iij. specially, Persius, 
Oracius, and luvenalle. Isidorus, libro octavo, capitulo septimo. 
The office of a poete is to transmute those thynges whiche be 
doen truly in to other similitudes in oblike liguraciones with 
pulcritude. Therefore hit is that poetes enhauncede temples 
and ryalle edifications for the magnitude and beawte off theyme, 
and the similacres of theyme to be honourede as goddes. 
Wherefore somme poetes be callede diuynes, in that they made 



* convertede and"] om. Cx. 
^fayth, Cx. 

3 and^ «•> 7-, and Cx. 

^ is deed"] dyed, Cx. 

^ From a., /8., 7., and Cx. 

^ mo, j8. and 7. 

7 oon, /8. ; one, Cx. 

^ Eneidis, Cx, 

* From a. and 7. 
10 reprevingis, Cx. 

^2 attefolle, 7. 



^' From 7. and Cx. ; siche, fi. 

" ben, Cx. 

^* and, a., fi., and Cx. 

^6 it is J>af] hyt ys no^t \>Sit, 7. 

17 syy, fi. ; si/e, Cx. 

^^ howses, Cx. 

^^ mametes, 7. 

20 houger, 7. ; heyer, Cx. 

2^ o})«>] om. 7. 

22 more'] om. Cx. 

2^ ben called, Cx. 



408 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Ramilijhus} Ex his videtur quod Lucanus non fuerit^ 
poeta, sed historicus,® cum tres historias civilis discidii 
contexerit, nisi forte quoad modum intermiscendi poe- 
jacobT*^ mata.'* Eusehius in historiis ecclesiasticis} Jacobus ^xif' 

Minoris. Neronis. 

VI. 

minor, episcopus Jerosolimorum, occisus est viii. Kalen- 
dis Aprilis, die Paschse tricesimo anno post passionem 
Domini. Hic^ primo lapidatus est a Judseis vindi- 
cantibus in eum quod Paulum occidere nequivissent. 
Deinde pertica fullonis est excerebratus. Ranulphus? 
Eusebius in historiis ecclesiasticis,^ libro secundo, capi- 
tulo secundo,^ tradit istum Jacobum fuisse filium Joseph 
sponsi Marise ex altera uxore, et ob hoc vocatum 
fuisse fratrem Domini, sed verius sent it Jeronimus 
istum fuisse filium alterius Marise, sororis Marise matris 
Domini, ex marito^^ Alpheo. Obiit Marcus Evangelista Gratis. 

LV. (sic.) 
Neronis. 

apud Alexandriara -^gypti, discipulus et interpres Petri, ^^^ 
cujus evangelium, Romse scriptum, Petrus approbavit, 



^ Ranulphus] om. CD. 

2 fuit, B. 

3 sed historicus'\ om. A.B. 
* dicendi poeta, B. 

^ A.B. C.I), omit reference; in 
^IS. scolasticis, et infra. The com- 
plete reference is lib. ii. cap. i. 



^ qui, B. 

7 This passage to Alpheo is 
omitted in B.C.D. 

^ historia ecclesiastica, A. ; sco- 
lasticis, MS. 

' It is cap. primo. 

'0 marito^ om. A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



409 



deytee ^ of goddes. [5c.] ^ Here ^ it semeth |>at Lucanus was Trevisa. 

no poet whan he made pre stories of ]>& stryf of citeseynes, but 

^if it were by ]>e manere of mellynge of poyesyes.*^ pe lasse 
lames, bisshop of lerusalem, was i-slawe sevene dayes to fore 
Averel,^ in the Ester ^ tyme, pritty [yere] ^ aftir ]>& passioun 
of oure Lord. Firste pe lewes [they] ^ stened pis ^ lames 
for wreche ^^ J?at pey myjte noujt slee Poule,^^ and aftirward 
))ey smyte out his brayn wip a walkere his perche.^^ [_^.'] ^^ 
Eusebius, in Historia Ecclesiastica, libro 2% capitulo 2^, seip 
pat pis lames was pe sone of loseph oure lady spouse, y-gete 
on his o]?er wif,^'* and J)erfore he was cleped our Lordes bro])er. 
But lerom meenej; more sopeliche ^^ pat he was J)e sone of the 
oper Marye, oure lady suster, and his fadir heet^^ Alpheus. 
Mark pe gospellour,!^ Paule his disciple and his mener.^^ deide 
at Alexandria in Egipt. His gospel was i-write ^^ at Rome, 
and Peter appreved it, and allowed ^^ it, and took hit forto be 



A transmi- 

gracioiie. 

f. 210. a. 



Ab urbe. tretys and dites of goddes. lames the lesse, bischop of leru- MS. Harl. 
salem, was sleyne the viij*^® kalendes of Aprile, in the tyme of 2261. 
Ester, in the xxx*^ yere after the passion of Criste. Whiche 
was stonede firste of the lewes, chalaungenge in hym that he 
cowthe not putte Seynte Paule to dethe, and after that he was 
putte to dethe on a fuller's perche. R. Eusebius in his story 
ecclesiasticalle rehersethe this lames the lesse to haue bene the 
sunne of loseph howsebonde to oure Lady, and for that to 
have be callede the broper of oure Lorde. But Seynte lerom 
understondethe the trawthe, seyenge hym to haue bene the 
Sonne of Alpheus, maryenge the suster of oure Lady. Mathewe 
theuangeliste, the disciple and interpretator of Seynte Petyr, 
the gospelle of whom sende to Rome Seynte Petyr didde ap- 



^ d7/te, a. ; dites, Cx. 

" From a., fi., and Cx. 

' Hereby, a. and )8. ; Herhy, y. ; 
Thereby, Cx. 

^ poysyes, fi. ; medhjng of poises, 
Cx. 

5 afore April, Cx. 

6 E stern, Cx. 

1 From 3., 7-> ^^^ Cx. 
s From Cx. 

9 }pis'] om. Cx, 

10 wreche'] anger, Cx. 
" Paul, Cx. 

12 a walkers staf Cx. 



12 From a., fi., y., and Cx., but a 
space is left in MS. 

1'* The leaves of y. are here 
wrongly arranged. The following 
numbers (according to the present 
numbering) should follow each 
other, 140, 143, 142, 141, 144. 

1-^ sofhly, Cx. 

16 hete, Cx. 

iJ' gospeler, fi. and Cx. 

1^ mever, y. and Cx. 

1^ wreten, Cx. 

-0 alowyd, Cx. 



410 



POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 



et legendum ^ tradidit. Eusehius in historiis ecclesi- ^^^ 

. , . Neronis. 

asticis, Linus episcopus passus est Komse octavo xii. 
kalendas Decembris ; cui Cletus successit annis duo- 
decim. Hoc anno Petrus Komam pergit ad expiig- ^^}^- 

Neronis. 

nandum Symonem magum, genere Samaritanum, quern ^m- 
prius apud Csesaream devicerat et a Judsea fugaverat. 
Symon itaque apud ^ Romam populum congregaverat, 
dicens se * offensum a Galileis, Petro et Paulo. Idcirco 
dixit se relicturum Romam, quam diu defenderat, con- 
stituitque diem quo coelum ascendat ; quo adveniente 
ad omnem carminum suorum potentiam se convertit,^ 
affirmantibus qui ex parte ejus erant Christum nihil 
tale unquam fecisse. Ipse tamen ad orationem Petri 
de volatu suo cecidit, et confractus est.^ Nero^ dolens 
talem adjutorem sibi sublatum, posuit Petrum in 
custodia, qui sentiens finem sibi adesse, ordinavit 
Clementem pro se episcopum. Ipse quoque^ ad 



^ ecclesiis, A.B. 

2 A.B. CD. omit reference. The 
complete reference is lib. iii. cap. 13. 

^ apud'] ova. A. 

^ esse, B. 

^ Montem CapitoUum ascendit, ac 
se de rape ejicens volare cepit, added 
in B. 

^ Ipse . . . est.'] B. has, in- 
stead of this passage, " et de medio 
" popull ascendit in aera. Apostoli 
" autem viderimt duos damones 
" eum ferentes. Ait autem Paulus 



" ad beatum Petrum * Magister, 
*' * quamdiu durabit ista erronea ? * 
" et prajcepit eos Petrus in nomine 
" Salvatoris ut eum dimitterent. 
" Ibique ipse ad petitionem beati 
" Petri de volatu suo cecidit in 
" medio populi, et confractus." 

7 autem, B. 

^ Ipse quoque] Tunc recordatus 
illius evangelici dicti, scilicet, Cum 
prosequentur vos in unam civita- 
tem fligite in aliam, beatus Petrus, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



411 



rad in chirchis. Linus ]>& bisshop suffrede de)) at Rome Teevisa, 

sevene dayes to fore ^ Decembre. Aftir [hym] ^ Cletus was 

his successour xij. Jere. pat Jere^ Peter wente to Rome, to 
withstonde and to * put of Symon Magus, Ipixt come of ])e 
Samaritanes. Peter hadde over come hym to forehonde ^ at 
Cesarea, and i-chased ^ hym out of pQ lewerye. Symon 
Magus gadrede pe peple to gidres ^ at Rome, and seide J?at 
Petir and Poule,^ men of Galile, had i-greved hym sore, and 
]?erfore he wolde forsake Rome, ]^at he [had] ^ diffended longe 
tyme ; and |)an he sette aday whan he woide stye^^ up into 
hevene. And whan ])at day was i-come he turned to and 
kydde ^^ al the myght of his wicche^^ craft, pan ]>ey ])at were 
in his side seide ^at Crist dede nevere suche a dede. But at ]?e 
pray ere of Peter he fil down of his fli^t, and was al to broke 
and to brosyd.i^ Nero was sory ]?at he hadde y-lost suche ^* 
an helpere, and putte Petir in warde, and Peter knewe fat 
his ende day was nygh,!^ and made Clement bisshop in his 



Ab urbe. probate, diede this yere at Alexandria of Egipte. Linus the MS. Harl. 
bischop suffrede passion at Rome this tyme, the viij*^® kalendes 2261. 
of December, whom Cletus succeded xij. yere. Seynte Petyr ^ ^j."^^!. 
wente to Rome to expugne Symon Magus in this yere, a gracioue. 
Samaritan of kynde, whom he hade deuicte afore at Cesarea, 
and causede hym to fle from the lewery. Thys Symon Magus 
hade gedrede the peple off Rome of his secte, seyenge hym to 
be trowblede with men off Galile, Petyr and Paule, wherefore 
he seide that he wolde leve Rome. Neuerthelesse he prefixede a 
day in whom he wolde ascende to hevyn, whiche commen he 
schewede his arte and connynge, and ascendede in to the aier, 
wherefore the Romanes seide Criste never to haue doen suche 
a thynge in hys lyfe. But Symon Magus hade a soore falle 
thro the preier of Seynte Petyr, where J)ro his body was broken. 
Nero themperour sorowenge his dethe, putte Seynte Petyr in to 
kepenge, whiche knowenge thende of hys lyfe to drawe nere 
ordeynede and made Seynte Clemente bischop, to reioyce his 



^ afore, Cx. 

' From a.,y8,, 7., and Cx. 

3 yere'j om. Cx. 

■* to'] om. Cx. 

5 afore, Cx. 

^ chaced, Cx. 

7 togider, Cx. 

8 Paul, Cx. 



9 From /3., y., and Cx. 

10 sti/ye, /8. 

11 kudde, y. 
1^ wj/ch, y. 

13 brused, a., fi., 7,, and Cx. 

1^ sich, )8. 

15 neyy, $. ; ni/e, Cx. 



412 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

insfcantiam fratrum dum saevitiam Neronis subter- 
fugere ^ temptaret, in porta urbis Roin?e Christo occur- 
rit, cui et ^ ait, Domine, quo vadis ? At ille, Vado 
Bomaon iterum crucifigi. Petrus autem intelligens de 
sua dictum passione, reversus est in urbem, et captus 
[est] ^ a custodibus, supino capite suspensus est in cruce. 
Cujus corpus Marcellus discipulus ejus, nullius senten- 
tiam [exspectans],* propriis manibus de cruce deposuit, 
et in Yaticano sepelivit, post vicesimum quintum 
annum Romani episcopatus, ultimo Neronis anno. Nero 
una et eadem die Petrum cruce, Paulum gladio, 
occumbere fecit. Vespasianum ducera ad subigendum 
Judseos, avaritiam Flori prsesidis non fe rentes, Judseam 
mittit. Orosius.^ Qui ^ cum audiret Galbam ^ in 



^/ugere, B. 

2 ef] om. B. 

3 est'} from A. 

* exspectans'] from A.B. 



5 Lib. vi. cap. 7. 

6 Nero, B. 

7 Galium, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



413 



stede.i Also at J^e ^ instaunce ^ of brejjereii* he wolde fonde Trevisa. 

to ascape ^ Nero his tyrandise,^ and mette Crist in pe J ate of 

pe citee, and seide, " Lord, whedir goost ]?ow ? " '^ '* I goo," 
quo)) Crist, "to Rome, for® to be^ i-nayled to ])e cros a^en." ^^ 
panne Petir undirstood pat it was i-seide of his owne pas- 
sioun, and torned ajen into ))e citee, and was i-take of j?e 
wardeynes, and i-honged in ^^ ])e cros,^^ and his heed dounward. 
His disciples 13 Marcellus abood no man his ^* sentence noj^er 
leve, but took Peter doun of ])e croys ^^ wip his owne hondes, 
and buried liym in a place pat hatte ^^ Vaticanus, aftir the fy ve 
and twenty ^ere of pe bisshopriche of Rome. In Nero his laste 
^ere, Nere ^^ dede Peter on ^® pe cros, and made Paul i-slawe 
wip a swerd, al in oon day, and sent pe duke A'^aspacianua ^^ 
in to pe lewerie,^^ to make the lewes suget,^! pat wolde noujt 
suffre pe covetise of Floures ^^ pat was iustice. Eutropius. 



Ab urbe. place and office. Seynte Petyr movede to escape from prison MS. Harl 
by his breper, mette oure Savioure Criste at a Jate in Rome, 2261. 
to whom he seide : *' O Lorde, wheper goethe pow ? '' Criste ^ transmi- 
seide : "I goe to Rome to be crucifiede ageyne." Seynte gracione. 
Petyr understoudenge that to be seide of his person, returnede 
to Rome, whiche taken of his kepers was hongede, his hedde 
beenge downwarde towarde the grownde. The body of whom 
Marcellus his disciple toke downe from thecrosse, abydenge f. 210. b. 
not the sentence off eny man, and beryede hit in the laste yere 
of Nero. That emperour Nero commaunded Petyr and Paule 
to be sleyne, and to be putte to dethe in oon day, Seynte 
Petyr suffrenge pe dethe of the crosse, and Paule was heded with 
a swerde. Nero sende that tyme a noble man to the lewery, 
Vespasian by name, to make the lewes subiecte, not willenge 
to suffre the avarice of Florus presidente per. Eutropius. 



^ studCy y. 
2 J>e] om. Cx. 
2 instauns, a. and 7. 
'* bre]peron, y. 
^Jinde to escape, Cx. 
^ tirauntre, fi. ; tyraundys, y 
Neroes tirannie, Cx. 
7 whether gost thou, Cx. 
^ for'] om. Cx. 
^ he Z-] om. 7. 



10 



crosse agein, Cx, 



" on, 0. 



^- 071 the crosse, Cx. 
^2 disciple, a., $., and Cx. ,• di/- 
scyple, y. 
^'^ abode no mannes, )8. and Cx. 
^'' crosse, Cx. 
16 hete, Cx. 
^' Nero, )8., 7., and Cx. 



18 



a., fi., y., and Cx. 



1^ due Vaspasianus, Cx. 
-° Jewry, Cx. 

21 subgette, Cx. 

22 Florus, o., j8,, 7., and Cx. 



414 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Hispania imperatorem creatum, animo concidit. Inde 

ob mala reipublicse machinata, hostis a senatu pronun- 

ciatus, ad quartum ab urbe miliarium fugiens/ in sub- 

urbano libeitini sui semetipsum occidit, anno setatis 

[suae] tricesimo secnndo, in quo omnis familia Augusti 

Caesaris consumpta est. Petro passo Clemens successit, 

qui etiam vivente Petro novem^ annis ecclesiam 

rexerat sub Petro, ac post Petrum xxi. annis prsesedit,^ 

videlicet, duodecim annis cum Lino et Cleto, et novem ^ 

annos post illos^ solus,^ usque dum in exilium 

mitteretur. Hie autem Clemens, tanquam vir providus, 

mortao Petro, prsecavens in futurum ne per hoc 

exemplum quilibet passim sibi statueret successorem, 

et sic quasi hereditarie possideretur sanctuarium Dei, 

Lino cessit et postmodum [Cleto].^ Hie itaque Clemens 

multos libros Christianse religionis conscripsit, Linum 

et Cletum ante se^ pontificare fecit. Et ita Clemens 

iste primus est post Petrum per electionem, sed tertius 



"^fugiens] om. B. 

2 14, B. 

3 sub . . . prasedit] om. B. 
* eos, B. 



^ solus"] om. B. 

6 Cleto'] from A.B. 

7 se] om. A. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. IV. 



415 



Whanne he lierde^ fat Galba in Speyne 2 was i-made em- Trevisa. 
perour, ]>an he lost al confort ; ^ and for harmes J)at he hadde — — 
i-doo and bypou^t to^ fe comounte,^ ]>e senatoures domed 
hym for an enemy,^ and he fli^ ^ foure myle fro ]?e citee, and 
slowj hym self in a subarbe of his bondeman, ]>at he hadde 
i-made free,^ }>e }ere of his owne age two and ])ritty. pat _^ere 
al J)e meyne of Augustus Cesar was consumpte. Whan Peter 
hadde i-su£fred deth, ]?anne Clement come aftir hym ; ^ Clement 
hadde governed holy chirche nyne Jere under Peter while he 
was on lyve,^^ and aftir Peter ^^ he was bisshop two and 
twenty Zere, twelve ^ere with Linus and Cletus, and after 
hem nyne jere by hymself allone for to ^^ he was exciled.^^ 
pis Clement as a wise man and a ^^ war, for to be war ^^ 
of meschief ])at myjt falle aftirward Jif everiche^^ oj^er wolde 
make hym a successour by J»at ensample of Peter, and so holy 
dignyte myjte falle into ^^ possessioun as it were by heritage ; ^^ 
))erfore he resignede his dignite to Linus, and aftirward to 
Cletus. Also f is Clement [wroot meny bookes of Cristen ^^ 
lawe, and made Linus and Cletus bysshops to fore hym. And 
so l)is Clement] 20 was ]?e firste aftir Peter by elleccioun,^! 



Ab urbe. This emperour Nero herenge Galba to be made emperour in MS. Harl. 
Speyne, fledde with a certeyne men to a place of a libertyne of 2261. 
his, iiii. myles from Rome, and did sle hym selfe ber in the , , . 
xxxij. yere of his age. In whiche place alle Ipe men of his gracione. 
felowschippe were pereschede. Clement the pope succeded 
after Seynte Petyr, whiche governede that chirche ix. yeres 
afore the dethe of Seynte Petyr, and after Seynte Petyr xxij. 
yere, that is to say, xij. yere with Linus and Cletus, andix. yere 
allone after theyme un til that he was sende to exile. This 
Clemente made mony noble bookes of Cristen feythe, causenge 
Livius and also Cletus to be bischoppe afore hym, and so this 
Clemente was the firste by eleccion after Petur, and the thridde 



^ hurde, y. 
2 Spayn, a,, 



/3,, and 7. 
Cx. 
3 comforter Cx. 
^ to'] om. Cx. 
5 comynte, $., y., and Cx. 



Spain, 



* enmye, Cx. 



7Jled, Cx. 

^freo, y. 

^ and, added in y. 

^^ alyve, Cx. 

" and aftir Peter"] om. Cx. 



^2 al oonfor to, )8. ; aloonfor tho, 
Cx. 

^^ for to \>at a was exiled, y. ; 
exyled, Cx. 

" a] om. Cx. 

^5 ware, Cx. 

^^ every, Cx. 

^7 yw, a. ; in, y. and Cx. 

^^ eritage, y. 

^^ Crystene, y. 

20 From a., $., and 7. 

^^ election, Cx. 



410 POLYCHEONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 

per gradum. Ejus corpus in mare Cersone ^ demersum, 
a beato Cyrillo/ Sclavorum apostolo, post aliquos annos 
repertura, tempore Nicholai primi Romee delatum.^ 
Gaufridus^ et Alfridus et Willelmius de Regihus.^ 
Circa hsec tempora Marius filius Arviragi regnavit 
apud Britannos ; ^ cujus diebus quidam rex Pictorum 
Rhodricus/ de Scythia^ veuiens, borealem partem Brit- 
tanise, quae Albania sive Scotia dicitur, occupavit,^ 
qui tandem a Mario occisus est. In cujus signum 
triumphi, rex lapidem erexit in ilia provincia quae, a 
nomine suo, Westmaria dicitur, id est Westemerlond. 
Est autem in lapide illo adhuc sic inscriptum '}^ Marii^^ 
VictoTiceP Ranulphus. Hie fuit Willelmus Malmes- 
bury '^ deceptus, putans liunc lapidis titulum ad Marium 
consulem Romanum pertinere ; nee mirum, cum ipse 
Britannicum librum non legisset, ubi de Mario rege 
continetur.^^ Post lisec Marius devicto populo Rodrici 



^ Cersojie^ om. B. 

2 Cirillo, MS. 

' CersoncB delatum est, B. 

•* Hist. Reg. Brit. iv. 17. 

5 Gaufiidus, A.B. ; Alfridus, 
CD. There is no such passage in 
Willelmus de Regihus. 

^ Britonu (sic), A. 



7 Geoffrey reads Rodric. 
^ Schicia, MS. 

^ Rhodricus . . . occupavii] om. 
B. 

^" sic inscriptum^ scriptum, B. 
^^ Marii ... continetur'] om. CD. 
'- Victoria, B. 
" de Malmesbyri, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, MB. IV. 



417 



and ]}e })rid(le in degree of ordre, ffor Lynns and Cletus were Trevisa. 

bytwene Peter and hym. His body ^ was i-]?rowe into the see 

Cerson ; and after meny ^eres oon Cirillus, apostel of j^e Sclaves, 
fond hit, and brou^t it to Rome in ]>& firste NichoP his tyme. 
Gaufridus. Aboute pat tyme Marius, j^e sone of Arviragus, 
regnede in Britayne. In his tyme oon Rodoricus,^ kyng of 
Pictes, come out of Schicia,^ and occupiede the nor}) ^ partie of 
Britayne, |?at partie hi^t ^ Albania, and nowe it hatte ^ Scot- 
hmde. But at pe laste Marius slowj Rodoricus,^ and in 
mynde ^ of |)at victorie [kyng] ^ Marius rerede a stoon in ]7at 
place, J)e whiche contray is i-cleped by his name West Maria, 
|)at is Westmerlond ; Jit it is i- write ^ in j^at^^ stoon " Marii 
" victorie."ii Here Willelmus ^^ of Malmesbury was descey ved,!^ 
])at trowed ^* J>at ^^ this stoon was rerede ^^ in mynde ^ of 
Marius pe consul of Rome. But it is no wonder, for ^^ he hadde 
nou^t i-rad ^^ ])e Brittisshe book, j^ere it is i-write ^^ of Marius 
J)e kyng. Aftirward Marius pe kyng grauntede to Rodoricus ^^ 



Ab urbe. bischoppe in ordre. The body of whom drownede in the see MS. Haul, 
Cerson, was founde by blessede Cirillus, thapostelle of men of 2261. 

Sclavia, and browjhte to Rome in the tyraes of ]?e firste . 

Nicholas. Gaufridus. Marius the son of Arviragus reignede grlS^!" 
this tyme in Briteyne. In whos tyme a kynge of the Pictes 
Rodricus, commenge from Sichia, occupiede the northe partes 
of Albania, callede nowe Scottelande. Whiche sleyne by 
Marius, a ston was erecte in signe of triumphe and of victory 
in that prouince of Westemarelonde, by |?e name of Marius, in 
whom hit is writen in this wise, " The victories of Marius." 
^.. William Malmesbur was deceyvede here, supposenge the 
writenge of that ston to perteyne to Marius the consul of 
Rome, and noo mervayle, for he see neuer the boke of the 
gestes of Britones, in whom hit is expressede of Marius the 
kynge. This Marius hauenge the victory of Rodricus, Jafef-211.a. 



^ bodi, Cx. 

2 Nicolas, /8. ; Nycholas, Cx. 
•^ Rodricus, /3. and 7. ; Bodicus, 
Cx., et infra. 
•* Sicia, Cx. 
^ worJ>] ora. . 
6 hete, Cx. (bis). 
"^ muynde, 7. 

^ From a., /8., 7., and Cx. 
'•^ wretotiy Cx. 
10 \>aq a, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



" 9>, added here in $. and 7. 

^- Wyllelmus, Cx. 

13 disseyved, Cx. 

^^ troweth, Cx. 

15 ]?«<] om. Cx. 

1^ reerde, Cx. 

^"^ for^ om. Cx. 

1** radde, Cx. 

''•^ wreten, Cx. 

2" Rodycus, Cx. 

D D 



418 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHT HIGDEN 



concessit terrain Catanesise/ in ultimis finibus Albanise, 
ad inhabitandum, prout supra dicitur, libro primo, 
capitulo ultimo.^ 

Cap. X. 

[De Galha, Othone, Vitellio, Vespasianoque impera- 

toTibus.'] 

Galea Servius post Neronem regnavit septem mensi- Gratiae. 

IiXXI. 

Galba. 

bus, ab Hispanis et Gallis electus anno setatis susb sep- ■^* 
tuagesimo tertio, antiquse nobilitatis senator, cujus vita 
privata insignis erat, et ssepe consul, ssepe proconsul, 
ssepe dux gravium bellorum fuerat.^ Pisonem nobilem 
juvenem in filium et heredem adoptavit ; ambo tamen 
otho. insidiis Othonis in medio ^ foro occubuerunt. Otho 
Lucius regnavit tribus mensibus, qui cum Vitellium crea- 



^ CatenesioE, A. ; Cathenesye, B. ; 
Cathenesia, Geoffrey. 

- CD. add : " Qui cum a Britoni- 
" bus uxores habere non possent, 
*' ab Hibemiensibus receperunt eo 



" pacto, ut successio per matemum 
" genus descenderet." 

^ Orosius. Cumque omni avantia 
et scEvitia offenderetur, CD. 

'* medio'] om. B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



419 



his men, ))at were overcome, ]>e lond of Catenesey ^ ]?at is in Trevtsa. 
J>e laste endes of Scotlond for to wonye ynne,^ as it is [y-] ^ 
seide in pe laste chapitre of |>e firste book. Galba»^ 



Capitulo decimo. 

Galea Servius regnede aftir Nero sevene monfes,^ 
i-chose of Spaynyellus^ and of^ Galles, ]?e ^ere of his age 
\>re score and ])rittene,^ and hadde be a senatour of olde 
nobelle.^ His prive^^ lyf was ful noble, and hadde ofte 
i-be consul, and ofte proconsul, and ofte duke^^ and ledere 
of grete batailles and harde. He made oon Poysone,^^ a 
noble Jonglyng,^^ his sone adoptiuus and his eyr,i^ but by 
awaite ^^ of oon Otho J^ey were bo])e deede in J?e myddel of fe 
chepynge place. Otho Lucius regnede thre monies :^^ whanne 



Ab ui'be. licence to his peple to inhabite a cuntre in the laste costes of MS. Hakl. 
Albania callede Cateneyse, as hit is rehersede afore, libro j*'. 2261. 
capitulo ultimo. At^mi- 

gracione. 



Capitulum decimum. 

Galea Seruius electe by men of Speyne and of Fraunce, Galba. 
in the Ixxiij. yere of his age, a senator of olde nobiUte, whiche 
reigned after Nero vij. monethes. The priuate lyfe of whom 
was noble, nowe a consul and an o]?er tyme proconsul, the 
gouernoure of soore batelles. Whiche desirede a noble yonge 
man, Pison by name, to be his heire and successour. Neuer- 
thelesse thei bothe were sleyne in the markethe place of Rome 
by Otho themperour. Otho Lucius reignede thre monethes, Otho. 



^ Catenesij y. 

2 dwelle there ynne, Cx. 

3 From a, and y. 

■* Galba'] om. Cx. 
^ monetkeSy Cx. 

^ Spaynols, )8. ; Spaynyels, y. 
Spaynerdys, Cx. 
7 of] om. Cx. 
^ thryten, Cx. 



' nobley, /8. and Cx. ; noblete, y. 

V) pryvy, Cx. 

" duk, Cx. 

12 pison, fi. and y. ; pysonne, Cx. 

1^ yong man, Cx. 

1^ heer, Cx. 

1' awayt, y. 

1^ monethes, Cx., passim. 

DD 2 



420 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

turn ^ imperatorem in Gallia per Germanicas legion es ^ 

audisset, bella civilia molitus est; in quorum tribus 

primis victor existens, in quarto cum videret suos suc- 
cumbere, ait se tanti non esse ut propter eum bellum 

civile surgeret, sicque sese interfecit. Vitellius post Otho- viteiiius. 

nem regnavit quasi mensibus septem, qui cum ssevitia 

notabilis esset, tantse^ tamen ingluviei fertur indulsisse,* 

ut cum de die ssepe quater, ssepe quinquies cibaret, in 

ccena tamen quadam^ duo millia piscium et septem 

millia avium apposita traduntur. Hic^ Vespasianum 

regnare metuerit, Sabinum ^ fratrem ejus occidit; 

deinde cum in quandam cellam timide se couclusisset, 

a ducibus Vespasiani inde protractus,^ per urbem 

nudus palam est ductus, capite erecto, supposito ad 



* reatum altered to creatum, A. ; 
qui cum reatum (sic), B. 

^ creatum, B. 

^ tantum, B. 

^ indulsisse'] from A.B. ; indul- 
cisscy MS. 



^ quadam'] oin.A.B. 
^ cum^ A.B. 
7 Salinum, B. 
^ pertractus, A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



421 



he herde ]?at ^ere ^ pere was an emperour i-mado in Gallia by Trevisa. 

legiouns ^ of i&ermania he rayed ^ batailles pat beep i-cleped ^ 

bella civilia, and hadde the victorie in thre pe firste^ batailles; 
and in ^ pe fburpe '' batayle, whanne he seie ^ his men overset 
and falle to grounde, he seide pat he was nou^t so worpy that 
civile bataile schulde for hym arise, and so he slowj ^ hymself. 
Vitellius^^ regnede after Otho as it were seven monpes, and 
was strong and noble, but he was so greet ^^ a glotoun ^^ pat 
he eet somday pries, somday foure si pes, [and somday fyve 
sipes].!^ But at oon sopere were i-sette tofore hym two 
powsand fisches^'* and seven powsand foules, so it is i-write. 
pis dradde ^^ pat Vaspacianus schulde regue, and slow^ his 
brother Sabynus, and panne for drede he hydde ^^ hym, and 
closed hym in a welle ;^'' and dukes pat were wip Vaspasianus 
drow^ hym oute, and so he was openliche^^ and naked i- 
drawe ^^ poru^ ^^ the citee, and hilde ^^ up his heed an high,^^ 
and a scharp swerd was sette undir his chyn, and alle men prewe 



Ab urbe. whiche understondenge an other emperour to be made in MS. Harl. 
Fraunce, instorede a ciuile batelle, in thre of the firste batelles 2261. 
of whom he hade victory ; whiche seenge his men to be sleyne . ^ . 
abowte hym in the iiij^^^ batelle, seide that he was not worthy that gracioue. 
peple scholde be soe destroyede by hys meane, wherefore he did 
slehym selfe. Vitellius reignede after Otho vij. monethes, whiche Vitellms. 
was seide to haue Jiffen suche attendaunce to glotony, that he 
wolde fede hym with meytes iiij. or v. tymes in a day. Whiche 
Avas seide to haue hade afore hym in oon soper ij. m^ of fisches 
and vij. m+ of briddes. This Vitellius dredenge leste that 
Vespasian scholde reigne, did sle Sabynus, broper to hym ; 
whiche includenge hym in a chambre for fere, was extracte by 
the noble men longenge to Vespasian, and ledde nakede thro 
the cite with his hedde borne up, hauenge a scharpe swerde 



^ yere'] ova. Cx. 
2 relygyons, Cx. 
•* arayed, a. and Cx. 

■* ben callyd, Cx. 
^ furste, y. 
^ m] om. Cx. 
' feor\>e, y. 
^ sawe, Cx. 
'^ slew, Cx. 
1» Vytellus, Cx. 
^^ strong, y. 



arayede, 



^- yloton, y. and Cx. 

13 From a., $., y., and Cx. 

^^ fisskes, Cx. 

15 drad, Cx. 

16 hudde, y. ; hid, Cx 
1' celle, )8. and Cx. 

1^ openly, Cx. 

1'-^ i-drawe'] om. y. 

"^ )?Mr^, $. ; thurgh, Cx. 

■^1 helde, )3. ; huld, y. ; heelde, Cx. 

2^ on heiy, iS. ; on hye, Cx. 



422 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHl HIGDEN 



mentum gladio, stercore a cunctis impetitus, in Ti- 
berim est projectus. Vespasianus regnavit quasi Gratis. 

LXXII. 

V^O-sn?! sifl.n i 

annis octo, qui pecuniae avid us, sed non injuste aufe- t. 
rens, ofFensarum immemor, convicia a causidicis sen 
philosophis [^sibi dicta leniter tulit. Hic^ aliquando 
ad Judeam missus a Nerone ad Judseos compescendos, 
audita morte Neronis, dimisit ibidem^ filium suum^ 
Titum, et Komam rediit ; tricies * et bis cum hoste in 
Germania et alibi valid e conflixit. Policratica, lihro 
tricesimOf^ capitulo quarto.^ Cum senex Buculus ^ 
in improperium Yespasiani proclamaret vulpem posse 
pellem mutare non animum, eo quod in Vespasiano 
avaritiam non minueret^ processus setatis, ille fertur 
respondisse, " Hujusmodi hominibus ^ risum debemus, 
'' nobis correctionem, poenam ^^ criminosis." Hie etiam 
ad majorem gentium edomationem quas subegerat, 
Achaiam, Lyciam, Rhodum, Samum, Thraciam, Ci- 



1 CD. add : /' Sub Claudio Vec- 
" tarn insulam, Britanniae ab austro 
" proximam, Romanae subegit di- 
" tioni. Deinde." 

2 ibi, B. 

•^ suunQ om. A. 
^ tricesicis (sic), B. 



^ tertio^ A.B. The complete re- 
ference is lib. iii. cap. 14. 

6 14^ A.B. 

7 senes Bucillus, B. It is simply 
biibulcus in Policratica. 

^ ininuisset, B. 

■^ homhiibus'] om. A. 

^" pccnas, A.B. 



MONACIII CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



423 



I 



on liym clrit and thost,^ and so he was i-prowe into Tybre.^ Trkvisa. 

Vaspacianus regnede as it were ey^te Jere, and was coveitous 

of money, but he took it nou^t wrongfulliche. He wolde 
for^ete ^ wronges, and li^tliche take chidynges of men of lawe 
and of philosofres. pis was somtyme i-sent by Nero into ]?e 
lewerie for to chaste j?e lewes, and herde of Nero his deth, 
and lefte j^ere his sone Titus and wente a_^en to Rome ; he 
fau^t two and J?ritty si])es stalworthiiche ^ a^enst his enemy es 
in Germany a and elleswhere.^ Poller atica, libro 3°, capitulo 
14°. Oon Buculus an olde man cride in despite of Vaspacianus, 
and seide, " pe fox may chaunge his skyn, but nou^t his wille ; 
" ffor Vaspacianus his covetise was nevere jje lasse for the 
" passinge of his age." Me seith J»at he answerde in J^is 
manere, "To suche men me owe]^^ law^hynge,^ to us ^ self 
^' correccioun, and peyne to evel doers." Also ])is for the 
more ^ chastynge of the peple ^^ and naciouns of londes ])at 
he hadde i-wonne, he made provinces of fese kyngdoms : 
Archaia, Licia, Rhodus, Sanius/^ Tracia and Scilicia,!^ c^ndi 



Aburbc. holden to his ]?rote. That doen he was caste in to Tiber. MS. H.uil. 
Vespasianus themperour reignede viij. yere, whiche was fulle ^"^^' 
auarous, neuerthelesse ^itte he wolde not take the goodes of ^ transmi- 
oj^er men wrongefully, suffrenge li^htely rebukes of philo- gracioue. 
sophres. Whiche sende from Nero themperour un to the Vespa- 
lewes, and herenge of his dethe, returnede to Rome, levenge sianus. 
Titus his sone ther ; whiche made twyes or thryes soore con- 
ilictes in Germanny and in other places. Policronicon^ libro t2\\.h. 
tertio cajiitulo quartodecimo. An olde man seide in to \q 
impropery of Vespasian, " A fox may chaunge his skynne, but 
*' not his mynde ;" for cause that age declynede not auarice from 
hym. To whom Vespasian seide, " We awe to ^ifFe disporte and 
" la^henge to suche men as geve^^ to us correccion, and peyne to 
" trespassoures." This emperour Vespasian made presidente in 
the stedde of kynges, in Achaia, Lisia, in Rodus, Samus, in 



1 \>ost, a., )8., and 7. ; dirfe and 
duste, Cx. 

2 Tiber, Cx. 

3 Jbryute, y. 

"* stalwordlich, $. ; t?/mes wanly, 
Cx. 

^ elleswharc, 7. ; el/f/s lohere, Cx. 
^ iceowe\>, /3. and 7. ; ivc one, Cx. 



" lauynge, /8. 
'^ us sylf, 7. ; our, Cx. 
^ playne, Cx. 
^^ chastisynge peple, /8. 
1^ Samus, fi., y., and Cx. 
1" Silicia, 7. and Cx 
1^ as geve} written over in a later 
hand. 



424 POLYCHIIONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

liciam,^ quae sub regibus amicis prius egerant, in pro- 
vincias redegit prsesides assignando. Manulphus} 
Hie deficiunt decern anni secundum communes chronicas 
inter passionem Domini et tempora Vespasiani, prout 
supra dicitur in prologo. Josephus, libro septirao.^ 
capitur^a * Jerosolima capitur a Tito, templum succenditur et solo ^J^l^; 

Tito. Vesi)asiaiii. 

cogequatur, eo videlicet raense et die quo prius incensum 
fuerat a Clialdeis, octavo die raensis Septembris, anno 
a prima constructione sua per Salamonem inclioata* 
M^. centesimo tricesimo,^ a secunda constructione sua 
sub Aggeo sexcentesimo tricesimo nono;^ sed secundum 
Martinum et alios capta fuit in diebus Pasclise. Egesip- 
Numenis pus J In hoc cxcidio undecies centena milici Judce- 

captivorum ■'■ 
in Jerusa- 

oimon gladio et fame perierunt, centum rriillia capti- 
vorum sunt vendita semper triginta pro uno denario. 



^ Silicianiy MSS. 

2 Banulphus^ om. B.C.D. 

■^ It is cap. 10. 

* inchoalamy MS. 

^ 113°, B. 



^* ab Aggeo [sy 9°] , B . ? error 
of scribe. 

^ The passage is from Euseb. 
H. E. iii. 7. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



42i 



ordeynede stywardes to governo fese ^ londes, ])at were rathir Tke-visa. 

under kynges ])at were siigettes and freendes^ to ]>g Romayns. 

I^. Here lakketh ten Jere by ]>g comoun ^ cronicles * bytwene 
the passioun of oure Lord and Vaspacianus his tyme, as it is 
i-seide to forehonde ^ in J>e ^ prologe. lerusalem is ^ i-takc by 
Ty tus, |7e temple is ^ i-brente ® and i-throwe adoun evene to ^ 
grounde. losephus, libro septimo. pe same monjje and day 
J)at it was arst ^^ i-brend^^ and i-J}rowe adoun ^^ by \q Caldeys,^^ 
]7at is J?e eyjtej^e ^^ day of Septembre ; \q ^ere after ]>at Sa- 
lamon bulde it first enlevene hondred and pritty. After pe se- 
counde buldynge,!^ fat was in Ageus ^^ his tyme, seven hondred 
Jere and nyne and ]>ritty. But Martinus^^ and o})er telle]? ^® 
pat it was i-take in |)e Ester ^^ tyme. Egesippus. In pis bren- 
nynge and destruccioun enleven sipes ^o an hondred powsand 
lewes were i-slawe wij? swerd ^i and wij) honger. An hon- 
dred powsand were i-take prisoners and i-solde awey, pritty 
for a peny, and nyne hondred powsand fly^,^^ find were to 



Ab urbe. Tracia, and Silicia, whiche cuntres he hade subiecte to the MS. Hakl. 
empire of Rome. ^. Ten yere wonte here after alle cronicles 2261, 
betwene the passion of Criste and the tymes of Vespasian, as , ^ . 
hit is seyde afore in the prologe. lerusalem was taken by gracione. 
Titus, the temple was brente and made egalle with the erthe. 
losephus, libro 7^. In the same monethe and day in whom 
hit was brente afore by men of Caldee, the viij*^^® day of the 
monethe of September, in |>e yere from the firste construccion 
made by Salamon a m* c. and xxx*^ yere. And from the secunde 
reedifienge made by Aggeus the prophete vj*^. and xxxix. yere ; 
whiche cite was taken in the tyme of Ester, after Martinus 
and other men. Egesippus. In whiche sege, xj.c. m^* peple 
of the lewes were pereschede by fi^hte and thro hungre, a 
c. m^* of the lewes were solde, and euer xxx^i for a peny, and 



^ \>eos, y. 

'^frendes and subgettis, Cx. 
•* comyn, Cx. 

** cronykes, a. and 7. ; cronykis, 
/3. ; cronykkes, Cx. 
^ afore, Cx. 
'• }>e] om. 7. 
' was, Cx. (bis). 
^ i-hrent] brcnd, a. 
'J to] wi> ]?e, -I., /8., 7., and Cx. 
^^^fyrst, Cx. 
*• ybarndf 7. 



*2 and i-]prowe adoun'} om. o., 7., 
and Cx. 

^'■^ Calendres, Cx. 

1^ eiyte7i\>e, )8. ; eyyhtene, Cx. 

^^ buyldyny, 7. ; byldyna, Cx. 

^^ Aggeus, Cx. 

'' Martyn, 7. 

18 tellen, Cx. 

I'J Estern, Cx. 

'^^ tymes, Cx. 

-1 sweord, 7. 

•^^fledde, Cx. 



426 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Nongenta milia sunt dispersa. Jeronimus} Idcirco 
tanta multitude Jerosolimis tunc erat, quia^ in die- 
bus Azymorum ex omni Judaea ad templum '^ conflux- 
erant. Josephus^ Non est mirandum de tanta multi- 
tudine Judgeorum^ mortua, capta, aut occisa ; nam 
Nerone aliquando iuquirente de numero ^ Judaicse 
plebis apud Jerosolimam existentem, quam omnino 
vilipendebat, rescripsit Cestius prseses, quemadmodum 
didicerat a pontificibus, reperta fuisse in die festo 
vicies ^ centena et septuaginta millia,^ absque pol- 
lutis et vitiatis personis, quibus liostias offerre non 
licuifc. Hunc autem numerum collegerunt pontifices 
per numerum hostiarum, quae fuerunt ducenta quin- 
quaginta sex millia et quingenta. Nam ad unam- 
quamque hostiam ofFerendam decern^ personse con- 
currebant. Egesippus, lihro tertio, capitulo iii^}^ In 
isto conflictu ^^ peritia Romanis erat cum virtute, 



^ There does not seem to be auy 
such passage in Jerome. 

" quod, B. 

•^ ad templuni] om. B. 

^ B. J. ii. 24. 

^ Judaoruyn'] om. A. 

^ niultitudine, B. 

"^ Jerosolimis decies, B. 

8 vicies millia centena et septua- 
qinta, A. 

'J dicta, B. 

^" capitulo ii.i.'\ om. A.B. The 



passage is from Josephus B. J. iii. 
] 4, and all the passages referred to 
Hegesippus are either in Josephus 
or Eusebius. 

^^ In isto conflictu] Anno Nero- 
nis tertiodecimo propter Judfco- 
rum rebcllionem sedan dum et tri- 
buti negationem missus est dux 
Vaspasianus cmii Tito filio suo 
a Nerone ad cxpuguandum Ju- 
dajam. — CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



427 



schift [and departed].^ leromus,'^ pat tyme was so moche ^ Trevisa. 

folk at lerusalem, for in pe Ester ^ tyme ]?ey come to pe 

temple out of al )?e lewerie.^ losephus, libro 7°. Hit is no 
wonder ))at so grete peple of lewes were ^ dede and i-take. 
For Nero somtyme wolde wite ^ fe tale ^ and ]>e nombre 
of lewes l^at were at lerusalem, ffor he despised ]?e ^ peple 
wi]? al J)at he-^ my^te. And Cestius fe steward,^^ as he 
hadde i-lerned ^^ of bisshoppes, wroot to Nero j^at fere were 
i-founde at lerusalem in an^^ holy day twenty hondred 
fowsand [and seven hondred Jjowsand] ^* wi]?oute hem ]7at 
were polut,^^ and persones wi}> wemmes ])at hadde no leve 
for to ofFre.i^ pe bisshop^^ acountede j^is nombre by J>e 
nombre of oystes ^^ |?at were [y-] ^^ offred, pe whiclie 
nombre was two hondred powsand and sixe and fifty pow- 
sand and fyve ^^ hondred, and evere ^^ ten persones offi'ede oon 
oyst.22 jj^ j,ig fi^tynge pe Romayns hadde konnynge ^3 and 



Ab urbe. ^c. ml. of the lewes were dispersede. leronimus. That tyme MS. Hael 
per was a grete multitude of the lewes in lerusalem, for in 2261. 
suche festes peple of alle the lewery hade resorte un to hit. ^ trausmi- 
losephus^ libro septimo. Hit is not to be meruaylede of that gracioue. 
multitude of lewes dedde, taken, and sleyne, for Cestius the 
presidente of the lewery did write un to Nero willenge to 
knowe the nowmbre of the lewes beenge in lerusalem, whom he 
hade in contempte, lyke as he hade knowlege by the bischoppes of 
hit, that per were peple in lerusalem on a holy day un to the 
nowmbre xx*^ c. m^". and Ixx^^ c. m*. withowte peple viciate and 
pollute, to whom hit was not lawefulle to offre. The bischoppes 
collecte that nowmbre by the nowmbre of hostes, whiche were f. 212. a. 
ij^. mt Ivj. m*. andl*^ mt., for ten men were assignede to euery 
hoste. Egesippus, libro tertio. The wisedome hade by the 
Romanes helpede theym moche, the lewes hade woodenesse 



1 From Cx. • 


^2 one, Cx. 


" leronimus^ Cx. 


'4 From a., /8., 7., and Cx. 


•^ myche, /3. 


^^ pollute, Cx. 


4 Estre, /3. ; Estern, Cx. 


1" offir, Cx. 


^ Jcuri/, Cx. 


^^ hisshops, a. ; hyschops, 7. ; hk- 


^ was, fi., y., and Cx. 


shopes, Cx. 


' wete, $. and Cx. ; wyte, y. 


1^ ostes, 7. ; hoostes, Cx. 


^ taal, y. 


^3 From 0. and 7. 


9 \>at, a., /3., 7., and Cx. 


^'fyf,r 


10 \>at //e] his, Cx. 


21 ever, )8 ; every, Cx. 


1^ stT/ward, 7. and Cx. 


22 offryd one hooste, Cx. 


'^ y learned, 7. 


23 kunnynge, Cx. 



428 POLYCHflONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

Judseis furor cum temeritate. Nam Vespasianus 
primitus, cum siccitas erat, ad urbem Jotopatem ^ 
accedens, omnes aqussductus obstruxit ; sed Josephus 
inter ius commentum invenit, quo vestes aquis infusas 
muris urbis suspenderet,^ unde paulatim vaporantibus 
aquis, externi crederent aquas illis non deesse ad potum, 
qua3 sic illis abundabat ad vestimentorum lavacrum.^ 
Inde Vespasianus ictu arietis murum conturbat, sed 
Josephus saccos paleis ^ repletos ictibus opponens, 
plagam delusam emollit, nam solida melius per mol- 
liora ^ deluduntur ; sed econtra Romani falces contis 
ligantes funes saccorum succiderunt. Josephus tameu 
ardenti oleo superjecto ^ omnia machinamenta exussit ; 
quibus reparandis instans Vespasianus in talo graviter 
vulneratur ; quo viso tanta vis telorum ex parte Titi 



' Jocupatem, B. 
- suspenderunt, B. 
^ lotionem, B. 



^ paleas, B. 
^ mollia, B. 
^ superjecta, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



429 



streng])e, ])e lewes hadde woodnesse and folye ; fFor pe Trevisa. 

tyme was drye, and Vaspacianus wente to pe citee lotapaten, 

and stoppede al J?e water condites.^ Bot losephus was wi]) 
yune, and fonde up a queynte ^ craft, and lieng wete cloj^es 
uppon j)e toun walles, and for the clo]?es droppede, fey J?at 
were wi])oute wende and trowede j^at ]>ey |)at were wij) 
ynne hadde no lak ^ of water forto drynke ^ while ]>ey hadde 
[plente of J ^ water to wasche ^ wij? ^ hir cloj^es. panne Vas- 
pacianus destourbed pe wal wij> ]>e ^ stroke of an engyne ; but 
losephus heng sakkes ^ ful ^^ of straw a^enst the strookes of 
pe engynes,!^ and so pe strokes were i-lette, and pe walles 
i-saved ; for harde J^inges bee]? ^^ bettre wi})stonde wi^ nesche^^ 
]>inges fan wiJ? hard. But |)e Romayns bounde hookes ^* 
to longe pooles, and kutte ^^ fe roopes ^^ of pe sakkes.^^ But 
losephus ))rewe out brennynge oyle uppon alle her gynnes, 
and smoot of al her gynnes.^^ Vaspacianus wolde amende 
pe gynne,^^ and was soore i-wounded in the heele. Whan 
fat was i-seie,20 fere fil so gret strengf e of castynge and of 



Ab urbe. with temerite. For Vespasian themperour percey venge that hit MS. Harl. 
was a grete dryenesse in that tyme, wente un to a cite callede 2261. 
loppen, where he stoppede alle the condites of water. Neuer- ^ transmi- 
thelesse losephus founde a comente, in whom he made clothes gracione. 
moiste, and hongede theym on the walles ; the Romanes seenge 
that, supposede theyme to haue water habundantely un to 
drynke. Wherefore Vespasian trowblede the walle soore with 
gunnes and with of er engynes, but losephus putte sackes replete 
with chaife betwene the walle and theym, that the gunnes 
my^hte do litelle hurte. The Romanes toke longe sithes to 
kytte the ropes of the sackes. pen losephus destroyede alle 
theire instrumentes in castenge brennenge oyle on hit. The 
emperoure Vespasian beenge abowte to haue the instrumentes 
repairede, was hurte soore in the hele. Titus perceyvenge 
that, sende furthe a sawte, and schotte gunnes to the walles, 



cundites, jS. ; conduytes, y. and 
Cx. 

2 coynt, )8. ; connynge^ Cx. 

^ lacke, Cx. 

^ dryngke, y. 

'' From /3., 7., and Cx. 

^ waysche, y. 

" wi\>] om. Cx. 

s >e] a, Cx. 

^ sakkisj Cx. 



1 engyne, Cx. 
^ ben, Cx. 
3 naysche, y. 
"* hokes, y. and Cx. 
5 kytte, Cx. 
^ ropis, Cx. 
7 sackis, Cx. 
^ engynes, Cx. 

3 \>e gynnel gynnes, $. ; hem, Cx. 
20 whan . . . seie"] after that, Cx . 



430 



POLYCHRONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 



proruit, ut unius de sociis Joseph! occipitium lapide 
percussum ultra tertium stadium excuteretur ; fcetus 
etiam^ cujusdam mulieris gravida) ultra dimidium 
stadii de alvi secreto propelleretur. Igitur rupto per 
Titum muro secundo, inventus est^ Josephus inter 
favillas triduo dilitescens, in hunc inodum ab inven- 
toribus exprobratus : *' Quid vivere vis quando non 
" oportet, nee licet, nee decet ; vita tua aut prse- 
" mium erit proditionis aut supplicium servitutis. 
" Memento Moysi, qui maluit^ de libro vitse deleri 
'' quam populo supervivere ; David quoque maluit* 
" vindictam suscipere quam pereunte populo reser- 
" vari." Ad lisec Josephus : " Quis non affectet ex 



1 etiani] om. B. 

2 inventus est] om. B. 



3 vatut (sic), B. 
^* valuit (sic), B. 



MONACIII CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



431 



schot ^ of Titus his side, ])at \>q noble kny^lit ^ of oon of ^ Tkevisa. 

losephus his felowes was i-smyte of ])at place * wi]) a stoon, 

and flyj ^ over ];e ]?ridde Toiiong.^ Also a womman j^at was 
wi|> childe was i-smyte soo pat ]>e childe was i-smyte out of 
his ^ wombe, and fligh ^ over [half] ^ a -forlong. Whanne 
Titus hadde i-broke ]?e secounde wal, losephus was i-founde 
y-hid^ among useies,!^ and hadde i-hiddehym pre dayes, panne 
pey pat founde hym despised hym in pis manere : " Wherto 
^*^ wilt 11 pou lyve while it is not covenable, noper leoful,!^ 
" noper ^^ semeliche ; py lyf -schal be mede^^* of perschynge ^^ 
" and of lost oper it schal be payne of servage and of bondage. 
" Have mynde^^ of Moyses, hym was levere be scraped out 
" of pe book of lyf pan lyve ^^ lenger pan pe peple. Also 
*' David was levere fonge wreche ^^ pan leve ^^ and see pe peple 
*' perisshe." 20 " Who desirep 21 noujt," quod losephus, " Jif 



Ab urbe. in SO moche that the hynder parte of the hedde of a man MS. Harl. 

2261. 

A transmi- 
gracione. 



stondenge by losephus was smyten by the space of thre for- 
longes. Also a yonge infante was smyten thro a gunne ston 
from the secrete wombe of the moder to hit by pe halfe of a 
forlonge. The secundc walle of Jerusalem broken by Titus, 
losephus was founde amonge esches, where he hade lyen 
priuely by the space of thre daies. The men fyndenge hym 
seide, *' Where to wille pow lyve, sithe that it behove the not 
*' neiper besemethe the, neiper hit is lawefulle. For other thy 
" lyfe schal le be a rewarde of treason, other a peyne of serui- 
" tute. Remembre Moyses, whiche hade leuer to haue bene 
" doen owte of the booke of lyfe, then to haue lyvede longer 
" then his peple. Also Dauid hade leuer take vengeaunce then 
" to be reseruede after the dethe of his peple." To whom 
losephus seide, " What man wolde not be delyuerede andlosede f. 202. b. 



1 shote, Cx. 

2 noble knyght} nolle, a., )8., aud 
Cx. ; nol, 7. 

^ of~\ om. Cx. 

■* }pat place'] om. a., )8., 7., and Cx. 
^ jiewe, Cx. 

^forlondy a. ; furlong, /8. and 
Cx., et infra. 
^ her, 7. and Cx, 
^ From /8., 7., and Cx. 
^ founden hid, Cx. 
^° ysels, )8 ; osers, Cx, 
" wolt, )8. and Cx. 



^^leefful,$.', leffol,y. 
^^ nether, Cx. 
^"^ meede, )8. 



leeful, Cx. 



persynge, a. ; persyng, 7. ; per- 



schyng, Cx. 

^^ muynde, 7. 

^'^ lyhbe, 7. 

^^ in se ipso written above 
line in /8. ; take in se ipso, Cx. 

^^ lyve, )8. and Cx. ; lybbe, 7. 

20 ylost, 7. 

^1 desired, Cx. 



the 



432 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

" tanto moerore si liceat ab&olvi; sed non licet sol- 
'^ vere nisi ei qui ligavit ; quicumque alius solverit ^ 
" Domino injuriatur. Ergo quasi fideles ministri 
" Domini custodiamus depositum quamdiu ipse volu- 
" erit. Ingratus igitur erit qui citius vult discedere 
" aut diutius morari quam colli gatus ejus voluerit, sicut 
*' patet de Abraham, Jacob, Moyse, et David, qui petit 
" erui de carcere hujus vitse ; sed nuUus sanctorum 
" sibi mortem [intulit].^ Si ergo bonum est vivere, 
" sacrilegium est illud repudiare ; si gloriosum est in 
" bello mori, et ego non abnuo ; et si bonum est pro 
" patria, pro gente, pro civibus in bello mori, sed belli 
" lege,^ offero jugulum si hostis impetat. Nee mihi* 
'* blandior si parcendum spondeat : malo illorum latro- 
" cinio perire quam meo. Si suave asseritis pro 



^ solveret, A. I ^ bello legi^ MS. 

2 intulii] from A.B. I ^ nisi, B. 



MONACHI CESTKENSIS, LIB. IV. 



483 



it were laweful, to be delyvered and unbounde of so greet Trevisa. 

woo and sorwe ; but he pat bonde hath leve to unbynde, 

and none o)>er ; Jif eny ^ oper unbyndep he dooth the 
Lord wrong, panne as oure Lordes trewe ^ servauntes, kepe 
we what he hap bytake us while it is his wille ; panne he is 
unkynde pat wil rather be a goo oper lenger abyde panne 
he wole^ to whom^ he is i-bounde. So it was soop of 
Abraham, of lacob, of Moyses, of David, pat prayed ^ to 
be delyvered of prison^ of pis lyf ; but noon slow hym- 
self of alle holy seyntes. panne Jif it is good to lyve, it is 
sacrelegy ^ to forsake it unskilfuUiche ; ^ Jif it is glorious 
to dy ^ in batyale I wip seie ^^ it nou^t ; and J if it is ^^ good 
to fi^te for pe contray, for pe peple, and for pe citejeynes, 
and deie ^ in bataille, y ^^ putte forp myn heed to be 
i-smyte of, Z'li' pe enemy axith by lawe of bataile. Noper 
I flatere ^^ wip my self ^if it is to sparynge, be he my 
borwe ^* me is ^^ levere deye by here heste ^^ pan by myn 
owne ; Jif }q seiep ^^ pat it is swete to dye for fredom, 



Ab urbe. " in suche distresse and languor, if hit were lawefulle. But MS. Haul. 

" hit is not lawefulle to eny man to loose, but to hym pat hathe 2261. 

*' bownde, wherefore we awe to kepe welle that wedde of . 

" owre life so longe as we may, as the trewe seruaunte^ of gracione. 

" oure Lorde after his pleasure. For that man is unkynde 
that wolde dye raper then his Maker wolde that he scholde, or 
to lyfe lenger then hit were his wylle, as hit may be schewede 
off Abraham, Jacob, Moyses, and of Dauid, whiche desirede 
to haue bene delyuerede from the prison of this lyfe, but 
Jitte noo seynte induced dethe to hym. Wherefore and if 
hit be goode to lyve, hit is sacrilege to lette hit, and if hit 
be glorious to dye in batelle y refuse hit not, and if ye say 
that it be swete to dye for liberte y condescende there to. 



a 



a 



* owy, Cx. 

^ truwe, y. 

^ wole] om. y. 

^* whoome, Cx. 

•^ prai/de, )8. and Cx. 

^" pry Sonne oft, Cx, 

" sacrelege, )8. ; sacrilege, Cx. 

8 unskylfolych, y. ; utirigltt/ully, 
Cx. 

9 dye, Cx. 

VOL. IV. 



'0 wi)>segge, $. ; withsey hitj Cx. 
11 be, Cx. 

1- y potte^ y. ; /, Cx. 
^'^jlaterye, a. ; y flair ye y. ; 
flater, Cx. 

1^ horowe, $. ; borow^, y. 

1^ 7ne is'] i-hadde, Cx. 

1^ );>efte, a. and Cx. ; \>eoJthc, y. 

1'" scyn, 0. ; segc!€]>,y. ; saye, Cx. 

E E 



434 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



" libertate mori, non abnuo ; verumtamen dulce est 
'^ pro libertate vivere. Timidus^ est autem omnis ille 
" qui non vult mori quando oportet ^ ; foemineae for- 
" titudinis est seipsum interimere : hoc bestise non 
" noverunt, prsesertim cum adversus alios faucibus et 
" unguibus^ utantur, sed erga se osculis* satagunt. 
" Deus nobis depositum vitfe tradidit ; sed in utroque 
" crimen est, vel rejicere depositum non repetente^ 
" qui dedit, vel reposcenti denegare." His dictis 
cum videret Josephus unum astantium firraius ob- 
sidere, ait, " Commitamus sorti ordinem moriendi, ut ^ 
" ille qui sorte exierit ab eo ^ qui sequitur occi- 
" datur." Placuit omnibus conditio. Et ita accidit ^ 
ut^ interemptis cseteris, Josephus cum altero solo 
neci superesset ; suasit illico socio ut sorti renunci- 



^ TimenduSf A.B. 

2 qui vult mori quando non opor- 
tet, CD. 

3 et U7iguibus~\ om. A. 
■^ oculis, B. 

^ rcpente B. 



B. 



'et,B. 

7 illo, A. 

^ Et accidit, A. ; Cito accidit, 

^ cum, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



435 



*' I with seie ^ it nou^t but it is swete to deye for fredom ; Trevisa. 

" he is feerful ^ j^at wil noujt deye whanne it nedeth ; hit is 

" a, womman stalworthnesse for eny^ to sle hym self. 
" Bestes konne]? nou^t ^ doo so, for jjeye ^ diffendej) ^ hemself 
" ajenst oj^er bestes wi}) teeth ^ and wij? clawcs, but among 
" hem self ])ey use]? ^ cusses ^ and likkynge and strokynge. 
*' God ha]) i-take us oure lyf to kepe, but whejjer we doo 
** we bee})!^ to blame ^if we j^rowej^^i hit away wi]> oute 
" [his] 12 axynge fat Jaf it us, o]?er Jif we wernep i^ for to 
" take it as ^^ his axynge." Whanne pese wordes were i-seide,^^ 
losephus sigh ^^ oon of hem j^at stood by and^^ stryve ^^ fastere 
]7an o])ere ; Jeanne losephus seide, " Caste we lot ^^ who schal 
" dye first and next,20 and so forth of us alle, so ]?at 21 he J^at 
" schal dye first schal be slawe 22 of hym pat schal dye next, 
" and so everich ^3 aftir oJ>er." pe condicioun plesede^* hem alle, 
and so it happede ]7at ]>ey were dede everichon ^5 save losephus 
and oon othir. pan losephus counsailled 26 his felawe to 



Ab urbe. " Neuerthelesse lyfe is swete, that man is a cowarde that mS. Hakl, 
'^ wille not dye when oportunite requirethe hit, the propreteof 2261. 

" women is to sle Ipejm selfe. Whiche thynge brute bestes , 

" wille not doe un to theym selfe, neij^er to their kynde, but ^ ^^^^^"^^* 



" ioye to gedre, usenge defense ageyne thynges contrarious to 
" theyme." This losephus seenge theyme to be segede soore, 
" seide in this wise to men beenge with hym : " Make we this 
" conuencion, that he that departethe firste owte of the howse 
" schalle be sleyne by him that folowethe." pis condicion 
pleasede alle men. Other men departede owte of the house 
and sleyne, losephus contynuede in lyfe with an other man. 
To whom he seide cownsellenge hym to breke the conuencion 



gracione. 



1 wi\>sigge, $. ; withsegge, 7. 
wiihsay, Cx. 
2/er/oZ, 7. 
^ ony, Cx. 
^ conne not, Cx. 
5 he, a. 

^ defende, Cx. 
' te\>, 7. 
^ use, Cx. 

5 cosses, a., )8., and 7. 
10 hen, Cx. 
" throwe, Cx. 
12 From 7. and Cx. 
^5 wame, Cx. 



" as] at, Cx. 

^^ sayd, Cx., et infra. 

^^ sawe, Cx. 

^7 and'] om. 7. 

^^ strof, )3. ; strove, Cx. 

19 lotie, Cx. 

20 laste, Cx. 

21 ]>at'] om. Cx. 

22 slayne, Cx. 

23 everyone, Cx. 

24 plesyd, Cx. 

2^ everichon'] al, Cx. 
26 counceyled, Cx. 

E E 2 



436 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

arent. Quo facto domesticum evasit periculum, sic 
Vespasiano adductus est. Egesippus, libro quinto} 
Vespasiano tandem ad imperium vocato, Titus filius 
ejus ad obsidionem Jerosolimse dimissus, cum ^ die qua- 
dam circa urbem visendam cum sexcentis equitibus 
deloricatis obambularet,^ concluditur a tergo a Judseis 
exeuntibus ; sed animum suum audacia exacuens, pene- 
trato cuneo ad suos redit. Verum quia acerba odia 
metus plerumque comprimit, dissidentes in urbe ad 
tempus confcederantur. Sed et pluribus Judaeorura 
pacem a Tito petentibus, Titus dolum formidans dixit 
suis, " Sicut inferiorum ^ est uti insidiis, sic fortiorum 
" est cavere insidias, ne virtuti illudat dolus." Quassato 
ergo cum ariete muro primo, consulit^ Titus provide 



^ libro quinto'] om. B. The whole i ^ deambularet, A. 
story is from Josephus, B.J. lib. vii. I '' infirmorum^ B. 
' duiUj A.B. I ^ consiluit, B. 



MONAGHI CESTllENSIS, LIB. IV. 



437 



forsake his lot, and J)erby he scaped ^ peril at home, and so he Trevisa. 

was i-brou^t to Vaspacianus. losephus, libro ^°? At j^e 

laste Vaspacianus was i-cleped ^ to be emperour, and his sone 
Titus was i-left at ])e sege * of Jerusalem, and wente in a day 
wi]> sixe hondred horsmen wij? oute habergeouns ^ aboute for 
to see ]>e citee, and lewes come oute and closede hym ^ yn 
byhynde ; and he Avhette his herte and wil wi)> hardy nesse,^ 
and rood manliche ]?oru_^ oute J>e^ company of lewes, and 
come to his owne men ; and for grete drede he ^ leief» ^^ ofte 
grete wrethe, pey ]?at were in whanhope ^^ in ])e citee confe- 
thcrede^^ ^q gidi'es in ]iq mene tyme ; and meny of })e lewes 
preide^^ pees^^ of Titus, ad ^^ Titus dradde gile and tresoun, and 
seide to hys men, " As ))ey })at l^eej) bynepe use]> ^^ waityngo 
" and aspyenge,^'' so it nede() ^^ hem pat bee]> ^^ strengere to be 
*' war of suche waytynge and spienge,2o leste strengj^e be 
" bytrayed by fraud and by gile." panne pe firstewiPi was 
i-broke wip an engyne, and Titus counsaillej) 22 his men for- 



Ab urbe. made. That doen losephus was taken and brou^hte to MS. Harl. 
Vespasianus themperoure. losephus^ libro quinto, Vespasian 2261. 
exaltede to thempire of Rome, lefte Titus his son at the — 
sege of Jerusalem, whiche walkenge abowte the cite with grlcfoue!* 
vj'^. horse men to see a place of vauntage in the sege, was 
compassede abowte with the lewes, neuer}7elesse he returnede 
and wente thro theyme manly un to his hoste. The lewes 
beenge in the cite desirede pease. But Titus, dredenge 
treason, seide in this wise : " To use wacches and batelle 
" is a signe of myjhty men, and to eschewe treason, leste ^ 203. a. 
" that treason Jiife illusion to vertu and also un to my^hte." 
Wherefore the firste walle destroyede, Titus Jiffethe cown- 
selle to his men to fijhte discretely leste that folesche 



' ascaped, fi. ; escaped, Cx. 
^ 6", Cx. 
^ callt/d, Cx. 

* siege, Cx. 

5 haherions, fi.,y., and Cx. 

^ them, Cx. 

' hardines, Cx. 

^ rode manly thorough the, Cx. 

* he] om. Cx. 

^" ley\>, a. and $. ; aledged, Cx. ; 
7. is very indistinct, but seems to 
be alete. 

^' wanhope, /3., 7., and Cx. 



^'^ conforted, Cx. 
^^ prayed, Cx. 
'"* pes, 7. 
^* and, Cx. 

'" ben bineth useth, Cx. 
^7 aspiyng, /8. (bis) and Cx. ; spy- 
yng, 7. (bis). 
^^ neode\>, 7. 
»9 hen, Cx. 



20 



espieng, Cx. 



21 wal, /8., 7., and Cx. 
-2 counseyled, Cx. 



438 



POLYCHRONICON BANULPHI HIGDEN 



pugnare, ne, si desit consilium, fortitude temeraria 
videatur. In^ ipsa quoque victoria magis timendum 
est,^ nam superiorem cum inferiore pariter perire victi 
triumphus est. Quassato tandem muro secundo, Titus 
pacem offert ; sed ex parte Judseorum Symone et 
Johanne contradicentibus, tanta in urbe crudelitas et 
fames invaluit, ut cessantibus emptione et venditione 
ac ciborum coctura, coria scutorum manderent et pur- 
gamenta olerum parietum adhserentia,^ nauseantium 
Miseria vomitus, Vetera bourn stercora, exuviae serpentum, equo- 

captivorum. 

rum cadavera, ad cibum quserebantur ; facilior apud 
adversaries quam apud suos pietas ; patibula ^ pone- 
bantur in muris ne quis fugeret ; foris captivitas, 
intus fames, utrobique formido. Cingit Titus urbem 



' /n] om. B. 

2 cavendum est, A. ; cavenda est 



B. 



3 adhcerentium, A. 
"* patibulo, A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



439 



to 1 fijte warliche,^ ffor ^if ^ J)erc^ lacked counsailc strcugpe Tkevisa. 
shulde seme but folie; also in ))e victorie is most drede, Ifor 
J if 3 ])e strengere deyej) ^ with the febelere,^ l^at is a victorie 
to hym ])at is overcome, pamie ])e secounde wal was i- 
quasched/ and Titus profre])^ pees, but in pe lewen^ side 
Symon and lohn^^ wi}? seide ; ]?an fil ^^ so greet cruelnesse^^ and 
honger in J^e citee psit biggynge ^^ and sellynge ^^ cesede,!^ and 
so dede rostynge and sej)inge ^^ and greyjnnge ^"^ of mete. Men 
ete skynnes of scheldes and of cast ^^ of herbes ]}at clevede on 
J>e walles, and filpe ^^ ]?at men hadde y-spewed^o and i-cast up ; 
and men soute olde dritte^i of rejjeren,^^ skynnes of addres, 
and careyn of hors^^ forto have to mete. Hit was lifter for to 
gete mercy among here enemyes |?an among here owne men. 
Galewes ^^ and gibbettes were i-sette on ^^ pe walles, for no 
man schulde flee^^ takyng deth and prisonninge wip oute and 
honger wi]> ynne, and drede in every^'' side. Titus made a new 



Ab urbe. stren^lite appere if that cownesaile fayle, seyenge that hit MS. Harl. 
is a signe of victory the superior to dye with his subiecte. 2261. 
That other secunde walle destroyede and broken downe, Titus . , . 
offrede pease ; but Symon and lohn, gouernoures of the lewes, ' gracione. 
seyenge contrary, there was suche hungre in the cite, and 
cruellenesse, that byenge and sellenge seasede and sethenge of 
meyte ; peple did eyte leder for hungre, the dungge of bestes, 
the skynnes of serpentes, and the carion of horses. Where- 
fore the Romanes hade moore compassion of the lewes then 
thei hade amonge J?eyme selfe ; galoes were putte on the walles 
that noo man scholde flee ; withowte the walles captiuite, hungre 
withynne, and drede off bothe. Titus compassed e the cite of 



^fortol to, a., y.y and Cx. 
2 warly, Cx, 
^ >€/, 7. (bis). 

4 they, Cx. 

5 dyeth, Cx. 
^Jehler, Cx. 

7 yquayschedf y. 

^ proferid, Cx. 

^ lewene, y. ; lewes, Cx. 

10 lohan, Cx. 

"/u/,7. 

12 cruivelnesse, /8. 

13 buggyng and syllyng, y. ; 
Cx. 

14 sillinge, j8. 

1^ ceesede, /8. ; seesid, Cx. 



byciig, 



1^ seo\>yng, y. 

17 dressyng, Cx. 

1^ outcast, /8. ; of castyng, y. 
sheldes and out caste, Cx. 

^^fulthe, y. 

^0 yspuwed, y. 

21 drit, )8. ; dryt, y. ; dyrte, Cx. 

^ofre])eren'\ om. Cx. ; rv\>eren, 
fi. ; ro\>eron, y. 

23 horses, j8. and Cx. 

2'* Galwes, ;3. ; Galowes, Cx. ; 
Galwes and gebetes, y. 

2* upon, Cx. 

26^eo, 7. 

2' evereche, fi. 



440 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



novo muro, qui quadraginta stadiis urbem gyrabat.* 
Gyrus ^ autem castroruin denis stadiis numerabatur, ne 
nllus quidem ^ evaderet custodias ponens. Invalescente 
tandem fame, sepultor plerumque sepeliendum prseve- 
nit* ad sepulcrum, cum tanto morientium foetore ut 
urbis solo ad sepulturam non sufficiente, cadavera 
extra muros ad milia projicerentur. Quo viso in- 
gemuit Titus, et se veniam obtulisse ssepius protes- 
tatur. Multi tamen ad Romanos confugerunt, (^uibus 
cum daretur cibus, aut nulla erat vis edendi aut 
digerendi. Quidam autem ex transfugis, dum. alvum 
purgarent, bunones ^ aureos egesserunt, quos ante 
fugam absorbuerant, ne insidiatores aliquid palam re- 
perirent. Coraperit^ id quidam Assyrius, et ab uno 



^ girarabat, MS. (sic). 

2 Girus, MS. 

3 quidam, B. 



^ postvenit, A. 
^ bufoncs, B. 
^ Comperit, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



441 



wal ])at byclipped^ fourty forlonges aboute ])e citcc, and pG Tkevisa. 

tentes and pavilouns byclipped ^ ten forlonges ; and wardes 

and wacches^ were i-sette pat no man schulde askape.* At 
]>e laste the honger encresed ^ soo ])at ofte he ]>at bare \>e deed 
man to his buryenge was i-buried ra|)er than he. There was 
so greet stenclie of dede men, for ])e grounde of J>e citee 
sufficede nou^t to buriels^ pat [the] ^ careyns were y-J)rowe by 
]>e sondes ^ over ]>q walles. Whan Titus sy^ ^ ])iit,^^ he seide ofte 
he hadde [y-] ^^ profred mercy ; but meny fli^ i^ iq |,e Romayns, 
and whan me ^af hem mete j^er was no strengfe forto ete 
o|)er for to deffie ^^ fe ^* mete pac ])ey ete. Som of hem |)at 
flye,i2 whanne J^ey clensid hir wombe, delyvered hem of 
ieweles ^^ of gold pat pey hadde i-swolwed to fore ^^ pat pey 
fly^,^2 £qy jje enemyes schulde not suche iewels openliche ^'^ 
fynde. Oon of pe Assiries ^^ aspied pat doynge by oon pat 
hadde y-schete ^^ golde, and trowede pat alle pe lewes hadde 



A transmi- 
gracioue. 



Ab urbo. lerusalem with a newe walle, whiclie hade in circuite abowte MS. Harl 
the cite xl*^ forlonges; the compasse of the castelles was 2261. 
nowmbrede to the space of x. forlonges, that oon of the lewes 
scholde not escape. That hungre was so grete there that the 
beryer was beryede ofte afore the peple to be beryede, where 
the peple diede so score that the erthe and grownde within 
the cite wolde not suffice to the beryalles of dedde peple. 
Wherefore thei caste m*. of peple ouer the walles. Titus 
seenge that sorowede score, makenge a protestacion of forjitfe- 
nesse ; then mony of the lewes fleenge to the Romanes, Titus 
commaundede to refresche theyme, whiche wontede other 
myjhte to eite for feblenesse, other natural le vertu to digeste 
hit. Somme men flenge from the cite hade receyvede in to 
iheire wombes grete summes of golde, leste that the Romanes 
scholde haue eny goode peroff. A man of Assiria perceyvenge 
that, schewede that thynge to the Komanes, wherefore the 



^ closed, Cx. 

2 pavilons closed, Cx. 

^ watches, Cx. 

■* escape, Cx. 

5 encressede, y. ; encreced, Cx. 

^ suffysed not to heryels, Cx. 

7 From Cx. ; ne, /8. 

^ \>ousondes, y. 

'■^ sye, Cx. 

1° and inserted in /3. 



1^ hadde y-] om. Cx. 
^^fled, Cx. 

^3 defye, a., ^., and Cx. 
14 >e] theyr, Cx. 
^^ juels, fi. and Cx. ; jywels, y. 
1^ swolewide tofore, )8. ; swolowed 
afore, Cx. 

17 openly suche juels, Cx. 
1^ Assyrcs, /8. ; Assires, y. 
I'J schite, /8. ; cached, Cx. 



442 



POLYCHRONICON KANULPHI HIGDEN 



in omnes opinio manavit ; eripiuntur^ igitur trans- 
fugge Judsei, quamvis contra jussum Titi, inciduntur 
ventris secreta, aurum requiritur. Monet Titus Jo- 
sephum ut Judseos^ scripturis, exemplis, promissioni- 
bus, lacrimis ad deditionem si possit inflectat, sed 
nil profuifc. Josejphus.^ Quin etiam Johannes et 
Symon cum complicibus ita omnia obstruxerant ut ne 
quidem* Judseis exitus neque Romanis aditus pateret. 
Domus jugiter scrutabantur si quid reperiri posset, 
negantes trucidabantur. Denique uxores viris, parentes 
filiis, cibum ex ore rapiebant ; ^ si ostium ^ domus clau- 
deretur, statim aliquis comedere sestimabatur, unde et 
domus rumpebatur ; inferiores spoliabantur ; ditiores 



^ diripiuntur, A. ; disripmntur ^ 
B. 

2 Judceos~\ in, B. 

3 lihro sexto, A.B. The correct 
reference is lib. vii. cap. 7. 



•* ne quidaviy A. ; ut neque, B. 
^ rapueruntf B. 
^ ostidium, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



443 



gold wip ynne hem. pan ]?e lewes ]?at fligh ^ to pe Romayns Trevisa. 
were y-oponcd, a^enst Titus his heste, and \>e wombe ^ and 
])G^ bowels were i-slitte and y-turned* to seche gold wi|) 
ynne. Titus made losephus to fonde ^ Jif he myte make ]>e 
lewes Jelde ^ hem wij) oute more harme, Jif he myghte wip 
writynge, wiJ) en samples/ wij? faire byhestes, [ojjer] ® wi]> teres ; 
but al [was] ^ for no^t. loseuSy libro 6°. But Symou and 
lolm,!^ with here fautoures,^^ stopped j^e wayes al aboute, so 
J7at the lewes hadde no wey outward, noper jje Romayns 
inward. Houses ^^ were besiliche ^^ y-serched ^^ ^if out ^^ myjt 
bey-founde, ])at ^^ eny man wened ^^ out^^ he was anon i-slawe. 
At J^e laste wyfes cau^te mete of hir housbondes mou]?, 
and fadir and modir of hir owne children ^^ mouth. Jif 
eny ^o dore were i-tend,^! anon me trowede ^2 j^at som men ^3 
ete perynne, perfore anon the hous was i-broke ; J?e pore 
men were i-spoylled and^^ i-robbed, [and]^ jje riche were 



Ab urbe. belyes of the lewes that fledde were dirupte or ky tte, where MS. Harl. 
thei founde grete plente of golde, thau^he Titus commaunded 2261. 

the contrary. Titus movede losephus that he scholde inclyne . 

if that he myjhte the hertes of ^e lewes to dedicacion thro gracionel" 
scripture, exemples and premisses, but hit profite not. losephus, f. 213. b. 
libro sexto. But John and Symon stoppede alle the places 
broken downe that the lewes my'^hte not escape owte, neither 
the Romanes myjhte haue entre in to the cite. Tjie howses 
of \Q peple were serchede besyly, if they myjhte fynde eny 
thynge ; men denyenge were sleyne, and if the durre was 
schutte men supposede that ])ei hade somme meyte, and 
drawede thyder, wherefore that howse was broken ; symple men 
were spoylede theire goodes, and ryche men accusede for 



^fled, Cx. 
2 wombes, Cx. 
^ J7e] om. Cx. 

^ torne, a. ; ycorve, $. and y. 
corven, Cx. 

5 Joonde, j8. ; wete, Cx. 

^ yulde, y. 

7 ensaumplis, ^. 

^ From a., 7., and Cx. 

9 From Cx. 

10 lohan, Cx. 
^^fautors, Cx. 

^2 HouSf a. and 7. 



^'^ bisiUch, $. ; bysilify Cx. 
^^ ysarched, 7. 
^5 ought, Cx., bis. 

16 }pat'\ and yf, ^. and Cx. 

17 werned, a. and i8. ; weorned, y. ; 
warned, Cx. 

18 oyt, y. 

19 chyldern, 7. 
2" ony, Cx. 

^1 tynde, $. ; ytund, 7. ; hytste, Cx. 

^^ trouwede, 7. 

2^ ma-n, /8. and Cx. 

2"* i-spoylled and'] om. Cx. 



444 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



pro suis pecuniis accusati quasi aut fugere aut urbem 

prodere vellent, necabantur. Egesippiis, lihro qidnto, 

Nota factum et Josepkus, Uhvo septimo.^ Tunc contigit illud factum 

enorme, 
mulier pro- 

medit ^^^' ^^^ horrendum quam famosum MarisG alienigense, quae 

filium. 

fame tabescens parvulum quem genuerat alloquitur in 
hunc modum : " Fili mi, saBva omnia te circumstant, 
" bellum, fames, incendium,^ latrones ; redde vel semel 
" matri quod ab ea sumpsisti. Redi in id secretum 
" a quo existi. Feci quandoque quod pietatis erat,^ 
" faciamus modo quod fames persuadet." Hsec dicens 
filium igne torruit ; partem comedit, partem reser- 
vavit ; sed nidor incenssB carnis seditiosos allexit, quos 
objurgans mulier sic affatur : " Silete ; non fui avara, 



^ To complete the reference add 
cap. 8. 



2 incendiay A.B. 
^ crant, 15. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 445 

accused for hir money, as J)ou^ they woldo flee oper be- Tjievisa, 

traye^ ])e citee, and were i-slawe. Egesippus, libro 5°,^ 

et loseus, libro 7^. So ^ byfel ))at griseliche * dede,^ a straunge 
womman, |>at lieet Marye, was overcome wi|) hongcr, and spak 
to hir owne litel ^ sone in ])is manere : '' Myn owne sone/ ]>\i 
" art bysette abonte wip al fing ])at is grisehche^ and dreed- 
" ful,^ wi|) bataille, wij? hongir, wij) fuyre brennynge, and 
" with ])eves.^ Quyte ones ]>y modir, and paye hir )?at ))ou hast 
" of hir i-fonge ^^ [and] ^^ torne a^en into l)at ^^ prive ^^ place J)at 
" ]>ou come of. Somtyme T dede ^^ as myldenesse wolde, doo we 
'* now as hunger counsaillej?."^^ pus sche^^ seide,^^ and rostid liir 
owne sone, and eet som,^^ and kept som. Bot ^^ men J)at made 
stryf com l^ider^o^y j,e smel of J?e brende^i flesche ; but ))e 
womman stilled hem, and spak to hem in pis manere : " Be}> ^^ 
" stille, I was noujt^^ coveitousand unkynde, I^* have y-kept 



Ab urbe. theire goodes were sleyne, seyenge that thei wolde flee other MS. Harl. 
elles thei wolde betray the cite. Egesippus, libro quinto, et 2261. 
losephus. libro septimo. Then that dede to be abhorrede , ^ . 
happede in Jerusalem, of Mary the aliaunte, whiche spake to gracione. 
her yonge infante in that hungre in thys wise : *' My son, 
*' alle cruelle J>inges compasse the abowte, batelles, hungre, 
" brennenge, and thefes, wherefore restore to thy moder that 
'^ thow haste receyvede of here ; goe in to that secrete place 
" from whom thow come. I did somme tyme that pite 
" requirede, now lete us do j)at hungre inducethe and 
" movethe ;" whiche seynge in this wise rostede her childe 
at the fire, eitenge parte and reseruenge parte of hit. But 
the savoure of that flesche soe rostede movede mony peple to 
comme thyder, to whom Mary that woman seide in this wise : 
'* Be not aschamede to folowe a woman, kepe silence, y was 
*' not auarous in that y kepede parte for yow," spekenge to the 



1 hytray, Cx. 


1^ pryvey, Cx. 


2 sexto, Cx. 


^'* y dude, y. 


3 J)o, o. ; than, Cx. 


^5 constreyneth, Cx. 


4 gryshjch, y. (tris). 


16 heo, 0. 


° grisely dethe, Cx. 


17 sethed, Cx. 


6 lytell, Cx. 


1^ somme, Cx., bis. 


^ my sone, Cx. 


1« But, Cx. 


^ grisely and dredeful, Cx, 


^^ }puder, y. 


^ \>eoves, y. 


21 hrent, $ . ; brentc, Cx. 


^0 i-fonge'] om. Cx. 


22 Be, Cx. 


" From Cx. 


23 nouU'] om. Cx. 


12 J,aO tliy, Cx. 


2< Ich, $. 



446 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



" partem vobis servando ^ ; " et ad portionem reser- 
vatam sic loquitur : " Gratus es mihi, fili mi, vitsD 
^' mese dilatator, percussorum repressor ; qui venerunt 
'* necaturi jam facti sunt convivse. Gustate ergo quod 
" matrem novistis gustasse, aut eerte totum reliquum 
" incorporabo. Ne pudeat vos mulierem imitari quam 
" sic epulari fecistis." Replevit^ illico urbem tauti 
sceleris nefas, et Titum in tantum comraovit ut manus 
elevans sic afFaretur : ^ Ad bellum hominum venimus ; 
" sed, ut video, contra beluas dimicamus. Quin etiam 
'' fersD rapaces a propria specie abstinent, etiam in 
*' summa necessitate suos foetus fovent ; sed isti proprios 
" devorant. Ipsos ergo deleamus,* quorum foeda sunt 
" omnia." Josephus.^ Erat inter Romanos Sabinus 



^ reservando partem comedi, B. 

2 igitur^ B. 

3 effceretur, B. 



■* deleamus, A.B. 

5 libro septimo, B. The full re- 
ference is lib. vii. cap. i. 




MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



447 



" Jow ^oure parte ; " and sche ^ spak to ]>e part ])at was i-left Trevisa. 

in ]>is manere : " Myn owne sone, J?ou art kynde ^ to me, J^ou 

" leng)?est3 my lyf; ])0\i seesist^ hem J)at wolde me smyte, 
" ]?ey ]?at come to slee me, bee]? ^ i-made now my frendes 
" and gestes ; J)anne take]? ^ what ^e knowe]> ^ ])at ]>e childes 
" modir ha]? i-tasted, o]?er elles I^ schal ete al in feere.^ 



10 



" Schame ^ow noujt to folwe a womman ]?at Je have]? 
" y-made ete ^^ in J)is manere." Anon ]?e citee was ful 
of J)e clamour of J?is griseliche ^^ dede. And Titus was so i- 
meoved ^^ ];erwi]?, }>at he Jaf ^* up his hondes to heveneward 
and seide, " We come to a bataille of men, but now I see J?at 
" we fitte]? ^^ ajenst bestes ; Jit bestes^^ rampaunt spare}) ^^ her 
" owne kynde,^ be ]?ey nevere so nedy,^^ and helpe]? ^^ her 
" owne children ; but ^ese men devoure]? ^^ here owne children : 
" ])anne destroye^^ we hem, for alle hir dedes stinke]?."^^ 
losephus, libro 7^. Among ])e Romayns was oon of Siria^^ 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Aburbe. parte that was lefte, and seyenge, "O my son, [?ow arte fuUe mS. Hael. 
" kynde, the encreaser of my lyfe, the enmyes to us be now 2261. 
" cure gestes, ]?erfore eite ye and taste ]?erof, or trewly y schalle 
** incorporate or eyte the residu. Be ye not a schamede to 
" folowe a woman whom ye hauecausede to eite in this wise." 
That dede to be aborrede was commune anoon and expressede 
])ro alle the cite. Titus herenge that was so much movede in 
his herte that he extendede his hondes up towarde heven, and f. 214. a. 
seide, " We come to JifFe batelle to men, but as me thenke 
*' we Jiffe batelle to brute bestes. But Jitte brute bestes 
" absteyne from theire awne kynde in theire moste necessite, 
" and norische theyme, but this peple devourethe theire awne 
" childer ; |?erfore lette us destroye and doe aweye theyme, for 
" the dedes of theyme ar to be abhorrede." losephus, libro 
septimo. There was a man amonge the Romanes of the 



1 heo, $. 

2 kuynde, 7. 

^ lengest, Cx. 

^ cesest, 0. and Cx. ; cessed, 7. 

^ hen, Cx. 

''• taste)p, a. , )8., and Cx. 

" knowe, Cx. 

^ ellys ye, Cx. 

^ yfere, )8., 7., and Cx. 

i»"/iai;c, Cx. 

^^ ete'] om. Cx. 

^" grisely, Cx. 



Cx 



'3 meved, /8. and Cx. 

^4 haf, o., iS., and 7. 

^'fyghte, Cx. 

^^ bestes yut, 7. 

^7 spare, Cx. 

'^ neody, 7. 

19 helpith, Cx. 

^^ devore\> andfrete\), 7. ; devoure. 



21 destruye, /3. and 7. 
■^ stinken, Cx, 
23 Ciria, Cx. 



448 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



quidam genere Syrus, manu et animo promptus, per- 
petua laude dignus ; hie quidem^^ nigro colore, exilis 
habitudine, sed anima heroica in macro corpora vir- 
tute enituit. Hie primus cum undecim sociis murum ^ 
ascendit, Juda30s fugavit, sed lapide tandem pressus, 
sagittas et lapides parvipendens, etiam genibus innixus 
et scuto protectus multos sauciavit, donee jaculis un- 
dique confossus interiret. Egesippus. Admotis tan- 
dem arietibus ad templum, sed parum proficientibus, 
valvas templi auro tectas incendunt. Ranulphus. Re- 
fert hie Josephus quod propter occisionem Jacobi Justi 
excidium urbis et gentis dispersio provenerit ; sed 



quidam, A. 



I ' muros, A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



449 



})at lieet Sabinus, an orped man and a^ stalworJ)e of honde Trevisa. 
and of herte, and worpy [for] ^ to be i-preysed wij? oute ende ; 
})is was blak of hewe and litel ^ of stature, but a noble soule 
schoon * by virtues in J?at litel ^ body, pis wi]) enlevene ^ 
felawes wente uppon ]>g wal^ first, and droof^ awey ])e 
lewes ; but at J?e laste he was aleyde ^ wij? a stoon, and he 
despisede and roujt^^noujt of arwes and [of] ^^ stones, but he 
difFendid hym wij) his schilde,^^ and faujte uppon his knees,!^ 
and woundede meny men alwey, for to ^^ he was ful of arewes 
and of schot,^^ and }>oru^ schot^^ in every side, and deyde^^ in 
J>e place. Egesippus. At pe laste |)e engynes were removed^* 
toward fe temple, but it halpe but lite,^^ but at J^e laste pey 
brende j>e valves ^o of J)e temple pat were i-heled wit gold. I^. 
Here losephus telle]> pat pis mescheef and destroyenge ^i of 
pe citee and of pe peple bifeP^ for pe deeth and sleynge 
of lames pe rijtful, but more vcrreyliche ^^ it bifel ^* for pe 



Aburbe. cuntre of Siria, Sabinus byname, a man of grete audacite, mS.Harl, 
worthy to be hade in lawde perpetualle, whiche ascendenge 2261. 

the walles of Jerusalem with xj. felowes, putte peple innu- 

merable of the lewes to fli^hte, whiche pressede downe with ^ <^^^"smi- 



stones, and despisenge arowes, faujhte on knees, and woundede 
mony lewes, defendenge hym with his schelde un tille that he 
was smyte thro the body in mony places with arowes, where 
thro he diede. Eggesippus. Titus causede his gunners to 
schote at the temple, where thro thei profite but lytelle, 
neuerthelesse thei brente the Jates of the temple couerede 
with golde. j^. losephus rehersethe and seithe that the 
destruction of the lewes and the dispersion of theyme was 
causede for the dethe of Seynte lames the ry^hteuous. But 



gracione. 



^ a] om. o., )3., 7., and Cx. 

2 From Cx. 

3 Utul, 7. 

'* schone, $. ; slione, Cx. 

•5 lytul, y. 

^* enleven, y. 

' walle, Cx. 

^ drof, fi. ; drofe, Cx. 

^ aleyd, y. ; afelled, Cx. 

^0 rowhte, Cx. 

^' From o., /8., 7., and Cx. 

^^ shelde, Cx. 

VOL. TV. 



^3 knen, $, and 7. 

^■* to'] om. Cx. ; for to pa/, 7. 

15 shot, Cx. 

'^ thorough shote, Cx. 

^"t dede, )8. ; ded, 7. 

'^ remeoved, 7. 

19 litel, /8. ; hjtil, Cx. 

20 walles, Cx. 

21 distruyynge, fi. ; destniyyny. 7. 

22 befil, Cx. 
'3 verijly, Cx. 

2^y?/,cx. 




450 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



verius propter occisionem ^ Christi, secundum illud evan- 
gelii,^ "Non^ relinquent in te lapidem super lapidem, 
" eo quod non cognoveris tempus visitationis tuse." 
Quia tamen Dominus ^ non vult mortem peccatoris, sed 
magis ut convertatur, et ut ipsi Judsei de prseoccupa- 
tione calumniam aut excusationem non haberent, per 
xl^ annos* expectavit per apostolorum prsedicationem, 
ad convertendum ^ soUicitavit, per signa stupenda eos 
terrere curavit. Egesippus et Josephus, lihro 7°.^ Nam 
per annum ferme ^ ante urbis eversionem visa est gladii 
ignei similitudo supra templura in aere pendere. In 
ipsa quoque Paschali celebritate vitula in medio templi 
immolanda agnum peperit. Orientalis quoque porta 



^ passionem, B. 

■^ evangelium., A. 

3 " cum videns in civitate flevit 
" super earn, etc., quoniam dies 
" venient, etc., et coangustabunt te 
" undique, eo quod non cognoveris, 
" etc., et quia Dominus," B. 



4 eos, added in A. 
^ conversionem, B. 
^ To complete the reference add 
cap. 12. 
7 /ere, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



451 



sleynge of Crist, as ])e gospelle sei)) : " jjey schuUe]) ^ noujt^ levc ^ Trevisa. 

" in ])0 ^ [one] ^ stoon uppon [a] ^ stoon, for ])ou knowest 

" noujt pe tymc of ])yne ^ visitacioun." But for ^ oure Lord 
wil ^ noujt ])e deeth of a synful man, but he wole ^ fat pe 
syuful man amende hym, and torne to good lyf ; and for pe 
lewes schulde have noon excusacioun nojjer chalange ^^ no])er 
cause for to seie ^^ ]?at God Almy^ty toke wi-eche of hem 
unwarned ; jjerfore God Almyjty abood ^^ fourty ^ere Jif ]>ey 
wolde amende hem,!^ and warnede ofte by prechynge of pe 
apostles, by dredful signes and tokenes.^^ Egesippus et 
losephus, libro 7°. For aboute a Jere to for ^^ pQ destruccion 
of pQ citee, \q liknes of a [fyrej ^^ swerd was y-seie honge 
in ^e ayer ^^ above in ^^ J)e temple. [In ])at Ester ^^ tyde an 
hoyffer^o jjat schulde be y-offired in J^e temple] ^i enyed^z 
a lomb. Also ]?e Est ^ate of pQ temple, |)at ^3 was so hevy of 



Ab urbe. 



A trans mi- 
gracione. 



trewly hit was causede for the dethe of Criste, after the MS, Harl. 

seyenge of Criste in the Gospelle, " They schalle not leve oon 2261. 

'* ston on an o]?er in the, in that thou hafe ^* not knowe the 

" tyme of thy visitacion." For, as scripture scythe, Criste 

willethe not the dethe of a synner, but that he be con- 

uertede and lyve ; wherefore he Jafe to the lewes space of 

penaunce by xl*» yere after his dethe, that thei scholde not 

haue eny excusacion for synnes or theire trespasses, causenge 

thapostles to preche amonge theyme, and schewenge to theym 

other meruellous signes. Egesippus et losephus, libro septimo. 

For the similitude of a swerde of fyre was scene to honge 

ouer the temple by a yere allemoste afore the destruccion of 

the temple. Also a yonge calfe to be offrede that tyme of 

Ester calvede a lambe in the myddes of the temple. Also 

the este ^ate of the temple, unnethe wonte to be schutte by 



^ a schoUe\>, y. 

2 shulle not, Cx. 

^ leeve, /8. 

* In J)e] om. Cx. 

^ From Cx. 

^ \>y7ie'] om. Cx. 

'^for'] om. Cx. 

^ wole, fi. ; wol, Cx. 

^ wil, a. ; wol, Cx. 

^0 chatenge, Cx. 

^^ segge, y. ; saye, Cx. 

12 abode, Cx. 

13 hevfi] om. Cx. 



1^ tokyns, Cx. 
15 hyfore, Cx. 

1^ From Cx. ; a. has fourty ; 
fuyry, fi. and y. 
^' air, Cx. 

18 m] om. Cx. 

19 Estern, Cx. 

20 heffre, 0. and Cx. ; heyfre, y. 

21 From o. and y. 

22 enede, a. and y. ; encd, 8. ; 
ewed, Cx. 

23 ]>at^ ora. Cx. 

24 schal is written above hafe. 

F F 2 



I 



452 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

templi solido sere plurimum gravis, viginti vix hominum 
labore claudi solita, per plures noctes, fractis repagulis 
ferreis, sponto aperiebatur vix iterura claudenda. Visi 
sunt etiam in nubibus acies armatse et currus volitare 
per aera. In festo Pentecostes sacerdotes de nocte tem- 
plum ingredientes audierunt voces hujuscemodi ; Trans- 
eamus hinc ; migremus ex his sedibus. Jesus quoque^ 
Ananiae filius, vir ruricola, quadriennio ante urbis ex- 
cidium in ipsis Scenopegise^ sacrificiis templum as- 
cendens ccepit clamare patria voce : Vox ah Oriente, 
vox ah Occidente, vox a quatuor ventis ; Vce ! Vce ! Vce ! 
Jerosolimis et templo. Hsec die et nocte clamabat, ita 
ut nee verberibus afflictus nee precibus rogatus^ de- 
sisteret; quin etiam coram Albino praeside Komano 
ductus, et dire tractatus proprias injurias semper ne- 
gligeret, patriae excidium proclamaret, usque ad ulti- 



* quo, MS. I 3 rogatusli om. B. 

2 ScenophegicBf MS. 




MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



453 



\ 



sound bras fat twenty men were besy i-now for to tende ^ it, Trevisa. 
and Jit many nyjtes pe iren barres were i-broke,^ and |)e Jate 
opened by hymself^ as it 



myjte be i-closed aftirward. 



were wilfulliche,'* so pat unnejje it 
Also oostes ^ of armed men were 
i-seie in ]>e clouds, and chariotes flee by ])e ^ aycr.-^ And ^ 
Witsontyde preosts wente into ]>e temple by nyght, and herde 
a voys J>at seide, *' Goo we hennes ^ ; passe we out of ])ese 
" seges." Also lesus Ananias his sone, an uplondisclie man, 
foure Jere tofore^^ ]?e destruction of pe citee, come to ])e sacrefice 
of ])Q dedicacioun of the temple, and bygan to crie in J^e Ion- 
gage of ])e contre,^^ and seide, " A voys out of ]>e Est, a vois out 
" of the West, a vois out of ]>e ^^ foure wyndes ; wo, wo, wo is 
" [to] ^^ Jerusalem and pe temple. He cried so day and nyjt, 
and cesede ^^ nevere foi betynge. no|)er for fair ^^ prayenge ; and 
Jit he was y-bore ^^ tofore Albynus, ]?e iustice of Home, and 
harde and cruelliche^'' bylad. But he roujt noujt of his owne ^^ 
[wrong, no]?er of his owne] ^^ meschif, but cried ]?at J>e contray 
schuldebe destroyede,^^ and cesede noujt or ^i pe laste day of ])e 



Ab urbe. the helpe of XX*' men, was openede oftetymes in the nyjhte, MS. Hakl. 
the barres off the durres broken. Also armede men were 2261. 
seen and chariettes to flye in the aiere. The prestes at ^transmi- 
Pentecoste afore the takenge of the cite herde voices seyenge, gracione. 
" Goe Ave hens, departe we from the seetes." Ihesusthe son of '* ^^** "' 
Ananias, ascendede in to the temple in the iiij'**^ yere afore the 
takenge of Jerusalem, in theire festes callede Scenophagia, 
where he cryede in this wise : " A voyce from the este, a voice 
" from the weste, a voice from the iiij. wyndes ; woo, woo, woo 
" to Jerusalem," cryenge so day and nyjhte, in so moche 
that he wolde not leve that crye for betynge neither for feire 
wordes and preyers. Whiche broujhte afore Albinnus, the 
presidente of the Romanes, and correcte soore, wolde not leve 
that seyenge ; and in the laste day of the destruccion of the 



' tynde, o. 
lyfte, Cx. 



tyne, fi. ; tuynde, y. ; 



2 to-broke, y. 

3 hit self, )8. and Cx. ; hytsylf, y. 
■* wylfully, Cx. 

5 hostes, a., 7., and Cx. 

^ \>e'\ om. a. 

7 eyr, /3. 

^ At, a., j8,, y., and Cx. 

9 hens, Cx. 

10 afore, Cx. 



^^ countray, Cx. 

J2 J,e] om. Cx. 

13 From Cx. 

1'* cessed, Cx., et infra. 

'^fayer, Cx. 

"^ brouyt, )8. ; hroughtc afore, Cx, 

'7 cruwelych, y. 

1^ owne~\ om. Cx. 

'9 From a., $., and 7. 

■'0 distried, /8. 

21 er, fi. and Cx. ; ar, 7. 



Josephus. 



454 POLYCHKONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

mum eversionis diem, quo murum ascendens prsedicta 
repetiit, et dum adjungeret, Vw etiam et mihi, ictu 
fundibali^ obiit. Ranulphus. Kefert Marianus, libro 
primo, quod templo succenso, solum templi in odium 
JudsGorum^ exaratum sit.^ Jeronimus in prologo 
super Josephum.^ Post urbem eversam Titus Romam 
rediens adduxit secum Josephum Judseum,^ qui statim 
septem Judaicse captivitatis libros Greece ^ conscripsit, 
quos Titus bibliothecso publicae tradidit; ob cujus in- 
genii gloriam Josephus ipse post mortem suam sta- 
tuam Romse promeruit. Scripsit etiam iste Jose- 
phus ab exordio mundi usque ad tempora Domitiani 
viginti antiquitatum libros ; in quorum octavodecimo 
fatetur Johannem Baptistam verum fuisse prophetam, 
et propter occisionem Jacobi Justi Jerosolimam fuisse 



^ fundibile, MS. 
2 vomeribus, B. 

"* Ranulphus . . . sit'\ om. CD. 

■* This is not a direct quotation | ^ Grace^ om. B 
from Jerome, but most nearly re 



sembles the commentary on Joel, 
chap. i. 

5 Jud<2uiif\ om. B. 



t 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 455 



destruccioun ; and |)at day he wente uppou ])G wal and reherscd ^ Tkevisa. 

the same cry, and putte more })erto,2 and seide, " Wo is me also," 

and was anon i-smyte wi]? a stoon of a slynge, and deyde. 
[I^.] 3 Marianus, libro primo, seij? |)at whan pe temple was 
i-brend J^e flore'* ferofwas i-ered^ wij) plowes for wrethe^ 
and despite of J^e lewes. lerotnus '^ in prologo super loscph» 
Whanne l)e citee was destroyed, Titus wente to Rome, and 
ladde with hym losephus ]?e lewe, l>at wroot anoon in Grewe ^ 
sevene bookes of ]?e takyng of lewes, and Titus dede ])ese 
bookes into ])e comoun ^ librarie ; and losephus after his detli 
hadde an ymage at Rome y-made of his noble wit.^^ Also ]7is 
losephus wroot of doynge and dedes from Jje bygynnynge of }»e 
world to Domicianus his tyme,^^ twenty bookes, j^at beej> ^^ 
i-cleped libri antiquitatum, \q bookes of eelde^^; in ])e ey^tepe 
bookperofhe grauntej? and knowleche]?!^ pat lohn^^ Baptist 
was a verray prophete,^^ and pat lerusalem was destroyed by 



Ab urbe. cite he wente un to the walles of the cite, where he cryede in MS. Haul. 
lyke wise, and when he seide " Woo to me," he was sleyne 2261. 
with a gunneston. ]^. Marianus rehersethe in his firste booke ^ transmi- 
that the temple of lerusalem brente, the grownde of hit was graciouc. 
broken and divided with plowes to the despite of pe lewes. 
leronimus in prologo super lose. Titus returnede to Rome 
after the destruccion of the cite of lerusalem, takenge with 
hym losephus the lewe, whiche did write in Grewe vij. 
bookes of the captiuite of the lewes, whom Titus combynede 
and putte to the commune bible ; whiche deseruede to haue an 
ymage made for hym after his dethe for thexcellence of 
witte in the cite of Rome. Also this losephus did write xx*' 
bookes off antiquite from the begynnenge of the worlde un 
to the tymes of Domician ; in the xviij*^® bookes of whom he 
knowlegethe lohn Baptiste to haue be a trewe prophete, and 
lerusalem to haue beene destroyede for the dethe of lames pe 



1 reherced, Cx. 

'^ potte more to, y. 

^ From )8., 7., and Cx. 

'^Jlour, a. ; floor, 7. ; floor e, Cx. 

5 anon, added in 7. 

^ wreche, Cx. 

7 leronimus, Cx. 

^ Grue, )3. and Cx. ; Gru, 7. 



3 comyn, Cx. 

10 wytte, Cx. 

1^ his tyme\ om. Cx. 

12 ben, Cx. 

»3 olde, Cx. 

^^ knowledgeth, Cx. 

^» lohan, Cx. 

^^ very profyte, Cx. 



456 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

eversam ; ubi et asserit Jesum Christum fuisse virum 
sapientem, mirabilium operum patratorem, multorum 
Judseorum et Gentilium doctorem, ac tandem invidiose 
occisum, tertia quoque post hoc die suis discipulis ap- 
paruisse, ac usque tunc genus et nomen Christianorum 
non defecisse.^ 

Vespasianus profluvio ventris in villa propria circa oratiae 

LXXIX. 

, ., . , Vcspasiani, 

Sabinos obiit anno ?etatis suso septuagesimo ; qui ^'m- 
cum morte urgeretur stans fertur dixisse, " Stantem 
" decet imperatorem de terris recedere." Giraldus in 
Topographia.^ Appolinaris discipulus ^ Petri,^ Kaven- 
nam nuper missus, passus est. In cujus natali corvi, 
cornices, monedulae ex omni parte undique conflu- 
entes, singulis annis quasi ex condicto conveniunt 
quibus eodem die quasi ex consuetudine cadaver equi 



^ defuisse, B. 

2 Distiuctio II. cap, xxviii. 

3 beatij B. 



* Petri] om. A. ; Apostoli, added 



inB. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 457 



cause of J)e slaujter^ of Tames ])e ri^tful. Also ]>ere he Trevisa. 

seij) ]>at Crist was a wise man, and dede meny wonderful 

werkes and dedes, and ])at he was doctour and techer of J>e 
lewes and of ofer men, and i-slawe^ at ]?e laste for envie, 
and schewed hym to his disciples pe ])ridde day after ; and 
]>at Cristendom and fe name of Cristen men fayled noutt^ 
anon to* fat tyme. Vaspacianus diede in ]>e flux in^ his 
owne toun, aboute ]>& Sabyns, ]>e J ere of his age J^rescore 
and ten ; me seith j>at he stood up whanne he schulde dye, 
and seide, " It falle^ for an emperour to ^ passe stondinge out 
" of J?e 7 erj^e.® " Giraldus in Topographia. Appolinaris, 
Peter his disciple, ))at was some tyme i-send to Ravenna, 
suflTre]? ^ deth. Everiche ^ere in hisfeste day ravons,^^crowes, 
and chou^hes ^^ come]) pider to gidres ^^ out of everiche 
side, as it were by covenant y-made ; and pat day as it were 
by custome ^^ is i-^eve ^* hem a careyn of a deed ^^ hors ; perfore 



Aburbe. lesse, callede lames the ryjhteuous. Where he seyethe alsoMS. Harl. 
Criste to liaue bene a wise man, the worker and doer of 2261. 
mony meruellous pinges, the doctor and techer of the gentiles ^ transmi- 
and of the lewes, at the laste sleyne by iniury, and after that to Rracione. 
haue apperede to his disciples in the thridde day folowenge. 
Vespasianus the emperour diede in the Ixx*^ yere of his age, 
of the flixe, in his awne towne, nye to the Sabynes ; whiche f. 215. a. 
stondenge in the tyme of his dethe, seide in this wise, " Hit 
" semethe an emperour to departe from thys worlde stond- 
" enge." Giraldus in Topographia. The disciple of Petyr, 
Appollinaris by name, sufFrede passion, sende to Rauenna but 
a ly telle season afore ; in whose day the rauenes, crowes, and 
dawes gedre per a grete multitude, to whom the carion of an 
horse is JiiFen as of a consuetude. Wherefore somme men 



' sklaunder, Cx. ^" ravenes, /8. and Cx. ; rcvons, 7 



2 slai/ne, Cx. 

2 nouyQ om. )8. 

'* Jailed never to, Cx. 

5 aboute, Cx, 

^ to'] om. 7. 

' J>e] om. Cx. 

^ eor]>e, 7. 

^ suffred, Cx. 



^1 chouyes, $. ; chouywes, 7. 
chowes comen, Cx. 

^2 \)uder to gedres, 7. ; theder to 
gyders, Cx. 

^' customme, Cx. 

*■* yeven, fi. 

^^ deede, fi. 



458 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

datur, inde conjectant aliqui urbem illam Teutonice 
appellari Kavennesburgh/ quod soDat Latine^ urbem 
cornicum.^ EutropiusJ' 

Cap. XL 

[Titus, Imperator Romanus. Narratio de Sancto 

Juliano.] 
Titus regnavit post patrem ^ tribus annis. Hie lxxx * 

Titi. " 

nempe Graeca et Latina foecundissimus, causas Latine ^* 
egit, poemata et tragedias Graece composuit; convictos 
adversum se in conjuratione, eadem qua ante fa- 
miliaritate tractavit. Policratica, libro tertio, capitulo 
nono.^ Hie tanta liberalitate patris avaritiam pur- 
gavit, ut amor et delieiae generis humani diceretur; 
iugiter hoe observans ne quemquam ^ aceedentem ad commen- 

•^ ° 1 -a datioTiti. 

eum sine re aut sine spe abire permitteret. Unde in- 
terrogantibus ^ suis cur plura promitteret quam prse- 
stare posset, respondit [non debere quenquam] ^ a 



^ Mavensbugh, B. 

2 Latine\ om. B. 

3 The whole chapter is varied in 
the usual manner in CD. 

^ The history of Titus to which 
reference is made is in Eutr, lib. 
vii. c. 21. 



^ SMM7W, B. 

^ 14°, A., correctly. 
7 quendam, A. ; quern, B. 
® domesticis, A.B. 
9 From A. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



459 



som men wil ^ mene ))at bybance ^ ])erof j^at citee is i-cleped Trevisa. 
in duchisshe ^ speche * Ravennesburgh.^ TitusS" 



Capitulum undecimum. 

Titus regnede aftir his fader as it were j^re Jere. pis was 
moost noble ^ spekere of Grew^ and of Latyn, and wroot causes 
in Latyn, and poysies ^ and gestes in Grewe.^^ pey ])at were 
convicte in conspiracie ^^ a^enst hym were^ashomeliche ^^ aftir- 
ward wi]? hym as to forehonde.^^ Policratica, libro 3°, capitulo 
\4tP. pis was so fre of herte ]?at he'purchede^* and clensede 
))e covetise of his fadir, so )?at he was i-cleped J?e love and ]?e 
likynge of mankynde. Also he hadde alway fat manere J?at 
no man pat come to hym ^ede ^^ from hym wij? oute mede ;^^ 
])erfor6 men of his hous axede hym why he wolde byhote 
more ]mn he myjte laste.^^ " pere schulde no man," quod he 



Ab urbe. coniecture that cite to be callede in the langage off j^e MS. Harl. 
Allemaynes Rauenesburghe, whiche soundethc in Englische 2261. 
the cite of ravenes. 

Atransmi- 
gracione. 

Eutropius. 
Capitulum undecimum, 

Titus reignede after Vespasian his fader as thre yere, Titus. 
instructe nobly in the langage of Latyne. Policronicon, 
libro tertio, capitulo vicesimo quarto. This Titus onornede so 
by the avarice of his fader that he was accomptede the luffe 
and delices of mankynde, obseruenge this condicion and con- 
suetude, that he wolde not suffre eny man commenge to hym to 
departe withowte a rewarde other a promisse of a rewarde. 
Wherefore the men of his howseholde inquirenge why he 
promysed moo tiftes then he myjhte Jiffe, he seide to J^eim 



* woly Cx. 

2 bybause, a. ; bj/cause, ^. and 
Cx. 

3 duchysse, )8. ; duychysch, 7. ; 
duche, Cx. 

■* spe, a. 

5 Revenesbiirgh, /8. and 7. 

^ Eutropius, 7. and Cx. 

7 nobel, 7. 

^ Gru, 7. ; Grue, Cx. 

9 poysyes, /3. ; poesyes, 7. and Cx. 



1" Gru, a. and 7. ; GruCf Cx. 

^^ of conspyracion, Cx. 

^2 homely, Cx. 

^3 afore, Cx. 

^^ purgede, a. and 7. ; purgide, j8. ; 
purgyd, Cx. 

^■^ yeode, 7. 

^^ mede] speed ol>er hope of speed, 
a., 7., and Cx. ; spede o)>er hope of 
spede, /3. 

'' performe, $. and Cx. ; leste, 7. 



460 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

sermone principis tristem abscedere.* Quod quidem 
dictum in coena sua semel recordatus,^ quod videlicet 
nihil ilia [die] ^ cuiquam contulissefc, dolens fertur 
dixisse, "0 amici mei, hunc diem perdidi." Cum 
igitur hora mortis lectica veheretur, suspiciens in 
coelum dixit nullum sibi exstare factum de quo sibi 
poenitendum foret, excepto uno,^ quod quale fuerit 
nemini innotuit. Circa hsec tempora obiit Julianus 
Cenomanensis episcopus, quem dicunt fuisse Symonem 
leprosum, qui quondam a Christo sanatus, ipsum lios- 
pitio recepisse perhibetur. Hie post Ascensionem 
Domini ab apostolis, seu ^ apostolorum sequacibus, 
episcopus Cenomanensis ordinatus, multis virtutibus 
clarus, tres etiam mortuos suscitavit.^ Hunc volunt 
quidam esse Julianum ilium ^ qui ab itinerantibus 
pro inveniendo bono hospitio invocatur, eo quod in 
domo ejus^ Christus fuerit hospitatus. Sed verius^ 



1 recedere, B. 

2 est, B. 

3 die, from A. 
* uno'\ om. B. 
^ sive, B. 



*• virtute divina, B. 
^" ilium'] om. B. 
^ sua, B. 
3 melius, A. 



' 



MONACHI CESTHENSIS, LIB. IV. 



4G1 



'* go alenge ^ and sory from ])0 answere of a prince." Oones Trevisa. 
at pe^ soper he by jjoujte hym [of |)at sawe, and by foutt 
hym] 3 also ]jat he hadde J^at day y-Jeve no Jifte in helpe of 
eny^ man, and was sory, and seide, "Alias I my freendes, ])is 
" day 1 5 have y-lost." In ])e tyme of his deeth he was i-bore 
in a litere,^ and loked up into hevene, and seide ])at hym 
nedede^ [not] ^ to ajjynke^ of none of alle his deedes, but 
oonliche ^^ oon ; but what dede })at was no man wiste.^^ 
Aboute ])at tyme deyde lulianus, bisshop of Cenomannens ; [me 
sei]> |)at he was Symon leprous,^^ ]>e mesel pat Crist helede, 
and he feng Crist in his hous and harborwede^^ hym. After ]>e 
ascencion of our Lord he was bisshop of Cenomannens,]^ i-or- 
deyned by ]>e apostles opev by here disciples, and he was a noble 
man of virtues, and rered pre men fro deth to ly ve.^^ Som men 
wil ^^ mene J>at fis is [he] ^ ]?at men jjat travaillej? by J)e weie 
prayen ^^ to for good herborwe,^^ for Crist was i-herborwed ^^ 



Ab urbe. that a man awe not to departe from a prince with soory chere. MS. Harl. 
Whiche remembrenge that in a nyjhte at soper, seide, "O 2261. 
*' my frendes, y haue loste pis day," in that he ^afe noo thynge a transmi- 
in hit. Whiche cariede in a chariette afore his dethe, gracione. 
extendenge his hondes to heuyn, seide that he didde never 
that thynge in his lyfe whereof he was soory and penitente, 
this thynge excepte, that euery man hade not of what 
disposicion he was. lulianus, the bischop Cenomanense, 
diede abowte this tyme, whom men say to haue be Symon 
Leprosus, fuUe of lepre, and healede of Criste, whiche was seide 
to haue receyvede Criste in his place. This lulianus, made 
bischop Cenomanense after the assencion off oure Lorde, of 
thapostles or of theire foloers, lyvede vertuousely, whiche 
areysede from dethe to lyfe thre dedde men in his tyme. But f. 215. b. 
hit semethe to be an other lulian that receyvede Criste, in the 



1 elyng, $. and y. ; elynge, Cx. 

2 a, Cx. 

' From a., jS., 7., and Cx. 

'* ony, Cx. 

fi ich, iS. 

^ lyter, j8., 7., and Cx. 

"^ nede, a. ; neodede, 7. ; neded, 
Cx. 

8 From Cx. 

^ for\>inche^ /3, ; athenche, 7. ; 
thynke, Cx. 



^0 only, Cx. 

^^ woste, a. ; wuste, 7. ; wyste, Cx. 

^2 leprosus, Cx. 

^3 herbered, $. ; harhurwede, 7. ; 
he receyved Crist in his hows and 
lodged him, Cx. 

15 wold, Cx. 

1^ praye\>, a., 7., and Cx. 

1" lodgynge, Cx. 

1^ harborugh, 7. ; herberuhd, Cx. 






462 



POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



videtur fuisse alius Julianus/ qui utrumque pa- 
rentem suum nesciens occidit. De quo ita ^ legit ur : 
Julianus nobilis juvenis dum venationi intenderet, 
cervum ^ insecutus est, qui versa ad eum facie dixit, 
" Tu me consequeris,^ qui parentis utriusque occisor 
^' eris." ^ Quod ille ne sibi adveniret ^ pertimescens, 
relictis omnibus suis clam discessit, et cuidam magno 
principe in terra longinqua se contulit, sub quo tarn 
in bello quam in palatio strenue egit, ita quod gradum 
militarem promeruit, et ^ quandam viduam Castella- 
nam, tradente earn domino, in conjugem recepit. In- 
terea parentes Juliani ubilibet^ locorum filium quse- 
rentes, tandem ad castellum Juliani casu devenerunt; 
quos cum uxor Juliani ex mutuo relatu parentes 
mariti sui esse cognovisset, ipsos benigne fovit, et in 



^ Tamen alter videtur esse Juli- 
anus, B. 
2 efa] om. A. 
^ servum, A. 
* persequeriSy B. 



^ eSy A, 

^ eveniret, A.B. 

7 ef] om. B. 

8 cubiliby, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



463 



in his hous. But it seemej; more sooJ)liche |?at it is |)e o]?er 
lulianus, ]?at unwitynge slowj bo])e his [owne] ^ fader and 
his^ moder. Of hym it is i-write^ in fis manner : lulianus 
was a ^onge man, wente an hontynge and chasede ^ an hert, and 
])e herde ^ tornede his face to hym and seide, " pou chasest^ me, 
" and ]?ou schalt sloe boj^e J>yn owne fadir and modir." pan 
lulian dradde ^ sore ; and for to be war ^ |?at ])e ^ mes cheef 
schulde noujt bifalle, lulian forsook and lefte al fat he hadde 
and put hym self to a grete prince in fer londe, and baar ^^ 
hym wel and nobeliche under J?at prince, boj^e in batayle 
and at home in his paleys ^^ ; and bare hym so fat he 
was i-made [a] ^^ knyjt, and wedded oon Castellana, a 
wedewe,!^ fat his lord ^af hym to wyve.^^ panne his fader 
and his moder soujte lulian in everiche lond, and it happede 
at f e laste [fat] ^^ fey come to lulyan his owne castel ; and 
whanne lulyan his wif hadde i-talked wif hem, sche ^^ knewe 
[wel] 12 fat fey were here housbondes ^^ fadir and his modir, 



Trevisa. 



A transmi- 
gracione. 



Ab urbe. name of whom peple aske loggenge, that he did sle bothe his MS. Harl 
fader and moder ignorauntely, of whom it is redde : When 2261. 
this noble yonge man lulian huntede in a season, and folowede 
an herte, the herte returnede to hym, and seide, " Thow 
" folowes me whiche schalle slee bothe thy fader and moder." 
Thys yonge man dredenge that myschefe, and willenge to 
avoyde hit, departede priuely owte from that cuntre, and 
drawede to the seruyce of a noble prince, whiche was hade 
and accomptede of alle peple myjhty in batelle, and gentil to 
peple in the palice, wherefore he was made kny^hte by that 
prince hauenge a ryche wedowe taken to hys wife by his lorde 
also. The fader and moder to lulian makenge grete sorowe 
for theire sonne, sekede hym in mony cuntres ; whiche comme 
to his wife, and to the castelle where sche inhabite ; whiche 
knowenge theyme to be the fader and moder of lulian here 



^ From a. and Cx. ; his owne, 
om. 7. 

2 his'] om. a., 7., and Cx. 

"^ certayne wreten, Cx. 

■* chassed, 7. ; chaced, Cx. 

^ hert, fi. and 7. ; herte tourned, 
Cx. 

^ chacest, Cx. 

' drad, Cx. 

^ ware, Cx. 



9 \>at, 13. ; that, Cx. 

^^ bare, Cx. 

^* palais, Cx. 

12 From Cx. 

'3 wydwe, 7. ; wydowe, Cx. 

" y^yf, Cx. 

>5 From a., 7., and Cx. 

^6 heo, /3, and 7. 

^7 husbandeSf Cx., et infra. 



464 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

lectulo mariti ad pausandum collocavit. Facto mane 
Castellana ilia ad ecclesiam perrexit, illis adhuc in 
cubiculo quiescentibus ; quos cum Julianus mane do- 
mum rediens in lecto suo simul dormire conspexisset, 
suspicatus uxorem suam ^ cum aliquo adulterio co- 
ivisse,^ utrosque pariter confodit. Exiens deinde, et 
uxorem suam obviam habens, cognovit juxta cervi va- 
ticinium quod utrumque parentem Occident. "Vale," 
inquit, " soror mea dilecta, quia de csetero non quies- 
" cam donee sciam an Deus meam acceptaverit poe- 
" nitentiam." ^ Cui ilia : " Absit, frater, ut te modo 
" deseram in adversis, quae tecum particeps fui in 
*' prosperis." Simul igitur recedentes, juxta fluvium 
quendam, ubi frequens erat transitus et periculosus, 
hospitale statuerunt, in quo transeuntes juvarent et 
pauperes foverent. Post multum temporis, dum Juli- 



* suam'] om. B. | 3 pcenetentiam, A.B. ; pniam, MS. 

2 conusisse, B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 465 

and fenge hem goodliche,^ and leide hem for to reste in her Trevisa. 

housbondes bed, and wente hir self amorwe erliche to chh'che,^ 

and leftc hem bo])e a bedde. lulian com erhche hoom, and 
fond hem slepe [bothe] ^ to gidres in his owne bed,^ and trowed 
l^at ano])er man hadde i-leie^ }iere by his wif, and stiked^ 
hem bo]?e ]?oruJout, and went out and mette wi]? his wif ; and 
]>o he knewe fat he hadde i-slawe bofe his [owne] ^ fadir and 
his ® modir, as pe hert hadde i-seide ]?at he schulde. *' Fare 
" wel, my leve^ suster," quod^^ he, "for I schal nevere reste 
" or I wite ^if^^ God wil fonge ^^ my penaunce and forjeve 
" my synne." " God forbede,"^^ quod sche,i^ " J^at y ^^ scholde 
" forsake j^e in |?is manere in woo and in sorwe, and have i-be 
" partener '^ wi]? the in ioye and in wel]?e." pan Jjey wente 
forth to giders,^^ and made an hospital by a ryver, where men 
passede [ofte and were in greet peryl; j^ere pey halp men fiat 
passede],'' and socourede ^^ poore^^ men. Longe aftirward,^'^ 



Ah urbe. howsebonde, by the rehersalle of here howsebonde, norischede MS. Haul. 
and made theym grete chere, and causede theyme to reste theire 2261. 

bodies in here howsebondes bedde alle the nythte. In the . , . 

morowe the wife of lulian wente to the chirche, they beenge gracione. 
in bedde. lulian commenge home, and fyndenge theym in his 
bedde, supposenge his mfe to haue bene of ylle disposicion, 
did sle theym bothe with his swerde. Whiche goenge furthe 
of the chambre Jafe metenge to his wife, knowenge then that 
he hade sleyne his fader and moder after the prophecy of the 
herte. To whom he seide, " Fare welle, my sustyr welle- 
^' byloved, for y wylle not reste hereafter un tille the tyme y 
*' knowe that Godde hathe accepte my penaunce." To whom 
sche seide, " Brother, Godde forbede that y scholde leve yow 
" in aduersite whiche was partener with yow in prosperite." 
Whiche goenge to gedre made an hospitalle nye to a water 
where peple were ofte in perelle, that thei myjhte helpe to 
cary ouer peple, and to _^iffe loggenge and other refreschenge 
to theyme. A longe tyme and season y-paste, while lulian 



^ fevy hem godelich, p. ; receyved 
hem goodly, Cx. 

^ to chirche at morowe erly, Cx. 

^ From Cx. 

■* bed^ oni. /3. 

^ ylay, j8. ; laye, Cx. 

^ stikked, Cx. 

' From a., j8,, 7., and Cx. 

^ his'] om. a., ^., y., and Cx. 

^ leeve, )8. ; leove, y. 

^0 quoth, Cx. 



^^ er I wete yf, Cx. 

^2 take, fi. and Cx. 

^^ forbeode, y. 

1-» heo, /3. 

15 /, Cx. 

^^ be pertiner, Cx. 

1' togodres forth yfere, y. 

1^ sobered, $. 

1^ pour, Cx. 

"° ward'} om. Cx. 



VOL. IV. G G 



4i66 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

anus tempore gelido media nocte fessus quiesceret^ 
audivit vocem cujusdam ut transportaret jugiter im- 
precantis. Surrexit/ et prse frigore deficientem pau- 
perem in domum suam portavit, igoem adhibult ; sed 
dum nequaquam ex hoc calefieret, in lectum ^ pro- 
prium posuit,^ vestibus suis fovit ; et post paululum * 
ille qui sic algidus apparuerat et leprosus, scandit ad 
sethera Candidas, hospiti suo Juliano sic inquiens : 
" Juliane, Juliane, mandat tibi Dominus ^ Jesus 
" Christus per me |^quod poenitentiam ^ tuam jam ac- 
" ceptavit ; " et cito post haec ambo conjuges, Julianus 
scilicet et uxor sua, in^ Domino quieverunt.^ 



^ ille, B. 

^ locum, A. 
3 et, B. 

* pusillum (sic), A.B. 

* Dominus'] om. B. 



^ poenitentiam^ A.B. 
^ cum, A. 

^ The wliole varied as usual in 
CD. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



467 



in frosty^ time, Julian was wery,^ and reste hym aboute myd- TREvisi.. 

nyjt, and herde a voys cryenge^ and prayenge of help aftii"^ 

]>e passage. lulian aroos and fette over ^a pore^ man )>at was 
nygh^ deed for colde/ and broujte hym into his owne^ hous, 
and made fyre,^ and sette hym perby ; but for al J)e fire ^^ pe 
man was nevere ]>e hotter.^i pan lulian dede ^^ hym in his 
owne bed, and heled ^^ hym wi]? clo])es, and wi]> ynne a litel 
while,^^ J)is man, J?at semede so colde and semed ^^ a vile ^^ 
mesel, to his sight he ^^ worjje ^^ whyte and faire anon,i^ and 
stigh 20 up in to ]>& aer,^! and spak to his oost 22 lulian, and 
seide : " lulian, lulian, oure Lorde lesu Crist sente the word 
" by me ]?at he ha]? underfonge ^^ jjy penaunce." And sone 
aftirward bo])e lulian and his wif passede to oure ^* Lord into 25 
endeles reste. Domicianus.'^^ 



Ab urbe. restede hym abowte myddenyjhte in a colde forste, wery thro MS. Harl. 
labore afore, he herde the voyce of a man callenge and 2261. 

preyenge that he myjhte be broujhte ouer the water. Then . 

lulian did aryse, and brou^hte the poore man in to his howse^ gracione." 
semenge as destroyede and pereschede for colde, makenge af 216. a. 
fyre to make hym warme. Whiche seenge the man not to be 
refreschede, ]?erby, brou^hte hym un to his bedde, and putte 
hys clothes abowte hym. And soone after that man, 
semenge colde and a lepre, ascendede up un to the aier with 
grete bri^htenesse, seyenge to lulian his hoste, " lulian, 
" lulian, oure Lorde Ihesu Criste sendethe to the by me that 
" he hathe accepte thy penaunce." And soone after that 
lulian and his wife commendede theire sowles un to alle 
myjhty God. 



^forst, $. ; forst, 7. ; frost tyme, 
Cx. 

2 wei'ye, &. 

^ criyng, )8. 

^ over, a,, $., y., and Cx. 

^ the pour, Cx. 

^ nei/, Cx. 

' kolde, )8. 

^ ow7ie'] om. Cx. 

^Al/r, 7., bis. 

^^ fyer, Cx. 

1^ hatter, /3. 

^2 dyde, Cx. 

13 hilled, Cx. 

1"* stounde, a., &., and 7. ; whyle, 
Cx. 



1' semede~\ om. /8,, 7., and Cx. 
^Vye, 7- 

1' to his sight he~] om. a., & , y , 
and Cx. 

18 wer]^e, $. ; wer]), *}. : teas, 
Cx. 

19 a7i07i'] om. a. and fi 
2^ steiy, 13. ; styed, Cx. 
21 eyr, )3. ; ayer, Cx. 
2^ hoost, Cx. 

-3 receyved, Cx. 

^^* all do to our, j3. ; wente al to 
our, Cx. 

2» a7id to, a. and 7. ; to, Cx. 
26 Domicianus'] om. 7. and Cx. 

G G 2 



468 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 



Cap. XII. 
[De Domitiano et JSferva imperatoribus.] 

DoMiTiANUS filius Yespasiani regnavit aimis quin- lxSxiv 

Domiciani. 

decim, mensibus quinque ; cujus uxor primum ^ Augusta 

appellabatur, et ipse primus se Deum et dominum 
jussit appellari. Hie eunuchos fieri ^ et vites in urbe 
plantari prohibuit, plurimos senatorum^ relegavit, mathe- 
maticos et philosophos a Romana urbe amovit. Templum 
Romse sine lignorum admixtione, quod Pantheon^ 
vocabatur, in honorem [omnium]^ deorum construxit, 
ubi nunc est ecclesia quae vocatur^ Saneta Maria 
Rotunda. Hie aliquando de Dacis et Germanicis 
triumphans, in tantum allatus ^ est ut nullam statuam 
sibi nisi auream poni pateretur. Policratica^ Homo 



^ primo, B. 

- servire, B. 

3 senatorum] om. B. 

* Pateon, B. 



^ omnium'\ from A.B. 
^ dicitur, B. 
7 elatus, A,B. 
^ Lib. iii. cap. 14. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



469 



Capitulum duodecimum, 

DoMiciANUS, Vaspacianus his sone, regnede fiftene Jere and Trevisa. 

fyve monies ; ^ his wif heet first Augusta, and first he het 

clepe 2 hym self God and lord. pis forbeed gildynge ^ of* 
men, and plantynge of vynes in jje citee of Rome. He ^ ex- 
ciled meny of the senatoures, and putte mathematicos and 
philosofres out of pe citee of Rome ; and bulde ^ a temple in ^ 
Rome wij? oute eny tymber,^ ]7at templee heet Panteon,^ and 
was y-bulde in worshippe of al goddes. pere is now pe*^ 
chirche of oure Lady ];at hatte ^^ Sancta Maria Rotunda,^ ^ seynt 
Marie the round. Somtyme ])is hadde ]?e victorie of Germans 
and of Danes, and was so proude ^^ Jjerfore J>at he wolde suffre 
non ymage i-sette in worshippe of hym but it were of clene 
golde. Trevisa. Mathematicus is he ])at ha]? pe sciens ^^ fat 
tretej) as it were of lengf)e and of ^^ brede, and telleth Jjey^^ 
suche^^ leng])e and ^'^ brede be in oon^^ body^^ ]?at man may grope 



Capitulum duodecimum. 

Ab urbe. Domicianus, the son of Vespasian, reignede xv. yere and v. MS. Harl. 
monethes, the wife of whom was callede firste Augusta ; and he 2261. 
commandede hym to^^ callede god, and the lorde of all thynges ; . 

prohibitynge vynes to be plantede within the cite ; puttenge in 'gracione." 
to exile mony mathematicions and philosophres. Whiche Domi- 
made a temple at Rome callede Pantheon, in the honoure of cianus. 
alle goddes, withowte eny trees, whiche is callede nowe Sancta 
Maria rotunda. This emperour hauenge victory of Danes and 
of the Germaynes, was so inflate with pride that he wolde not 
suffre eny ymage to be made in to his similitude but hit were of 



^ monethes, Cx. 
2 hyle to call, Cx. 
^forbeode geldyng, y. ; forbade 
geldynge, Cx. 

^ \>at, 13. ; that exyled, Cx . 

^ bylde, Cx. 

6 m] of, p. 

^ tymbur, y. 

8 Pantheon, j8.', y., and Cx. 

s >e] twice over in MS. 

10 hete, Cx. 

" \>at is, added in /3. 



^^ prout, y. 

'3 science, Cx. 

1^ of] om. y. 

1* ]pouy, )3. ; telle thurugh, Cx. 

^'^ sick, )8. 

1^ a7id] om. a. 

1^ in oon] noon, fi. ; none, Cx. 

13 of lengthe and brede and tale 
)peyy such lengthe and brede and 
tale be in non body, y. 

2" Sic. 



470 POLYCHRONICON EANULPHI HIGDEN 

iste usquequaque inutilis, nihil virile gerens prseter 
solum nomen imperii, ut tantum^ ignaviam corporis et 
mentis inertiam sub prsetextu principatus occultaret, 
quotidie sibi secretum otium instituit, quo muscas cap- 
taret, et eas stylo peracuto configeret ; ita ut cuidam 
semel interroganti si quis esset intus cum imperatore, 
non absurde responsum sit a Metello ^ cubiculario ne ^ 
musca quidem ^ remansit cum Csesare. Iste fecit duos 
menses anni aliter appellari, nam Septembrem vocavit 
Germanicum, Octobrem Domitianum. Anacletus papa, G^r^tiae. 

JVO J.. 

Domiciani 

natione Atheniensis successit Clementi exulanti novem ^^^" 
annis. Istum vocat Eusebius Cletum sed prsetermisit 
eum in chronica sua. Damasus autem papa scribens Jero- 
nimo, chronicam Komanorum pontificum contradicit, 
dicens quod Cletus fuit Romanus, Anacletus^ Graecus. 



^ [tu] tamen, A.B. 
2 Matello, B. 
* nee, B.^ 



* quidem'] om. A. 
5 autem, added in B. 



MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 471 

and fele, and so it farij? ofte of ars metrik ^ and of gemetrie.2 Trevisa. 
Policratica, libro 7°.^ pis man was unprofitable in everiche ~"~" 
dede, [and dede] ^ no J>ing manliche as [a]^ man schulde, but 
])at he bare ^ onliche fe name of J)e empere,^ but for he wolde 
byde^ ))e lewednesse of his wit and of his body undir fe 
name of a prince ; he ordeyned him every day a privey 
idelnesse,^ and used [hym] ^ for to cacche ^^ Ayes, and styke ^^ 
hem wij> a scharp poyntel. So |)atin a tyme oon axede Jif eny 
man were perynne wi]? fe emperour ; *' Nay," quod his chamber- 
leyn ^^ Metellus, " pere is noujt a flie i-left wij)})e emperour." 
pis ^af tweye mon]?es ^^ of the ^ere newe names, and clepede 
Septembre Germanicus, and Octobre Domicianus. Anacletus, 
of )?e nacioun of Athene, was pope nyne^^ J ere, in Clement his 
stede, whan Clement was exciled ^^ ; Eusebius clepej) ^^ hym 
Cletus, but he overlepe ^^ hym in his cronike. Damasus, fe 
pope, write]) to lerom l^e cronyk of bisshoppes of Rome, and 
wij) seij) ^^ ])at lawe,^^ and sei]? ^o j^at Cletus was a Romayn, and 



Ab urbe. golde. Policronicon. This man was utterly unprofitable, MS. Harl. 
doenge noo thynge accordenge to his honore and dignite, 2261. 

reioycenge the name of dignite withowte mery tte. Whiche . 

hade in exercise, by continuacion of a certeyne season and gracione.* 
space, to take flees in his chamber, and to pricke theym thro 
with a scharpe pynne ; in so moche that hit was seide to a 
man inquirenge who was with themperour^ that oon flee 
remaynede not in the chambre with hym. This Domician 
causede the names of ij monethes in the yere to be chaungede, 
callenge September Germanicus, and October Domicianus. 
Anacletus the pope, borne at Athenes, succeeded Clemente, 
putte in to exile ix. yere. Eusebius callethe this man Cletus, f. 216. b. 
but he ouerskippede hym in his cronicles. Damasus the 
pope, writenge to lerome the cronicle of the byschoppes of 
Rome, seyethe fat Cletus was a Roman, and Anacletus a Greke. 



^ arthmetrik, a., )3., and y. ; ars- 
metrike, Cx. 

^ geo7netre, $. ; geometry, y. 
3 7°] om. a., )§., and Cx, 
^ From a., /8., y., and Cx. 
* a baar, y. 

® emperour, y. ; empyre, Cx. 
7 hyde, /3. and Cx. ; huyde, y. 
^ pryvy ydelnesse, Cx. 
» From Cx. 
^^ cachche, y. 



^ stykked, Cx. 
- sayd his chamberlyn, Cx. 
3 monethes, Cx. 
■* nyy, y. (a mistake). 
* exyled, Cx. 
^ called, Cx. 
7 overleap, y. 
3 with sayd, Cx. 
9 sawe, a., /8., y., and Cx. 
20 sayd, Cx. 



472 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHI HIGDEN 

In multis etiam aliis^ chronica Eusebii discrepat a 
chronicis aliorum. Hie statuit sacerdotes prae cseteris ^ 
honorandos, non vexandos. Maxima omnium virginum ^'gi^f • 

Domiciani. 

vestalium, Cornelia, stupri convicta^ defossa est viva. (^^^^ 

xcix." 

Evaristus ^ papa * successit Anacleto decem annis. Hie °^^^^f°^- 

constituit vii. diaeonos qui custodirent episeopum prsedi- 
cantem, propter stilum erorris qui sibi posset imponi 
ab semulis veritatis, et ne facile contemneretur aut 
Nerva. Isederetur. Domitiano a suis occiso, ac ^ turpiter a ves- 
pilionibus deportato, Nerva, pius prineeps, suceedit, per 
unum annum regnaturus, qui acta Domitiani irritavit. 
Unde et multi proscripti ^ redierunt, inter quos beatus 
Johannes Evangelista de Patmos^ insula rediit Ephe- 



* aliis'] om. B. 
2 esse, added in A. 
^ Anariscus, A. 

^ natione Bethleemita, added in 
CD. 



^ et, B. 

^ prcEscripti, B. 

7 Pathmos, MSS. 




MONACHI CESTRENSIS, LIB. IV. 



473 



Anacletus a Greek. Also in meny o]?ir jnnges Eusebius his Tkevisa. 

cronike variej) from cronikes^ of o]?er men. pis Anacletus 

ordeyned pat preostes ^ schulde be worshipped to fore ^ o\>ev 
men, and nou^t i-travalled * and i-greeved. Eutropius. 
Cornelia, pe cheef mayde of pe tem]?Ie of j^e goddesse ^ Vesta, 
was convycte in leccherie, and i-buried^ quyk on lyve.'' Evares- 
tus, ^ after Cletus, was pope ten Jere ; j^is ordeynede sevene 
dekenes,^ J?at schulde kepe \q bisshop while he preched, lest 
enemy es of trewpe wolde bare ^^ hym wrong [on hande],i^ and 
seide ^^ J^at he errede, and also for he^^ scholde noujt be lijtliche 
i-herd ^^ noper ^^ despised. Whan Domicianus was i-slawe of 
his owne men, and ^^ dispitousliche i-bore forth among J^eoves,^^ 
Nerva, J^e mylde prince, regnede, after him oo ^ere, and undede^^ 
]?e dedes of Domicianus ; and so meny ]?at were exciled ^^ were 
reconsiled, and come home ajen ; [and so lohn ^^ fe Evangelyst 
come ajen]^^ to Ephesym, out of }>e lond of^^ Pathmos. 



Also the cronicle of Eusebius discordethe in mony thynges MS. Harl, 
from the cronicles of other thynge. This pope ordeynede 2261. 

prestos to be honourede afore other men, and not to be vexede. . 

Eutropius. Cornelia, the most noble of virgynes vestalle, was gracione." 
taken in the synne of carnalle pleasure, Avherefore sche was 
put in to therthe on lyve. Euaristus the pope succedede 
Anacletus x. yere, whiche ordeynede vij. diacones, whiche 
scholde kepe the byschoppe prechenge, for the movenge or 
writenge of errour, whiche my^hte be imputede to hym of 
thenmyes of trawthe, and that he scholde not be despisede 
li^htely or hurte. Nerua, the meke prince, succedede Domi- 
cian, reignenge by oon yere ; whiche reuokede and made voide 
the actes of Domician ; wherefore mony men putte in to exile 
comme from hit, of whom Seynte lohn Euangeliste was oon, 
whiche commenge from the yle callede Pathmos wente to 



^ cronycles, Cx. 

^ preestes, Cx. 

•^ afore, Cx. 

^ travayled ne, Cx. 

•'' godas, 7. 

^ biried, /8. 

7 alyve, a., y., and Cx. 

^ Enariscus, a. ; Anaristus, Cx. 

3 decons, 7. ; dekens, Cx. 

1" trowth wolde here, Cx. 

" From )8. and Cx. (not 7.) 



IS 



segge, 7. ; saye, Cx. 



13 \>ei, $. 

I'* lyghtly be herd, Cx. 
1^ be, added in fi. 
*^ and'\ a was, 7. 
1' born forth arnonge theves, Cx. 
'^ undide, )8. 
'^ exyled, Cx. 
-° Joon, )8. ; lohan, Cx. 
2' From a. )3., and Cx. 
-' lond of\ ylond, a. ; ilond, 7. ; 
yle of, Cx. 



474 POLYCHRONICON RANULPHT HIGDEN 

sum. Gaufridus} Coillus filius Marii ab infantia 
Romse nutritus, regnavit apud Britannos, qui tributum 
Romanis solvet, et vitam pacificam duxit. Ranul'phus.^ 
Ferunt nonnulli urbem Coelcestre, quae caput est Est 
Saxonum, ab eo fundatam.^ 



1 Hist. Eeg. Brit. iv. 18. 

2 JRanulphus] om. A. 



3 The whole varied in CD. 




MONACHI CESTRENSLS, LIB. IV. 475 

Coillus,^ Marius his sone, was i-norsched^ at Rome from his Trevisa. 

childhode, and regnede in Bretayne,^ and payde tribute to pe 

Romayns, and lad his lif in pees. [I^-]^ Some men wil 
mene ^ J>at he bulde ^ ]>e citee Coelchestre,'^ pat ^ is j^e ^ 
chief ^^ citee of Est Saxon. 



Ab urbe. Ephesus. Coillus, the son of Marius, norischede at Rome of MS. Harl. 
infancy, relgnede amonge the Britones, whiche paiede the 2261. 
tribute unto the Romanes, and lyvede in pease. R. Mony . , . 
men say the cite of Colchestre, which is ]?e principalle place of gracione. 
Este Saxones, to haue bene made by this Coillus. 



^ Coiyllus, Cx. 

2 norysshed, Cx. 

3 Brytayn, Cx. 

^ From o. /8., y., and Cx. 
5 wil mene] suppose, Cx. 



" huylde, Cx. 

7 Coilchestre, j8, 
^ )pat'\ whiche, Cx. 
9 l>e] om. Cx. 
" chef, fi. 



APPENDIX. 



[From MS. Trin. Coll. R. 14. 7. fol. 156 b to fol. 157 b.l 

Isci commencwit les merveilies de Engletere, 

Primum est Chedirliole,^ secundum Bolondrich,^ tertium albus 
equus cum pullo sue, seu terra in latere mentis ad quantitatem 
et modum equi denudata ; quartum est fossa in monte qua3 
Cair-coU dicitur, unde venti assidue exeunt et intrant. Quin- 
tura lapis non magnus in vertice mentis, quem si quis ceperit 
et portaverit spacium duorum miliarium vel quantumcunque 
voluerit de monte, in sequenti die in loco unde prius assumptus 
fuit invenietur. Sextum sunt duo fraxini, quarum una ab alia 
distat duobus miliaribus, et semper eo anno quo una viret alia 
arescit, et e contrario. Septimum est mons de SenraigV in 
furca duarum viarum : si duo volunt ut separarentur, eat unus 
ex una parte mentis et alter ex alia tamdiu quod neuter al- 
terum videre possit, nunquam amplius in hoc saeculo se iterum'* 
videbunt. Octavum est lapis juxta yiam, unde si aliquis ibi 
transiens super lapidem ascenderit, quocunque inde abierit, in 
eodem die ad eundem lapidem reverti eum oportebit. Nonus 
est lapis ingens intus concavus ut turris ampla intus, et tenues 
parietes quasi manufacti, stans supra quatuor columnas in 
arena maris ; et sunt columnse grossitudine unius equi una- 
quaque, altitudine xx. pedum, et super eas stat turris ; in sum- 
mitate turris est fons aquee vivaa dulcissimoB diffluens per qua- 
tuor rivos largiter a summo usque deorsum. Decimum est 



^ Hearne's MS. has : " Apud 
" Cherdrehole i. Kartekedle conca- 
" vitas est sub terra, quam cum 
** sajpe multi ingressi sunt, ad spacia 
" magna terrae, et flumina pertran- 
" sierint, ad finem tamen venire non 
" potuerunt." 

2 Hearne's copy has this as the 
last of the marvels, and adds the 
following explanation : " Sunt magni 



" lapides in Oxenfordensi page, ma« 
" nu hominum quasi sub quadam 
" connexione dispositi, set a quo 
" tempore, vel a qua gente, vel ad 
" quid memorandum vel signandum 
" factum fuerit, ignoratur. Ab 
" incolis autem vocatur lacus ille 
" Rolendnjch.-'' 

3 Senrail, Hearne. 

4 int\ MS. 



478 APPENDIX. 

corea gigantea, id est Stanhengles,^ lapis tarn magnus quod 
omnes homines insulae eum a loco non moverent, super alium 
magnum lapidem stans quasi pendens. Sicque crederes sem- 
per quod caderet, et est via homini sub pendenti lapide. Un- 
decimum duo montes, parvus et major : si duo homines currant 
unus circa majorem, alter de majore ad minorem et iterum 
retro ad majorem, ubi caeperunt currere ibi sibi obviabunt. 
Duodecimus est fons dulcissimus in arenis maris, ubi mare bis 
cotidie crescit et decrescit ad spacium fere mille pedum, et 
semper et in crescente et in decrescente distat fons a salso 
per septem pedes. Tertius decimus est lapis juxta fontem ad 
modum altaris factus in nemore, in quocunque die tingitur lapis 
ille de aqua fontis ipsius, in eadem die sine dubio fecundissime 
pluet. Quartus decimus est Oar i&(£is, id est, ingens vorago maris 
per girum sub immanem lapidem sistens ^ [forsan diffluens] super 
rupem, in qua si virgas vel magnas perticas simul ligatas jac- 
taveris, post paululum invenies eas dealbatas et cortice carentes 
longe a voragine ^ in litore quasi vi projectas unam post aliam 
jacentes. Quintus decimus est lapis perforatus in vertice men- 
tis, in cujus foramine si virgam mittas, perge ad tria miliaria 
sub monte ad arenam maris, et virgam eandem ibi invenies. 
Sextum decimum est lacus : si volueris reparare aliquod fer- 
r amentum"* exceptis armis, porta ad lacum, et quantum 
volueris prandium, et mitte super ripam laci cibum et ferrum, 
et recede, deinde rediens invenies instrumentum tuum bene 
reparatum. Septimum decimum est quasi ostium ^ juxta pedem 
mentis maximi : accipe cibum tecum quantum oporteat te com- 
edere ^ in vii. diebus, et candelam similiter, et ihgredere in 
illam foveam, et manducabis cibum vii. dierum, et candelam 
ardebis totam, et credos te fuisse ibi per vii. dies, et tamen 
eodem die quo intrasti exibis,^ nee eris intus per spatium de 
toto unius diei. Octavum decimum est fons quidam in villa 
quae dicitur Brithwich^ longe ab omni salsugine maris, unde fit 
optimum sal et candidissimum ut nix, et subtil issimum ut 
farina candidissima, sed est asperius quam et sali convenit ; 
sed nee in die Sabbati ab hora nona usque in diem Lunae mane, 
nee in die apostoli nee alicujus sancti in ecclesia villae illius 
parocbiali nunciata, nee in vigiliis, potest ullo modo sal fieri. 
Nonum decimum est castellum, in quo si intrent xx. homines 
plenum esse videtur, veniant et iterum sen xx., seu xxx., seu 



^ Stanhengist, H. 

2 Sic in MS. 

3 vorogine, MS. 

^ feramenUim, MS. 



5 hostium, MS. 
^ commedere, MS. 

7 exhibis, MS, 

8 Wi/che, H. 



APPENDIX. 



479 



c., seu x.Mi si volueris, et intrare possunt omnes largissime. 
Yicesimum est nemus, et aqua in nemore currens ; accipe de 
lignis illius nemoris, et apta quocunque modo volueris, et mitte 
in eadem aqua, et sint ibi per annum, et lapides erunt. Vicesi- 
mum primum sunt Bathonis^ halnea. Vicesimum secundum 
furnus Arturi, qui factus est ad modum thalami rotundi sine 
tegmine, et tamen nunquam intus cadit pluvia nee nix nee 
grando magis quam si bene tectus fuisset. Yicessimum ter- 
tium est sarcopbagum,- in via sub quadam spina, et est totum 
apertum sub aere et nunquam intus pluit, et quicunque homo 
intus recubuerit, sive magnus sive parvus, mensuratum sibi 
inveniet. Vicesimum quartum est aliud sarcophagum similiter 
secus viam sub spina non magnum visum apertum, et intus 
bene pluit ut alibi, nemini unquam aptum invenitur, quia par- 
vis hominibus nimis magnum, mediocribus aut magnum nimis 
aut nimis parvum, magnis autem parvum, et sic nemini aptum 
invenitur. Vicesimum quintum est campus in quo annuale 
forum quolibet anno congregari solet, qui si bodie tam spisse 
mercatorum logiis^ impleatur quod nee homo inter logeas stare 
possit, eras tamen spatium invenies ex utraque parte '^ unius- 
cujusque logise, quod ibi poterit fieri logia ad magnitudinem 
proximo factae ex utraque parte. Vicesimum sextum est lapis ^ 
parvus quem omnes communiter ad genua sua comiter levare 
possunt, tam imbecilles quam fortes, ultra genua vero nemo. 
Vicesimum septimum in Euoc ^ nemore ingens [arbor] ^ salici 
similis cortice et foliis, quee ad staturam unius hominis super 
terram in duobus brachiis tam dividitur, quorum unum in 
unoquoque aestatis tempore viret foliis et caeteris quae arbori 
pertinent, et glandes ut quercus. Cum autem appropinquat 
hiems^ cadunt simul et glandes et frondes et cortex, sic quod 
totus remanet nudus, et excoriatum quasi omnino arefactum. 
Bedeunte aestate rede unt simul et cortex et glandes et folia; et 
sicut ista viret in aestate, sic alia in hieme ; et sicut ista arescit 
in bieme, sic alia in aestate, semper et eodem modo. Vicesimum 
octavum est mens ingens v. miliarium spatium continens, et 
venit amnis xl. percarum latitudine usque ad pedem mentis, 
et juxta ipsum pedem montis intrat sub terram nusquam ap- 
parens sed quasi eum terra absorber et, ex altera vero parte 
Burgit et exit de terra tam magnus quantus et ista intrat, et 



^ Badonis, H. 

2 sarchofagum, MS., et infra. 

3 logis, MS. 

■* ex, inserted again here in MS. 
* This is not alluded to in Hearne's 



copy. 



6 or Bnoc, MS. ; Cheuoth, H. 

' arbor'] added from Hearne, and 
evidently an omission in MS. 

® yemps, MS. 



480 



APPENDIX. 



memorandum quod eadem oritur aqua de Secheford,^ ex aquis 
transeuntibus per aliam partem montis per Rudhum et Colcer- 
forde. Yicesimum nonum est ecclesia in qua, et in cujus 
cimiterio, si aliquis ^quod suum non sit capiat vel furto, vel 
rapina, vel aliqua arte mala, adheeret manus tam firmiter ipsi 
rei, quod nee manus ipsam rem al se trahere possit, donee 
veniat sacerdos et unam dicat orationem, et injungat ei poeniten- 
tiam. Tricesimum sunt aves in litore maris nidificantes in 
rupibus magnis litoris : veniat quisquam ante fossam ubi 
nidificant, et dicat Anglice vel Britannice "Est illic intus?" 
si est in fossa respondet eadem lingua, et " Quis es ? " et 
" Quid vis?" et si dicas, " Veni hue foras, et occidam te," 
exclamabit quasi tristis et lacrimans, '* Yse mibi misero, ad 
*' quid factus sum, ut nunc moriar," et veniet ad te : sunt 
vero optimi ad edendum. '.ricesimum primum est fossa quae- 
dam profundissima aqua plena quasi stagnum : pergeilluc, etdic, 
"Accommoda mihi hoc," nominans quicquid volueris, et statim 
accommodabitur tibi, sed terminum ponas ; si autem terminum 
sinas prseterire, et non reddas, nunquam in amplius quid ac- 
commodabitur. Tricesimum secundum est lapis octo miliarium 
a mari, in quo est foramen in sublimi colle, quod mari crescente 
impletur aqua, decrescente aqua non comparet.^ 



1 Or it may be Setheford. H. 
gives no name, nor has it the con- 
cluding part of the sentence. 

2 ad, inserted here in MS. 

3 H. adds : " Ex putridis abjecti- 
" bus, inter maritimas fluitantibus 
*' undas, prope litus nascuntur 
" aves maritimse, quae vocantur 
** hemekkes, quae si per industriam 
*' hominum cap ae fuerint, satis 



" aptse sunt ad comedendum. Est 
" stagnum Summonii \^forsan sum- 
" mum omnium], quia in ea sunt 
" insulse lx., et ibi habitant ho- 
" mines, et lx. rupibus ambitur, et 
" nidus aquilse in unaquaque rupe 
*' est, Pit flumina fiuunt lx. in eo, 
" et non vadit ad mare ex eo nisi 
" unicum flumen, quod vocatur 
" Leum." 



END OF VOL. IV. 



Akk 



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